UNT Libraries - 1,500 Matching Results

Search Results

Distractibility, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity Measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Personality Inventory for Children

Description: Basic criteria for determination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility. Four scales of the Personality Inventory for Children have been found to be useful in the diagnosis of ADHD. Impulsivity and distractibility can affect scores on the Hand Movements, Number Recall, Word Order, Spatial Memory, Arithmetic, Riddles, and Matrix Analogies subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Subjects were 100 children, aged six through 13 who were referred for psychological assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between scores on the four scales of the PIC and the designated subtest scores on the KABC. Four correlations were significant, but of low magnitude.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Alcantara, Helene Deborah-Lynne

An Examination of Methodological Rigor and Its Effects on Organizational Development and Change Outcomes

Description: Organizational development and change (ODC) is a broad field because change occurs in all organizations, occurs at multiple organizational levels, consists of numerous interventions, and can impact multiple outcomes. Many ODC efforts attempt to examine the effectiveness of their initiatives, yet fail to account for the quality, or rigor of their methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine how methodological rigor and intervention implementation quality impact ODC outcomes. The results indicate that overall methodological rigor is not a significant predictor of organizational change outcomes; however, several individual rigor criteria exhibit predictive power. Implementation quality is a significant predictor of organizational outcomes, but in a negative direction.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Alexander, Sandra G.

Predicting long term job performance using a cognitive ability test.

Description: This study focuses on the relationship of one cognitive ability test on long-term job performance as measured by personnel data. Archival data from over 3,000 employees at an international technology company were used to assess how aptitude test scores relate to both objective and subjective job performance measures. Supervisory performance ratings, level of promotion, and salary increase significantly contributed to variance in test scores; however, these results were inconsistent. Number of training courses did not have a significant relationship with test scores. Additionally, type of turnover did not moderate the relationship between aptitude test scores and job performance. These results indicate that although aptitude test score is related to long term job performance factors, other factors account for the majority of the variance. The implication is that aptitude should not be the sole consideration when predicting long term job success.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Alexander, Sandra G.

Interpersonal Perception and Communication within Marital Dyads

Description: The present study examined the relationships among similarity, interpersonal perception and communicative behaviors in marriage. It was hypothesized that greater understanding, feelings of being understood, and realization of understanding would be associated with greater self-disclosure, use of more direct person control strategies, and use of less attention control strategies. It was further hypothesized that measuring feelings of being understood and realization of understanding, in addition to measuring understanding, would improve prediction of behavior. Finally, it was hypothesized that the contextual measure of understanding would better predict self-disclosure and interpersonal control than would global measures of understanding.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-

Perspective Taking and Self Disclosure

Description: The effects of taking a third person role on self disclosure, self sympatheticness and several nonverbal parameters of task involvement were examined in a psychotherapy analogue study. Subjects were classified as high or low in ego strength using previously established norms for college students. In the third person role subjects were instructed to describe themselves from the perspective of an "intimate and sympathetic best friend." An encouragement to talk format was used to facilitate self description from the first person. Support was not found for the hypotheses that altering the perspective used in self description would increase self disclosure and that high ego strength subjects would be better able to use a perspective taking intervention. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research are made.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-

A Model for Predicting Bereavement Outcome in Widowhood

Description: The present longitudinal study examined the effects and interactions of several variables thought to affect adjustment to conjugal bereavement. Questionnaires were administered to 147 conjugally bereaved subjects and to 46 persons bereaved of close relatives other than spouse. Independent variables included experienced competence (self-esteem, locus of control, coping self-efficacy, and prior coping strategies), impact of loss (anticipation and preventabillty of loss, centrality of relationship and life change), and perceived resources. All of the independent variables were found to be important predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement. However, hypothesized interactions among variables were generally not found. Experimental variables were better predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement than were demographic variables. Contrary to prediction, widowed subjects tended to become more lonely and showed increased bereavement adjustment difficulties over a six month period of time. However, post hoc analysis suggested that levels of adjustment do not decline over the long term in widowhood. The present study supports a view of widowhood as a multidimensional event, characterized by seemingly contradictory feelings, experiences, and behaviors.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Allen, Susan Elise

Retrospective Perceptions of Parent-child Relations as a Variable in Personality Traits of Prison Inmates

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the retrospective perceptions of parent-child relations as measured by the Roe-Siegelman Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire (PCR), personality characteristics as they appear on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and types of crimes of prison inmates, specifically divided into aggressive and non-aggressive crimes.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Allston, Rose B.

Perceptions and attributions of child, spousal, and elder abuse.

Description: Although researchers have studied perceptions regarding sexually abused children, little was known about how other types of abusive events were perceived. This study examined 480 college students' abuse history and perceptions of child, spousal, and elder abuse by varying the respondent, victim, and perpetrator genders. Physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were investigated. Perceptions of abusiveness, seriousness, harm, and responsibility were examined, along with the extent of identification with the victims/perpetrators. Participants viewed spousal abuse as less serious and harmful than other abuse types, especially when perpetrated against a male or by a female. Although able to recognize psychological abuse, students did not fully understand what other abuse types entailed. Individuals also showed a considerable amount of blame toward victims. Results further demonstrated important findings about how ethnic identity/orientation, religious affiliation, and history of abuse related to perceptions of abusive events.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Altman, Adrianne

Relations between Child Molesters' Self-Perceptions and Treatment Engagement

Description: Researchers emphasize the role of cognitions in sex offenders' molesting behaviors. Although cognitions are important, little research has examined child molesters' thoughts about themselves in relation to their engagement in treatment. In this study, the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was administered to 67 child molesters. Child sexual offenders rated themselves and their view of a typical child molester using two NEO-PI-R versions. The degree to which child sex offenders identify themselves with their view of a typical child molester, and this agreement's relation with engagement in treatment, were investigated. The view that child sex offenders hold about themselves in relation to a typical child molester showed no relation to treatment engagement or length of time in treatment. However, this self-perception was related to the number of children abused.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Altman, Adrianne

Overgeneral Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults Exposed to Family Violence

Description: Childhood exposure to familial violence increases risk for adult pathology, namely posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Primary PTSD symptoms of hyperarousal and avoidance are implicated in overgeneral memory (OGM) theory in prior research. Individuals with trauma history tend to report OGMs, or non-specific autobiographical memories, perhaps to avoid unpleasant arousal elicited by recalling specific events. OGM, PTSD, depression, and arousal were assessed in adults with and without familial violence history. Arousal was measured via galvanic skin response (GSR) during an autobiographical memory task (AMT), requiring memory recall in response to emotionally-valenced cue words. Familial violence history was linked to higher incidence of PTSD symptoms. Childhood psychological violence was predictive of adult PTSD. Rates of depression, OGM, and arousal did not significantly vary by violence history. Significant gender differences were found relating to type of violence exposure and adult functioning. Research limitations, clinical implications, and future research suggestions are discussed.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Amador, Amy R.

Felony Offenses Related to Personality Traits

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is whether relationships may exist between personality and type of offense in a felon population. The Eysenck Personality Inventory, which measures extraversion-introversion (E), neuroticism-stability (N), and includes a lie scale (L), was used to determine subject's personality traits. Offenses were divided into crimes against persons, crimes against property, and crimes against the morals of the state. Subjects consisted of 751 adult male felons. The product-moment correlation was computed for each offense-variable EPI pair. A negative association between E and crimes against persons, together with a positive association between L and crimes against persons, were found to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level, although quite low. It was concluded that results obtained should be guardedly interpreted in view of the minimal amount of variability accounted for, though of possible value in suggesting future research.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Ancell, Richard Guy

A test of an etiological model: The development of disordered eating in Division-I university female gymnasts and swimmers/divers.

Description: Certain sport environments may contribute to the development of disordered eating and those that heavily emphasize weight and/or body shape can be particularly damaging to an athlete's body image, self-concept, and eating behaviors. In particular, female athletes in collegiate sports are at a greater risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors because they face both societal pressures from Western culture to be thin, in addition to sport pressures that focus on performance and appearance. According to the American Medical Association almost half of American women are trying to lose weight, illustrating that societal pressures alone to be thin and attractive can influence the development of disordered eating. Athletes are exposed to the same sociocultural pressures as their nonathlete counterparts, and would be expected to have similar feelings about their bodies as women in general. Add subsequent pressures like team "weigh-ins," coaches' body comp preferences, judges' critiques, revealing attire, and endurance/strength demands, and the stage is set for the development of disordered eating. In the current study, participants were 414 Division-I female gymnasts, swimmers/divers, and they completed self-report measures assessing sport pressures, body satisfaction and disordered eating behavior to test Petrie & Greenleaf's etiological model. Results indicate that sport pressures do lead directly to dietary restraint, a precursor to disordered eating, and are not always mediated through internalization and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that decreasing and intervening with perceived sport pressures may lessen the risk of female athletes developing an eating disorder.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Anderson, Carlin Mahan

Caregiver Personality as a Contributing Factor in Caregiver Burden

Description: Personality characteristics of spousal and adult children and active potential caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's Disease were studied in order to better predict caregiver burden and aspects of well-being. Contrary to prediction, no differences were found between spouse and adult children active caregivers on measures of well-being. Additionally, adult children potential caregivers indicated feeling less control over their lives than spouse potential caregivers. When social desirability was controlled, active caregivers reported greater fluctuations in affect than did potential caregivers. As predicted, personality characteristics of individuals were found to have the biggest role in determining which individuals experience stress or burden.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Anderson, Cristina L. (Cristina Lee)

HIV-Associated Dementia: Cofactors as Predictors of Severity of Neurocoenitive Deficits

Description: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between a set of cofactors and severity of cognitive impairment, to determine if there were any factors which significantly predicted more severe neurocognitive deficits in persons with AIDS. Twenty-four male volunteers recruited from community groups and physician referrals participated. Subjects completed several self-report questionnaires eliciting information regarding demographics and risk factor variables, in addition to a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. A severity of cognitive impairment summary score was computed for each subject, reflecting both the number of impaired tests and their distance in the impaired direction from normative data. Neither CD4 count, number of months since diagnosis of AIDS, number of AIDS-related illnesses, number of recent stressors, history of head injury/LOC, history of substance use, current or past psychiatric disorder, history of learning disability nor history of other medical illness were found to be significantly related to severity of cognitive impairment in this sample, after controlling for the effects of age, level of education, estimated premorbid IQ and mood status. However, no reliable conclusions could be drawn from this study because the small sample size resulted in an unacceptably low level of statistical power for the desired regression analysis. Exploratory analyses of variance revealed no significant group differences for any of the covariate or cofactor variables when subjects falling at the low, middle, and high ranges of severity of impairment were compared, with the exception of a possible inverse relationship with CD4 count. This was consistent with an exploratory stepwise regression analysis in which only CD4 count entered the model. Some potential limitations of the operational definitions used for the variables in this study were identified, and modifications were suggested. The results of additional exploratory analyses comparing group differences between the "globally impaired" and "unimpaired" subjects (Maj et ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Anderson, Deborah E. (Deborah Elaine), 1967-

Family Structure and Self-Esteem of Elementary School Children

Description: Maternal or paternal absence in one- or two-parent families, the presence of stepparents, and reasons for the disruption of the original family were analyzed in relation to the self-esteem of 501 males and females in grades 3-6 as measured by Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. The study provided a review of the broken-home literature followed by the methodology, results, and conclusions pertinent to the investigation. A step-wise multiple regression analysis and two-way and three-way factorial analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in the self esteem levels of children from intact or disrupted families. Conclusions suggested that children from all family structures may have experienced both debilitating and nurturing environments. Recommendations supported parent training.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Anderson, Judy Novak

Virtual Teams and Technology: The Relationship between Training and Team Effectiveness

Description: The impact of training on virtual team effectiveness was assessed in five areas: communication, planning tasks and setting goals, solving problems and making decisions, resolving conflict, and responding to customer requirements. A 12-page survey was developed exploring all aspects of virtual teams. 180 surveys were distributed, 52 were returned representing 43 companies. Training led to higher effectiveness in planning tasks and setting goals, solving problems and making decisions, and conflict resolution, but not in communication and responding to customer requirements. Training may not solve all the problems that virtual teams will encounter; however, training will make the challenges easier to handle.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Andrews, Angelique

The Interpersonal Communication Inventory: a Measure of Social Skills

Description: The Interpersonal Communication Inventory, a self-report instrument for assessing social skills, was given to undergraduate college students to determine its reliability. Following this administration, other small groups of undergraduates were asked to complete an attraction scale, the Interpersonal Communication Inventory, an assertiveness scale, and a sociometric questionnaire. Results confirmed the Inventory as a reliable instrument, but a stepwise multiple linear regression did not support the hypothesis that the Inventory was a useful predictor of sociometric choice. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations between the Inventory and an assertiveness scale did not confirm the prediction that the two instruments would measure behaviors from different response classes. Definite conclusions could not be stated due to lack of validity data for the Inventory and possible confounding variables.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Armstrong, Betty K.

Allergen Research and Its Implications for Psychology: History, Current Status, and Prospectus

Description: The purpose of this manuscript was to present a brief history, the current status, and a prospectus of allergen and allergic reactions. Research on allergic reactions, particularly as viewed from the psychogenic position, was presented. The review strongly suggests that the psychogenic orientation has been frought with contradictions, unnecessarily complex interpretations, and an over-abundance of subjective, dynamic, and analytic redundancies which have done little more than perpetuate the stagnation of a rather important subdomain of the "mental" health professions.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Arnold, J. Steven

The Relationship of Children's Perception of Parental Punitiveness toward Aggression and their Church Attendance

Description: One of the main purposes of the present study was to use a parental punitiveness scale, that was developed on the assumption that parental punitiveness is a function of the situation in which aggression takes place. This in turn was used to determine what relationship a child's perception of parental discipline toward aggression has to varying degrees of church attendance of the child.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Arnold, Russell L.

Perceptions of Social Support among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Pre- and Post-Parent Training

Description: The literature demonstrates that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience peer rejection as a result of their difficulties with interpersonal interactions. The manner in which children with ADHD process social information and the extent to which social difficulties may adversely impact these children has remained unclear. In the first part of the study, the perceptions of social support between boys (ages 7 to 11 years) with and without ADHD were compared. An analysis of variance procedure (ANOVA) was performed and children with ADHD were found to perceive significantly lower levels of social support from their classmates than normal peers at pretreatment. The groups did not differ significantly with regard to perceptions of parent, teacher, and close friend support. In the second part of the study, the role of ADHD parent training and its effectiveness in decreasing problem-behaviors, ameliorating social problems, and enhancing perceptions of social support was examined. Repeated measures MANOVAs revealed a significant rater (mother and teacher) by time (pretreatment and posttreatment) interaction effect for total behavior problems, externalizing behavior problems, internalizing behavior problems, and social problems. On each scale, mothers reported more behavior problems than teachers at pretreatment, but fewer problems than teachers at posttreatment assessment. Main effects were not detected. ANOVAs performed on social support ratings by children with ADHD demonstrated a significant increase in their perceptions of parental support between pretreatment and posttreatment. Children's ratings of teacher, close friend, and classmate support did not differ significantly between pretreatment and posttreatment. The findings suggest that children with ADHD are socially perspicacious and sensitive to subtle changes within their social support systems. The parent training program appeared to help with the amelioration of problem behaviors in the home, but results did not indicate generalization of improvements to the classroom. Implications of the findings were discussed ...
Date: August 1994
Creator: Askins, Martha Ann