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Federalism and Political Problems in Nigeria

Description: The purpose of this thesis is to examine and re-evaluate the questions involved in federalism and political problems in Nigeria. The strategy adopted in this study is historical, The study examines past, recent, and current literature on federalism and political problems in Nigeria. Basically, the first two chapters outline the historical background and basis of Nigerian federalism and political problems. Chapters three and four consider the evolution of federalism, political problems, prospects of federalism, self-government, and attainment of complete independence on October 1, 1960. Chapters five and six deal with the activities of many groups, crises, military coups, and civil war. The conclusions and recommendations candidly argue that a decentralized federal system remains the safest way for keeping Nigeria together stably.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Abegunrin, Olayiwola

Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte, comte de Guibert: Father of the Grande Armée

Description: The eighteenth century was a time of intense upheaval in France. The death of Louis XIV in 1715 and the subsequent reign of Louis XV saw the end of French political and martial hegemony on the continent. While French culture and language remained dominant in Europe, Louis XV's disinterested rule and military stagnation led to the disastrous defeat of the French army at the hands of Frederick the Great of Prussia in the Seven Years War (1756-1763). The battle of Rossbach marked the nadir of the French army in the Seven Years War. Frederick's army routed the French infantry that had bumbled its way into massed Prussian cavalry. Following the war, two reformist elements emerged in the army. Reformers within the government, chiefly Etienne François, duc de Choiseul, sought to rectify the army's poor performance and reconstitute France's military establishment. Outside the traditional army structure, military thinkers looked to military theory to reinvigorate the army from within and without. Foremost among the latter was a young officer named Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte de Guibert, whose 1772 Essai général de tactique quickly became the most celebrated work of theory in European military circles. The Essai provided a new military constitution for France, proposing wholesale reform to create an army that could face the Prussian juggernaut. His star quickly rising, Guibert became the toast not only of literary Paris but all of Europe. Guibert exerted an overwhelming influence on military theory across Europe for the next fifty years. His military theories laid the foundation for the French army of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. As other nations adopted French methods, Guibert's influence spread across the continent, reigning supreme until the 1830s. Guibert's importance to military theory is analogous to Voltaire's influence on European literature and culture, an area in which Guibert was not unfamiliar. Guibert ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Abel, Jonathan, 1985-

Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte, Comte De Guibert: Father of the Grande Armée

Description: Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte, comte de Guibert (1743-1790) dedicated his life and career to creating a new doctrine for the French army. Little about this doctrine was revolutionary. Indeed, Guibert openly decried the anarchy of popular participation in government and looked askance at the early days of the Revolution. Rather, Guibert’s doctrine marked the culmination of an evolutionary process that commenced decades before his time and reached fruition in the Réglement of 1791, which remained in force until the 1830s. Not content with military reform, Guibert demanded a political and social constitution to match. His reforms required these changes, demanding a disciplined, service-oriented society and a functional, rational government to assist his reformed military. He delved deeply, like no other contemporary writer, into the linkages between society, politics, and the military throughout his career and his writings. Guibert exerted an overwhelming influence on military thought across Europe for the next fifty years. His military theories provided the foundation for military reform during the twilight of the Old Regime. The Revolution, which adopted most of Guibert’s doctrine in 1791, continued his work. A new army and way of war based on Guibert’s reforms emerged to defeat France’s major enemies. In Napoleon’s hands, Guibert’s army all but conquered Europe by 1807. As other nations adopted French methods, Guibert’s influence spread across the Continent, reigning supreme until the 1830s. This dissertation adopts a biographical approach to examine Guibert’s life and influence on the creation of the French military system that led to Napoleon’s conquest of Europe. As no such biography exists in Anglophone literature, such a work will fill a crucial gap in understanding French military success to 1807. It examines the period of French military reform from 1760 to the creation and use of Napoleon’s Grande Armée from 1803 to 1807, illustrating the importance of ...
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Date: August 2014
Creator: Abel, Jonathan, 1985-

Factors Affecting Academic Interest and Self Perception of Adolescent Hispanic Females

Description: This investigation identifies deterrents to the educational, social, and cultural success of Latina adolescent females. Across the nation, and especially in states such as Texas and California, the Hispanic population is fast becoming the largest minority in society. Because the adolescent Hispanic population within the United States today will comprise much of America's future economic and social base, identifying and addressing educational, cultural, and social deterrents to their success becomes important not only for personal well-being, but for the well-being of future society as a whole. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of group-centered psychoeducational therapy in improving self-esteem and decreasing anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescent female Hispanic high school students. The experimental groups consisted of one group of seven female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. and a second group of five female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. The control group consisted of fourteen female Hispanic students who received no treatments. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of depression, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of anxiety, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire and the Index of Self-Esteem were used to measure pre and post levels of self-esteem.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Abel, Karen

Forest Landscape Dynamics: a Semi-Markov Modeling Approach

Description: A transition model (MOSAIC) is used to describe forest dynamics at the landscape scale. The model uses a semi-Markov framework by considering transition probabilities and Erlang distributed holding times in each transition. Parameters for the transition model are derived from a gap model (ZELIG). This procedure ensures conceptual consistency of the landscape model with the fine scale ecological detail represented by the forest gap model. Spatial heterogeneity in the transition model is driven by maps of terrain with characteristics contained in a Geographic Information System (GIS) database. The results of the transition model simulations, percent cover forest type maps, are exported to grid-maps in the GIS. These cover type maps can be classified and used to describe forest dynamics using landscape statistics metrics. The linkage model-GIS enhances the transition model spatial analytical capabilities. A parameterization algorithm was developed that takes as input gap model tracer files which contain the percent occupation of each cover type through time. As output, the algorithm produces a file that contains the parameter values needed for MOSAIC for each one of the possible transitions. Parameters for the holding time distribution were found by calculating an empirical estimate of the cumulative probability function and using a non-linear least squares method to fit this estimate to an Erlang distribution. The algorithm provided good initial estimates of the transitions parameters that can be refined with few additional simulations. A method for deriving classification criteria to designate cover types is presented. The method uses cluster analysis to detect the number and type of forest classes and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to explain the forest classes in term of stand attributes. This method provided a precise and objective approach for forest cover type definition and classification. The H. J. Andrews forest in Oregon was used to demonstrate the ...
Date: August 1997
Creator: Ablan, Magdiel

Conglomerate Performance as Influenced by Selected Management Practices

Description: The latest surge of corporate mergers has been characterized by a steadily increasing rate of conglomerate combinations. It would appear that one of the prime motivating factors in conglomerate merger is a firm belief in the principle of "synergism," or the mutually cooperating action of separate substances taken together to produce an effect greater than that of any component taken alone. It would also appear that in such instances wherein there is no direct relationship in regard to raw material source, product development, production technology, or marketing channels, the principle of synergism is not automatic, but must be implemented by appropriate management action. The hypothesis of the study is that the goal of achieving synergism through centrality of management influence has not yet become a reality in conglomerate business organizations as a group. It is the purpose of the study to investigate the degree of centralized management development in a number of management functions and relate this development to success in selected performance areas.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Ablowich, Edgar Allen, 1913-

Job Opportunities and Employment Requirements for a Person Entering the Field of Electronics as a Technician in the Dallas Metropolitan Area

Description: The problem involved in this study was twofold. The first was to ascertain what the employment requirements were for a person seeking employment in the field 6f electronics as a technician in the Dallas Metropolitan Area. The second was to determine what the job opportunities were for those individuals.
Date: January 1965
Creator: Abney, Horace Ray

A Study of the Relationship Between the Levels of Self-Awareness within Students Enrolled in Counseling Practicum and the Measurements of Their Counseling Effectiveness

Description: Counselor self-awareness is considered an important aspect of counseling effectiveness according to the American Counseling Association and the American Psychological Association and in numerous studies and articles within the counseling literature. With the effort to improve the effectiveness of counseling practicum students comes the need to understand the relationship between effectiveness ratings and the levels of counselor self-awareness. Gestalt Therapy literature, and the development of the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1963) provided the working definition of self-awareness in this study. Research and evaluation are means for improving the correlation between students' characteristics in counselor training programs and their effectiveness as perceived by faculty and doctoral supervisors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of practicum students' ages and their levels of self-awareness upon counseling effectiveness as measured by faculty and doctoral supervisors in a university clinic setting. Twenty-nine students who were enrolled in four practicum classes were administered the Personal Orientation Instrument. Four faculty supervisors and eight doctoral supervisors were administered the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (Myrick & Kelley, 1971). The instruments were administered in the tenth week of the counseling practicum semester. Analyses of the data revealed a statistically significant interaction between the older practicum students' levels of self-awareness and their counselor effectiveness as rated by the more experienced faculty supervisors. Further analyses of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant main effect between the practicum students' age groups and their counselor effectiveness as rated by the less experienced doctoral supervisors.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Abney, Paul C.

Source Apportionment Analysis of Measured Volatile Organic Compounds in Corpus Christi, Texas

Description: Corpus Christi among of the largest industrialized coastal urban areas in Texas. The strategic location of the city along the Gulf of Mexico allows for many important industries and an international business to be located. The cluster of industries and businesses in the region contribute to the air pollution from emissions that are harmful to the environment and to the people living in and visiting the area. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) constitute an important class of pollutants measured in the area. The automated gas chromatography (Auto GC) data was collected from Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and source apportionment analysis was conducted on this data to identify key sources of VOC affecting this study region. EPA PMF 3.0 was employed in this sources apportionment study of measured VOC concentration during 2005 - 2012 in Corpus Christi, Texas. The study identified nine optimal factors (Source) that could explain the concentration of VOC at two urbane monitoring sites in the study region. Natural gas was found to be the largest contributor of VOC in the area, followed by gasoline and vehicular exhaust. Diesel was the third highest contributor with emissions from manufacturing and combustion processes. Refineries gases and evaporative fugitive emissions were other major contributors in the area; Flaring operations, solvents, and petrochemicals also impacted the measured VOC in the urban area. It was noted that he measured VOC concentrations were significantly influenced by the economic downturn in the region and this was highlighted in the annual trends of the apportioned VOC.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Abood, Ahmed T.

Boosting for Learning From Imbalanced, Multiclass Data Sets

Description: In many real-world applications, it is common to have uneven number of examples among multiple classes. The data imbalance, however, usually complicates the learning process, especially for the minority classes, and results in deteriorated performance. Boosting methods were proposed to handle the imbalance problem. These methods need elongated training time and require diversity among the classifiers of the ensemble to achieve improved performance. Additionally, extending the boosting method to handle multi-class data sets is not straightforward. Examples of applications that suffer from imbalanced multi-class data can be found in face recognition, where tens of classes exist, and in capsule endoscopy, which suffers massive imbalance between the classes. This dissertation introduces RegBoost, a new boosting framework to address the imbalanced, multi-class problems. This method applies a weighted stratified sampling technique and incorporates a regularization term that accommodates multi-class data sets and automatically determines the error bound of each base classifier. The regularization parameter penalizes the classifier when it misclassifies instances that were correctly classified in the previous iteration. The parameter additionally reduces the bias towards majority classes. Experiments are conducted using 12 diverse data sets with moderate to high imbalance ratios. The results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed method compared to several state-of-the-art algorithms for imbalanced, multi-class classification problems. More importantly, the sensitivity improvement of the minority classes using RegBoost is accompanied with the improvement of the overall accuracy for all classes. With unpredictability regularization, a diverse group of classifiers are created and the maximum accuracy improvement reaches above 24%. Using stratified undersampling, RegBoost exhibits the best efficiency. The reduction in computational cost is significant reaching above 50%. As the volume of training data increase, the gain of efficiency with the proposed method becomes more significant.
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Date: December 2013
Creator: Abouelenien, Mohamed

Finitness and Verb-Raising in Second Language Acquisition of French by Native Speakers of Moroccan Arabic

Description: In this thesis, the three hypotheses on the nature of early L2 acquisition (the Full Transfer/Full Access view of Schwartz and Sprouse (e.g., 1996), the Minimal Trees view of Vainikka and Young-Scholten (e.g., 1996), and the Valueless Features view of Eubank (e.g., 1996)), are discussed. Analysis of the early French production by two native speakers of Moroccan Arabic is done to determine if the L1 grammar is transferred onto the L2 grammar. In particular, the phenomena of verb-raising (as determined by the verb's position vis-a-vis negation) and finiteness are examined. The results of this study indicate that the relevant structures of Moroccan Arabic do not transfer onto the emerging French grammar.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Aboutaj, Heidi H. (Heidi Huttar)

Development of a Cost Effective Wireless Sensor System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Applications

Description: Poor air quality can greatly affect the public health. Research studies indicate that indoor air can be more polluted than the outdoor air. An indoor air quality monitoring system will help to create an awareness of the quality of air inside which will eventually help in improving it. The objective of this research is to develop a low cost wireless sensor system for indoor air quality monitoring. The major cost reduction of the system is achieved by using low priced sensors. Interface circuits had to be designed to make these sensors more accurate. The system is capable of measuring carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, temperature, humidity and volatile organic compounds. The prototype sensor node modules were developed. The sensor nodes were the connected together by Zigbee network. The nodes were developed in such a way that it is compact in size and wireless connection of sensor nodes enable to collect air quality data from multiple locations simultaneously. The collected data was stored in a computer. We employed linear least-square approach for the calibration of each sensor to derive a conversion formula for converting the sensor readings to engineering units. The system was tested with different pollutants and data collected was compared with a professional grade monitoring system for analyzing its performance. The results indicated that the data from our system matched quite well with the professional grade monitoring system.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Abraham, Sherin

An Art Program Utilizing Discarded Materials in the Improvement of Interiors of Homes of Children in a Low Income Group

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of planning and carrying out an art program in which a particular group of students in a low income group, by utilizing discarded and inexpensive materials, can create useful and satisfying objects for the improvement of their home interiors.
Date: January 1960
Creator: Abram, W. B.

Proton-Induced L-shell X-Rays of Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy

Description: Characteristic L-shell x rays of the five rare earths Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were studied in this work. The x rays were produced by ionization from 0.3 to 2.0 MeV protons from the 2.0 MV Van de Graaff at North Texas State University. Total L-shell ionization and x-ray production cross sections were measured for Sm and compared to the BEA, CBEA and PWBA theories. Total L-shell ionization cross sections were measured for Pr, Eu, Gd, and Dy and compared to the BEA, CBEA, and PWBA. The CBEA and PWBA fit the samarium data well for both ionization and x-ray production cross sections. The BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data. The CBEA and the PWBA also fit the ionization cross section data for Pr, Eu, Gd and Dy, while the BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Abrath, Frederick G.

Diphenyloxazole Metabolism by Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase

Description: 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) was tested as a potential alternate inducer for the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) system. Its apparent lack. of carcinogenicity and toxicity provide a possible system for investigation of enzyme systems related to chemical carcinogenesis without exposure of the researcher to potent carcinogenic compounds. These studies found PPO to be an inducer of AHH in cultured human lymphocytes. When PPO was utilized as a substrate for the AHH assay system, the major metabolites produced were strongly fluorescent. A simple fluorometric assay was developed which employed PPO as the substrate and which measured constitutive activity more efficiently than similar assays using benzo(a)pyrene as the substrate. Quantitation of both basal and induced lymphocyte AHH metabolism of PPO may be applicable to human population studies and may provide a tool to determine possible genetic variables with respect to carcinogen metabolism related to cancer risk.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abreu, Mary E.

Ultrafast Laser Sampling of a Plant Tissue and ion Conductivity Measurement for Investigation of Light Stress Generation Mechanisms

Description: In this study we applied ultra-short laser pulses on a biological sample (Arabidopsis), in order to cut it precisely in a square pattern and subsequently use it for studying stress generation mechanisms. For this purpose, we utilized femtosecond laser pulses at 100 fs pulse width and 80 MHz repetition rate. We took two processing parameters into consideration such as laser power, laser exposure time which is related to the stage speed. Therefore, we were able to find the laser optimum conditions for ablation of biological tissues. The mutant and wildtype (control) obtained from laser cutting with a size of 500 µm × 500 µm were directly transferred (in-situ with laser cutting) into a microfabricated chamber containing ~500 nanoliters deionized water for measuring ion conductivity. The ion conductivity is a signature of cell-death mechanisms caused by various stresses. A light with intensity of 100 µmol was exposed to the samples for 2 hours and 20 minutes as a source of stress. A quantitative electrical analysis with high accuracy was assured by utilizing a microchamber, which enables a measurement in nanoliter volume. We measured the impedance which is reciprocal of conductivity using a lock-in amplifier and a precise current source at frequency of 130 Hz. Initially high impedance of mutant sample tended to drop within 2 hours and finally approached the constant value which signified that the cell death mechanism was complete. However, the wildtype sample demonstrated approximately constant impedance (conductivity) during the experiment.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Abtahi, Seyed Ali

Application of Synthetic Peptides as Substrates for Reversible Phosphorylation

Description: Two highly homologous synthetic peptides MLC(3-13) (K-R-A-K-A-K-T-TK-K-R-G) and MLC(5-13) (A-K-A-K-T-T-K-K-R-G) corresponding to the amino terminal amino acid sequence of smooth muscle myosin light chain were utilized as substrates for protein kinase C purified from murine lymphosarcoma tumors to determine the role of the primary amino acid sequence of protein kinase C substrates in defining the lipid (phosphatidyl serine and diacylglycerol) requirements for the activation of the enzyme. Removal of the basic residues lysine and arginine from the amino terminus of MLC(3-13) did not have a significant effect on the Ka value of diacylglycerol. The binding of effector to calcium-protein kinase C appears to be random since binding of one effector did not block the binding of the other.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Abukhalaf, Imad Kazem

Corporate Christians and Terrible Turks: Economics, Aesthetics, and the Representation of Empire in the Early British Travel Narrative, 1630 - 1780

Description: This dissertation examines the evolution of the early English travel narrative as it relates to the development and application of mercantilist economic practices, theories of aesthetic representation, and discourses of gender and narrative authority. I attempt to redress an imbalance in critical work on pre-colonialism and colonialism, which has tended to focus either on the Renaissance, as exemplified by the works of critics such as Stephen Greenblatt and John Gillies, or on the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, as in the work of scholars such as Srinivas Aravamudan and Edward Said. This critical gap has left early travel narratives by Sir Francis Moore, Jonathan Harris, Penelope Aubin, and others largely neglected. These early writers, I argue, adapted the conventions of the travel narrative while relying on the authority of contemporary commercial practices. The early English travelers modified contemporary conventions of aesthetic representation by formulating their descriptions of non-European cultures in terms of the economic and political conventions and rivalries of the early eighteenth century. Early English travel literature, I demonstrate, functioned as a politically motivated medium that served both as a marker of authenticity, justifying the colonial and imperial ventures that would flourish in the nineteenth century, and as a forum for experimentation with English notions of gender and narrative authority.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Abunasser, Rima Jamil