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Post-Traumatic Symptomatology in the Luby's Shooting

Description: The role of exposure to a human-made disaster and the subsequent development of post-traumatic stress reactions were examined. Subjects included 49 males and 30 females who were variously exposed to the Luby's shooting incident in Killeen, Texas in October of 1991. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology was measured by the SCL-90R. Exposure was operationalized by using a scenario-rating scheme with independent raters estimating each subject's level of exposure. A regression and commonality analysis revealed that exposure is an important predictor in post-traumatic symptomatology. Premorbid functioning and gender were also found to play important roles, with females expressing higher levels of symptomatology.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Adams, Pam, 1964-

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven

Perceptions of Parent-Child Relations and Their Relation to the Acceptance of a Naive Model for Social Expectations

Description: The central concern of this investigation was the determination of the relationships between Ss' perceived parent-child relations and their acceptance of the BSE model for social expectations. It was assumed that this model is a learned naive cognitive structure shared by the members of the society. It was predicted that certain parental behaviors critical to the socialization process would affect the acceptance or lack of acceptance of the BSE model. The measurement of perceived parent-child experiences was obtained through the use of the Roe-Siegelman Parent Child Relations Questionnaire (PCR). Baldwin's Social Expectations Scale was employed to obtain measures of the degree to which the BSE model could account for the variability of Ss' judgments of people-in-general in choice situations involving harming and helping behavior. Scores indicating the acceptance of the BSE model were then correlated with scores on each of the ten scales of the PCR. The results illuminated sex differences relating to the acceptance of the BSE model. For the females, warm, loving, and rewarding parent-child relations related positively to the acceptance of the BSE model. For the males, the effects of parental behavior were contingent on the individual parent. Fathers who were perceived as not overprotective or demanding and who promoted autonomous behavior in their sons were the fathers who had sons who made judgments according to the BSE model. Mothers who were perceived as demanding, punitive, and neglecting by their sons had sons who made judgments according to the BSE model. It was suggested that parental behaviors that are key factors in the development of the child's appropriate sex role may be the important factors affecting the acceptance of the BSE model for social expectations. Finally, the evidence suggested that the BSE model is capable of predicting people's social expectations, though not as effectively in the current ...
Date: August 1973
Creator: Akins, W. Thompson

Perspective Taking and Self Disclosure

Description: The effects of taking a third person role on self disclosure, self sympatheticness and several nonverbal parameters of task involvement were examined in a psychotherapy analogue study. Subjects were classified as high or low in ego strength using previously established norms for college students. In the third person role subjects were instructed to describe themselves from the perspective of an "intimate and sympathetic best friend." An encouragement to talk format was used to facilitate self description from the first person. Support was not found for the hypotheses that altering the perspective used in self description would increase self disclosure and that high ego strength subjects would be better able to use a perspective taking intervention. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research are made.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-

Felony Offenses Related to Personality Traits

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is whether relationships may exist between personality and type of offense in a felon population. The Eysenck Personality Inventory, which measures extraversion-introversion (E), neuroticism-stability (N), and includes a lie scale (L), was used to determine subject's personality traits. Offenses were divided into crimes against persons, crimes against property, and crimes against the morals of the state. Subjects consisted of 751 adult male felons. The product-moment correlation was computed for each offense-variable EPI pair. A negative association between E and crimes against persons, together with a positive association between L and crimes against persons, were found to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level, although quite low. It was concluded that results obtained should be guardedly interpreted in view of the minimal amount of variability accounted for, though of possible value in suggesting future research.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Ancell, Richard Guy

Allergen Research and Its Implications for Psychology: History, Current Status, and Prospectus

Description: The purpose of this manuscript was to present a brief history, the current status, and a prospectus of allergen and allergic reactions. Research on allergic reactions, particularly as viewed from the psychogenic position, was presented. The review strongly suggests that the psychogenic orientation has been frought with contradictions, unnecessarily complex interpretations, and an over-abundance of subjective, dynamic, and analytic redundancies which have done little more than perpetuate the stagnation of a rather important subdomain of the "mental" health professions.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Arnold, J. Steven

Psychopathology and Love

Description: This study considered the relationship between psychopathology and love. Agape love was defined as spontaneous and selfless love. The hypothesis tested was that people demonstrating psychopathology would make fewer positive responses to statements reflecting love than people free of psychopathology. The MMPI was utilized to measure the presence of psychopathology. The Atkinson A Scale (developed for this study) measured agape responses. Both these instruments were administered to 102 subjects in three groups: hospital patients, seminary students, and psychology students. Mean agape scores were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance, Significant difference among the group means was detected at the p <.05 level. A Scheffe test showed hospital patients' agape scores significantly lower than scores of seminary and psychology students. The initial hypothesis was confirmed,
Date: August 1979
Creator: Atkinson, Stephen E.

Application of a Non-Speech Response Mode in Teaching Simple Language Functions to Three Autistic Children

Description: A non-speech response mode similar to the one used by Prepack (1971) to teach language to a chimpanzee was utilized to teach two simple language functions to three autistic children. The response mode consisted of picking up a geometric symbol and placing it on a response tray. The geometric symbol was the basic unit in this language system. The symbols were used to represent objects in the environment and relationships between the objects.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Barnes, Patrick R.

The Bender Gestalt Test and Prediction of Behavioral Problems in Moderately Mentally Retarded Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of Koppitz's method of scoring the Bender Gestalt (BG) Test for the prediction of behavioral problems in retarded children. The problem behaviors with which this study was concerned were those most often associated with the hyperactive child.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Baxter, Raymond D.

Temperament Traits and Self-Concept in Individuals of Varying Creativity from a Normal University Population

Description: "This study investigates the differences in temperament and self-concept between a group of university students scoring in the upper one-third of a distribution of creativity test scores and a group of university students scoring in the lower one-third of that distribution."--[1].
Date: December 1971
Creator: Beaty, John W.

Biofeedback and Control of Skin Cell Proliferation in Psoriasis

Description: The present study was designed to determine the effect of skin-temperature-biofeedback training on cellular proliferation in three psoriasis patients. It was hypothesized that (a) psoriasis patients would be able to consciously decrease skin temperature of psoriatic tissue, and (b) there would be a positive correlation between rate of cellular proliferation and temperature change. Results obtained indicated biofeedback training to be effective in decreasing the surface temperature of psoriatic tissue. A 2 X 7 analysis of variance for two repeated measures indicated the change in skin temperatures as a function of sample period to be significant, F (6,26) = 3.29, p < .02. Generalization of temperature-training effects from the biofeedback to the no-feedback condition were observed. Rate of proliferation decreased from pretraining to posttraining biopsies.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Benoit, Larry J.

Attribution Retraining: Effects on Persistence in Special Education Students' Mathematics Behavior

Description: To investigate the effects of attribution retraining under conditions of intermittent success and failure, 14 helpless subjects were given 15 days of treatment in one of two procedures. Except for the attribution of all failures to lack of effort in the attribution retraining condition, the two procedures were identical in all respects. After training, both groups showed significant and equivalent improvement in reactions to failure, suggesting that intermittent success and failure increase the persistence of helpless children, rather than attribution retraining as suggested by Dweck (1975). Recommendations included follow-up studies and exploration of the attributional patterns of children under conditions of intermittent success and failure.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Benson, Patricia Ann

Marital Adjustment and Interspousal Personality Relationships

Description: Husbands and wives of 67 couples described themselves on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, described their spouses on an altered form of this test, and completed the Locke-Wallace Short Marital Adjustment Test. Results for each man were matched to a woman's results based on socio-cultrual similarity to create a comparison group of nonmarried couples. A chi-square test indicated that related spouses of the married group did not have more similar personalities than unrelated partners in the comparison group. An F-test suggested that actually, interspousal personality similarity affects marital adjustment for both sexes, but it is not affected by perceived similarity. Accuracy of perception on the introversion-extraversion scale had a positive effect on the marital adjustment of wives, but not of husbands.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Bissett, David Woody

A Comparison of the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Disadvantaged Chicano and Black Mothers

Description: Hypothesized in this study are the following: (1) that there are significant general differences between the childrearing attitudes of disadvantaged Chicano and Black mothers, (2) that their respective attitudes significantly vary on particular subtests of maternal attitude, and (3) that demographic variables, such as age, number of marriages, nativemigrant status, and level of education will affect significant differences in response on a number of specified attitudinal subtests.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Bond, Rebekah B.

Racial Differences in Female Achievement Motivation and Motivation to Work

Description: In the present project racial differences in female achievement motivation and motivation to work were examined, and related this information to the theory that African American females, when compared to White females, are less likely to marry someone equal to themselves in the areas of education, employment, and earning potential because of an assumed shortage of suitable African-American males. It was hypothesized that African-American females would score higher on assessments of achievement motivation and motivation to work, and rate lower the likelihood of meeting and marrying a partner equal in education level, employment level, and earning potential than would White females. Data analysis supported all hypotheses. The results were discussed in the context of the female achievement motivation literature as well as the literature concerning female motivation to work.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bruner, Yolanda Kaye

A Study of the Relationship Between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Scores and Koppitz's Human Figure Drawing Test Scores for Mentally Retarded Adults

Description: The present study explored the possibility of applying Koppitz's developmental scoring techniques of mental maturity to retarded adults. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) that there is a significant correlation between the Koppitz HFD Test scores and the WAIS Full Scale scores; 2) that the correlation between the Koppitz HFD Test scores and the WAIS Performance Scale scores is also significant. Statistical computations did confirm the latter hypothesis but not the former one.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Carlisle, Joseph Frank

Assessing Defensiveness with the PAI: a Cross Validational Study

Description: The use of scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to detect defensiveness in criminal and nonclinical samples was evaluated. Forty-five male inmates of a county jail and 38 male undergraduate psychology students were provided with incentives to complete the PAI under two conditions: standard instructions and experimental instructions to feign a specific, positive role. The sequence of instructions was counterbalanced in both samples for the purpose of examining ordering effects. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed, yielding significant main effects of condition, group and order. Additionally, a step-wise discriminant function analysis significantly predicted group membership (i.e., subjects under honest and faking conditions) with a hit rate = 84.4%. Finally, a more effective cutting score for the Positive Impression scale was recommended.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Cashel, Mary Louise

Biofeedback Training: Avoidance Conditioning of Frontal EMG

Description: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing an avoidance conditioning paradigm in EMG biofeedback training and to compare this method to the standard biofeedback training paradigm. Frontalis EMG levels of 20 college students were monitored during non-stress and stress conditions. Half then received standard EMG biofeedback training. The other half received biofeedback with contingent aversive stimulation. Both groups received training to a relaxation criterion of 3 microvolts for 100 seconds or, for a maximum of two 20 minute sessions. Subjects were then monitored again during non-stress and stress conditions. Both groups obtained significant EMG reductions due to training with no significant differences between them. Standard biofeedback training required less time for subjects to achieve the relaxation criterion than did biofeedback with a shock-avoidance contingency. Possible applications of avoidance contingent biofeedback were suggested.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Catalanello, Michael S.

Temporally Versus Non-Temporally Contiguous Administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale and Assessment of Hypnotic Susceptibility

Description: The present study tested the hypothesis that contiguity, regarding time of administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), differentially influences hypnotic susceptibility. Forty-eight subjects were administered the TAS immediately prior to assessment of hypnotic susceptibility versus 43 subjects who received the TAS one to three days before assessment of hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption, when measured in the temporally versus nontemporally contiguous context did not appear to affect hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption did, however, correlate significantly with hypnotic susceptibility in the temporally contiguous group as compared to a non-significant correlation in the nontemporally contiguous group. This finding suggests is a relationship between differential administration of the TAS with regard to time of administration and hypnotic susceptibility.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Cawood, Glenn N. (Glenn Nicolson)

Control of Heart Rate by Progressive Relaxation Techniques and Cerebral Electrotherapy

Description: This study presents the findings of an investigation of the effects of two different treatments, progressive relaxation and cerebral electrotherapy, on heart rate. With progressive relaxation, the subject relaxes by following instructions. With cerebral electrotherapy, relaxation is due to an external source of stimulation. Decreases in heart rate for subjects receiving progressive relaxation were compared with decreases for subjects receiving cerebral electrotherapy. A placebo group was used to evaluate the effects of both treatments independently. While decreases in heart rate were observed for both treatments, only progressive relaxation produced decreases significantly greater than those of the placebo group. However, decreases in heart rate produced by progressive relaxation were not significantly greater than decreases produced by cerebral electrotherapy.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Chambers, Jim A.

The Self-Concept of the Hearing-Impaired Child

Description: This study was an investigation of the relationship between the self-concepts of hearing-impaired children and the self-concepts of normal hearing children. Sixty-four hearing-impaired children and nineteen normal hearing children were given the Primary Self- Concept Inventory, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, and were rated by a teacher using the Bristol Social Adjustment Guide. The differences between means were analyzed and tested for significance. It was concluded that there is no difference between the self concept of the hearing-impaired child and the self-concept of the normal hearing child. It was further concluded that the instruments currently available for measuring self-concept are poor and inadequate. Further research on the self-concept of the hearing impaired child was recommended.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Chew, Ronnie L.

Accelerated EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training and Tension Headache: The Effects of Home Practice and Headache Presence During Training

Description: This study investigated the value of headache presence during elecromyographic (EMG) feedback relaxation training and the contribution made by home relaxation practice in the elimination of tension headache. Eighteen participants, mainly coeds in their twenties, recorded headache and medication data for two baseline weeks, and were assigned to one of three training groups. Group A received EMG feedback training with headache presence during the session and home relaxation practice. Group B received EMG feedback without headache Presence and home practice. Group C received only home relaxation practice. Statistically significant treatment differences were not found, but declining trends of headache activity and medication use tend to support the efficacy of EMG training with headache presence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Christianson, James D. L.