This investigation identifies deterrents to the educational, social, and cultural success of Latina adolescent females. Across the nation, and especially in states such as Texas and California, the Hispanic population is fast becoming the largest minority in society. Because the adolescent Hispanic population within the United States today will comprise much of America's future economic and social base, identifying and addressing educational, cultural, and social deterrents to their success becomes important not only for personal well-being, but for the well-being of future society as a whole. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of group-centered psychoeducational therapy in improving self-esteem and decreasing anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescent female Hispanic high school students. The experimental groups consisted of one group of seven female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. and a second group of five female Hispanic adolescents who received computer and internet training and psychoeducational group counseling twice a week for five weeks. The control group consisted of fourteen female Hispanic students who received no treatments. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of depression, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was used to measure pre and post test levels of anxiety, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire and the Index of Self-Esteem were used to measure pre and post levels of self-esteem.
This study examined the historical development of the University of Ibadan in Nigeria and its contributions to adult education both in Nigeria and in other African nations. This was aimed at providing up-to-date insight into the department's contributions to the development of adult education in Nigeria and in other African nations. Specifically, this study examined the department's founders and their goals, the department's management structure, its relationship with other adult education agencies in Nigeria and in Africa, its programs and services, and the participants in these. This study reveals that the department's founders were both British and Nigerian politicians, educators, and humanitarians. They were concerned with eradicating illiteracy, preparing adults for democratic roles, and improving the economic well-being of these adults. The department does not have a consistent pattern of management. The selection of its leadership is usually based on seniority and academic merits. The department initially relied on donations and on the revenues from the local, state, and federal governments of Nigeria to operate. It now relies on those from the profit from its services to the public and on those from Nigeria's state and federal governments. The department interacts with other departments of the university and with other adult education agencies in Nigeria to formulate, develop, direct, and provide adult education programs and services to all segments of the Nigerian population. Its contributions to other African nations are limited to the conferences and seminars it hosts, and in many cases, directs on their behalf.
This study was conceived as an attempt to determine .and analyze factors deterring participation in continuing professional education among social workers in environments where continuing education for relicensure is mandatory and voluntary. The specific research design implemented to complete this study was the ex-post facto descriptive design. The sample included 106 social workers randomly selected in the state of Texas where continuing education is mandatory and 94 social workers in the state of Louisiana where continuing education is voluntary. The instrument used was the Deterrent to Participation Scale developed by Scanlan (1983) and a demographic inventory. Scanlan (1983) earlier identified six factors deterring participation in continuing professional education: Disengagement, Lack of Quality, Family Constraints, Cost, Lack of Benefit, and Work Constraints. The study concluded that social workers in both states considered work constraint as a major factor deterring participation in continuing professional education. Also the factors of cost and lack of quality were also considered as crucial barriers in their efforts to participate in continuing professional education. The Wilks' multivariate test of significance of the means and univariate F tests at alpha level p < .05 revealed differences in the combined mean scores of social workers in both states when the variables of age, marital status, and position held were tested. In comparing the ranking of the six factors deterring participation in continuing professional education, a Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed respondents in both states rank the six factors in the same order. The findings were congruent with earlier studies of barriers to participation in continuing education among professionals. The researcher recommended a study which would include a larger number of social workers and a longitudinal study to measure changes in barriers to participation in continuing professional education.
The problem investigated by this study was that of understanding types of behaviors exhibited by participants in negotiations processes and impact of behaviors on collective bargaining in Nigeria. The study's three purposes were to describe the nature and extent of interpersonal conflict that occurs in collective bargaining, to determine the consequences that stem from such conflict, and to suggest the behaviors and performances during the face-to-face negotiations that should exist to enhance labor-management relations in Nigerian public education. This study examined behavior in negotiations by using simulation, i.e., a quasiexperimental method. Four outcomes of negotiations--time required to reach agreement, terms of agreements, verbal behavior exhibited during negotiations, and satisfaction derived by negotiators in negotiations—were examined.
The problem of this study was subsidy ("vanity") publishing among college and university faculty. The purpose of the study was to estimate the extent to which postsecondary faculty use subsidy presses for the publication of their scholarly writings and the professional reasons for which academicians choose these presses to publish their works, viz., tenure, promotion, or salary increase. An additional purpose was to compare the subsidy publication experiences of faculty according to the types of institutions which employ them. The study involved 11 national subsidy publishers and 1,124 subsidy-published authors throughout the United States. Subsidy-published authors were identified occupationally as faculty by their appearance in the 1990 edition of The National Faculty Directory. The subjects in this study consisted of (a) faculty members listed in The National Faculty Directory. 1990 who are (b) known to have used subsidy presses for publishing their writings. A major finding of the study was that the proportion of vanity-published authors who are college and university faculty was small. Twenty-seven percent of the faculty whose books had been published by subsidy presses indicated that they had written and published in order to earn salary increases. Another 23% indicated that they had their books published to obtain promotions. Seventeen percent had their books published for the purpose of gaining tenure. Finally, one-third of the faculty surveyed identified miscellaneous other reasons for publishing their books through subsidy presses. More than two-thirds of the faculty who had used vanity presses (69%) claimed that their subsidy-published books had been effective in helping them achieve their purposes for publishing. Thirty percent judged their subsidy-produced books as ineffective. The majority of the subsidy-published faculty in the study were employed either by research universities or community/junior colleges. Only 26% of those surveyed indicated that they would choose a subsidy publisher if they ...
The distributional properties of improvement-over-chance, I, effect sizes derived from linear and quadratic predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and from logistic regression analysis (LRA) for the two-group univariate classification were examined. Data were generated under varying levels of four data conditions: population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and prior probabilities. None of the indices provided acceptable estimates of effect for all the conditions examined. There were only a small number of conditions under which both accuracy and precision were acceptable. The results indicate that the decision of which method to choose is primarily determined by variance pattern and prior probabilities. Under variance homogeneity, any of the methods may be recommended. However, LRA is recommended when priors are equal or extreme and linear PDA is recommended when priors are moderate. Under variance heterogeneity, selecting a recommended method is more complex. In many cases, more than one method could be used appropriately.
The purpose of this study was to observe the differences in English achievement, critical-thinking ability, and attitude toward subject attributable to two scheduling approaches -- "Concurrent" and "Intensive"--in the teaching of first-semester freshman English composition to community college students. Further, the study was initiated in order to provide factual information as a basis for administrative and instructional judgments affecting future planning for accelerated scheduling at the experimental institution. Two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting three hours weekly for fifteen weeks, comprised the control group (Concurrent); two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting nine hours weekly for five weeks, comprised the experimental group (Intensive). The same form of three criterion instruments was administered to both groups before and after the experimental treatment. The instruments were the Cooperative English Expression Test, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and the Purdue Attitude Scale, Part A -- Attitude Toward Any Subject. Three instructors were involved in the experiment during the fall and spring semesters of the 1973-74 school year. Conventional methods of instruction, using the same course of study, were duplicated in all situations. Statistical analyses utilized in the study were analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. It was felt that Intensive scheduling was superior to Concurrent as a means of promoting student-faculty harmony. Also, the frustrations experienced within the traditional classroom situation could be lessened by granting greater freedom from the constraints of hourly schedules and competing classes. With tensions reduced, English proficiency could be increased. Acting upon these suppositions, three hypotheses--related to each of the criterion measures-- were formulated. All hypotheses stated that the adjusted post-test scores for the experimental groups would be significantly greater than the adjusted post-test scores for the control groups. The results of the experiment, however, showed no significant difference for any of the hypotheses ...
The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effects that an achievement motivation program had on changing the self-concepts and academic achievement among ninth-grade students in a triethnically mixed junior high school. The subjects for this study were ninth-grade students from a large southwestern city. The experimental program was conducted in a junior high school composed of Anglo, Mexican-American, and Negro students of approximately 30 per cent, 40 per cent, and 30 per cent ratios, respectively. The comparison school was an adjoining area with approximately the same ethnic mixture. In measuring changes in self-concept, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used. Teacher-assigned grades converted to numerical equivalents were used in measuring changes in academic achievement. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence by using two by three analysis of covariance. All data were entered on computer cards, using computer services of North Texas State University.
The purpose of this study was to identify childrearing attitudes of Mexican-American mothers with children ages three to five years of age. Specifically the first purpose of this study was to determine childrearing attitudes of Mexican-American mothers with ten years of education or fewer and Mexican-American mothers with eleven years of education or more as identified by the Parent As A Teacher Inventory (PAAT). The second purpose was to identify the relationship of the following demographic variables to childrearing attitudes: mother's age, mother's marital status, family income, sex of child, age of child, access to child, generational status, mother's language and mother's ethnicity. The PAAT and the Parent Information Questionnaire were administered to 112 Mexican-American mothers; 54 Mexican- American mothers with ten years of education or fewer and 58 Mexican-American mothers with eleven years of education or more. The population from which these subjects were drawn were mothers from Mexican-American communities in a North Texas county. Responses on the sample were analyzed using multivariate statistics. Based on the analysis of the data, the following conclusions seem tenable. 1. The Mexican-American mothers with eleven years of education or more have childrearing attitudes which are more positive than the Mexican-American mothers with ten years of education or fewer. 2. Control and teaching-learning are related to the mother's educational level, income, generational status and language. The mothers with more education and a higher income, who are third generation and who prefer English usage, tend to allow their children more independence. 3. Agreement may be expected between the childrearing attitudes of the Mexican-American mothers with ten years of education or fewer and Mexican-American mothers with eleven years of education or more toward creativity, frustration, and play.
This study is an investigation of the perceived attitudinal differences between administrators and faculty toward research and teaching at three Saudi Arabian universities, King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Islamic University (IU). The researcher also investigated the effect of several variables, such as rank, university, and academic field on administrators and faculty members' attitudes toward teaching and research. Little Attention has been given to studies that examine the differences between faculty and administrators with regard to their attitudes toward the priorities of teaching and research in Saudi Arabian institutions. Also, little research has been conducted regarding the effects of rank and academic field on faculty attitudes in Saudi Arabian institutions. The author used a mail survey and collected 518 useable responses from a total of 710 questionnaires distributed. Factor analysis, MANCOVA, MANOVA, and ANOVA were the statistical methods employed in data analysis. Five attitudes were identified as a result of factor analysis: (a) attitudes toward teaching; (b) attitudes toward research; (c) mission; (d) promotion; and (e) interest. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between faculty and administrators regarding teaching and resea4rch. Administrators showed stronger attitudes toward teaching than faculty at all three universities. There were also significant differences regarding these attitudes in terms of rank, academic field, and university. Full professors had the strongest attitude toward a research emphasis compared to assistant professors. Assistant professors had the strongest teaching orientation. In addition, faculty members in the humanities had stronger teaching orientations preferences than did those in the natural and social sciences. Regarding the universities, faculty members at IU had the strongest teaching orientation preferences, whereas faculty members at KSU had the strongest research orientation preferences.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of web-based instruction (WBI) on cognitive and psychomotor learning. The subjects of the study received two types of instructional methods, WBI (experimental group) and traditional classroom instruction (control group). Each group received 30 minutes of instruction on "Soldering a Circuit Board." The researcher chose this content subject because it involved both cognitive and psychomotor objectives, which suited the purpose of this study. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference between the two methods of instruction, and also that there would be no significant interaction effects between methods of instruction and gender. Forty-six subjects from a population of students enrolled in summer classes offered by the Applied Technology, Training and Development (ATTD) program at the University of North Texas voluntarily participated in this study. Random assignment of subjects was applied in this study. A subject matter expert delivered the content for both the experimental and control groups. To measure cognitive variable, a 10 item, multiple-choice test was administered immediately after instruction. To measure the psychomotor variable, a 15-item checklist was utilized by trained judges to evaluate learners performances while soldering. The 2 x 2 factorial model with interaction was used in this study. The analysis was run for each of the dependent variables, cognitive and psychomotor learning. Although there was not a statistically significant difference in the main effects of method of instruction or interaction effects between method and gender, the results imply that students in the traditional-classroom instruction group performed better than those in the WBI group in psychomotor learning. Perhaps, this trend would be statistically significant if the sample size were larger. This study provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of WBI in delivering cognitive and psychomotor objectives. The outcome of this study supports the need ...
A Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate data for a comparison of five robust regression estimation methods with ordinary least squares (OLS) under 36 different outlier data configurations. Two of the robust estimators, Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimation and MM estimation, are commercially available. Three authormodified variations on MM were also included (MM1, MM2, and MM3). Design parameters that were varied include sample size (n=60 and n=180), number of independent predictor variables (2, 3 and 6), outlier density (0%, 5% and 15%) and outlier location (2x,2y s, 8x8y s, 4x,8y s and 8x,4y s). Criteria on which the regression methods were measured are relative efficiency, bias and a test of the null hypothesis. Results indicated that MM2 was the best performing robust estimator on relative efficiency. The best performing estimator on bias was MM1. The best performing regression method on the test of the null hypothesis was MM2. Overall, the MM-type robust regression methods outperformed OLS and LAV on relative efficiency, bias, and the test of the null hypothesis.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of job satisfaction as defined by management and nonmanagement employees and to compare both parties' perceptions of organizational benefits to a list prepared by the organization's benefit personnel. Turnover is costly to the organization, both in money and in the impact it has on those individuals remaining with the organization. Every effort should be undertaken to reduce the amount of turnover within the organization. A contributing factor leading to turnover may be a gap between what the employees believe is important to them and what management believes is important to the employees. The boundaries of the gap need to be identified before any effort can be made to reduce or bridge the gap. Once the boundaries are identified, policies can be analyzed and the possibility of reducing the gap investigated. Management as a whole must be aware of the needs and wants of their employees before any attempt to develop a retention strategy is undertaken. This knowledge can be acquired only through two-way communication with the employee. The communication process includes the simple process of asking employees for this information and then listening to how they respond. This study suggests that little difference exists in perception of job satisfaction importance for gender, age group, length of time with the organization, topic training hours, and between management and nonmanagement employees. However, perception gaps exist between the job satisfaction items addressed by organizational policies and procedures and those perceived by employees. Additional studies that include a number of varied organizations are needed before extensive generalizations can be made.
This study analyzes the status and job functions of the 546 elementary school assistant principals in Texas during the 1985-1986 school year. It is concerned with the status of the position and the degree of responsibility assigned to the assistant principal for forty-eight specific job functions in the actual and ideal practice. A sample of 125 assistant principals, 125 supervising principals and a population of 135 superintendents whose districts employ assistant principals were included in the study. All three groups completed the role survey instrument. The results were analyzed by using the one-sample chi-square test to determine whether significant differences existed among the perceptions of the superintendents, principals, and assistant principals at the .01 level. The return rate was 60.8 percent for the assistant principals and principals and 84.6 percent for the superintendents.
This study investigated the relation of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) for learning disabled (LD) children, the relation of K-ABC Achievement subtests with other achievement tests, and the relation of verbal and perceptual abilities assessment and the K-ABC. One hundred white, middle to above socioeconomic status (SES), LD students 6 to 12 1/2 years old were administered the K-ABC in addition to the test battery used to identify them. Findings indicated significant differences (2<-01) between WISC-R Full Scale scores and KABC MPC scores, with MPC scores being 3.33 points lower. Significant correlations (2<-01) were found between the following: (a) WISC-R Performance scores and K-ABC Simultaneous scores, (b) K-ABC Sequential and Simultaneous scores, (c) WISC-R Performance and K-ABC Sequential scores, (d) K-ABC Arithmetic and WRAT Arithmetic, and (e) K-ABC Reading Understanding and the following: Woodcock Word Identification, Woodcock Passage Comprehension, WRAT Reading, and Durrell Silent Reading. The study found the MPC correlates higher with tests of perceptual ability than with tests of verbal ability. Results indicate the following: (a) the WISC-R and K-ABC can substitute each other when measuring overall intelligence, (b) the WISC-R and K-ABC do not measure the same abilities, (c) the Sequential-Simultaneous score discrepancy is a poor diagnostic indicator of LD, (d) the discrepancy between the Achievement scale and the K-ABC intelligence scales is a poor diagnostic indicator of LD, (e) the K-ABC Arithmetic subtest is no better and no worse than the WRAT Arithmetic subtest, (f) WRAT Reading, Woodcock Word Identification and K-ABC Reading Recognition are not interchangeable measures of word calling skills, (g) the K-ABC Reading Understanding subtest is as adequate a measure of reading comprehension as other available tests, (h) the MPC is clearly more a measure of perceptual ability than of verbal ...
The purpose of this study was to discover whether there was a relationship between economic development and higher education in Iran from 1953 to 1979. Seven variables were used to define economic development. These variables were factor analyzed and the outcome was three new empirically satisfying variables labeled Rent (R), Finance (F), and Technology (T) which were used as dependent and independent variables in subsequent analyses. In order to define higher education, just one variable, constant dollar expenditures on higher education, was used. Several changes occurred in Iran during 1953 to 1979. Therefore, two intervention variables (for the periods of 1962 and 1973) were used to present these changes. Three models were used in order to examine the relationship between economic development and higher education. Using 2 stage least square in model one tested the hypothesis that the educational variable and development variable (T) were mutually causal. In this model two identification variables (energy consumption and the number of students in higher education) were used in order to identify the effect of the technological growth and expenditures on higher education. This model had two regression equations. In the first equation the dependent variable was the technological dimension of economic growth (T). The only significant effect was the concomitant incremental relationship between energy consumption and technological growth. In the second equation the dependent variable was the expenditures on higher education, and the only significant effect was the second lagged relationship between technological growth and the education. Using 2 stage least square tested the hypothesis that educational expenditures depended upon the import-export ration (R). There was no significant effect in this model. Also using ordinary stage least square tested the hypothesis that educational expenditures depended upon increases in the money stock (F). This model was highly significant. Based on the major findings ...
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Texas House Bill 72 on equalization of finances in the public school districts of Texas. House Bill 72 is a finance reform bill which was passed by the Texas Legislature during the Summer of 1984. This study involves basically three steps. First, current criteria for equity as defined by school finance "experts" and recent definitive court decisions were determined. Second, financial data from the Texas Education Agency were statistically analyzed for the 1984-1985 school year. Third, the statistical analysis was used to determine if the current Texas school finance plan meets the current criteria for equity. The population used in the study was 1,068 school districts. Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn. 1. The use of a per capita flat grant by the Texas Public School Finance System contributes to the unequalizing of financial resources available to school districts. 2. School districts with greater property index values are required to exercise very little effort toward the support of their public schools. 3. School districts with high property index values tend to have lower effective tax rates and high per-pupil expenditures. 4. School districts of least wealth exercised substantially more local tax effort in support of educational programs in their schools than more wealthy school districts. 5. School districts with low property index values are almost entirely dependent upon the Foundation School Program monies to provide the educational opportunities available within the school district. 6. The disparities in local tax effort, per-pupil expenditures, and revenues are attributable primarily to the school district's heavy reliance on local property wealth. 7. A completely perfect system of equalization would be full state funding with monies distributed to districts on an educational needs basis.
This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive development and self-concept in academic dishonesty represent major findings.
This study seeks to determine the attitudes of public school and municipal recreation authorities in the state of Texas with respect to policies pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the attitudes of selected public school and municipal recreation authorities toward certain policy statements pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of public school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. The second is to develop guidelines for public school and municipal recreation authorities for the resolution of possible conflicts.
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent and quality of prior knowledge, transactional nature, and social context of literacy knowledge demonstrated by young mildly handicapped learners. The study was based on current theories of literacy which view literacy growth as part of the total language system development, and ethnographic methods were used to gather and analyze qualitative data. Language and literacy events were observed in three special education classrooms including 43 students ranging in age from 4 years 1 month to 9 years 11 months. Major findings of the study included: (a) The children in this study demonstrated prior literacy knowledge much like that of non-handicapped peers, (b) Demonstrations of oral and written language system transactions decreased after students received formal instruction in reading and writing. And (c) children's ability to interpret print depended greatly on the presence or absence of context with the print.
The problem of this study was to determine competencies which are necessary for effective administration by secondary school principals. The sources of data included a review of the literature and supplemental materials. The survey technique, employing a jury-validated questionnaire, was used to collect the perceptions of superintendents, principals, teachers, and college professors in the State of Texas. A total of 316 educators responded to the questionnaire. The development and findings of this study are presented in five chapters. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. In Chapter II, a survey of the literature is reported. Chapter III contains details of the procedures employed in collecting data for the study. Chapter IV presents the data gathered through the use of the questionnaire. Chapter V presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the study. The study identified eight general areas of competency for secondary school principals. Those competency areas were (1) organization and administration, (2) curriculum design and improvement, (3) the instructional process, (4) business and financial management, (5) student management, (6) personnel management, (7) facilities, equipment, and supplies, and (8) communications. A total of ninety-five competencies was identified from the literature and from communications with college professors and practicing school administrators. The six-member jury panel validated ninety-one competencies for inclusion on the survey questionnaire. Eighty-eight of the ninety-one competencies submitted to the educator sample achieved the criterion level for acceptance. An analysis of variance procedure revealed that significant differences among group means appeared at the .01 level on eleven of the competency statements. The competency-based preparation and certification concept appears to be sound and to be in harmony with other movements in American education. Many operational aspects need additional refinement; however, the concept holds considerable promise for improvement upon the traditional approaches to the preparation and certification of ...
The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the perceptions of practicing teachers and college instructors toward four components of inservice education programs: content, organization, format of presentation, and participant involvement in the teachers colleges in Thailand. The comparison is based on the demographic variables of sex, age, educational background, and teaching experience in the institution. The "In-Service Education Attitude Survey" by Yesuratnam, Basimalla at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois in 1982 was used to gather data for this study. It was distributed to a sample of 380 practicing teachers and college instructors in 19 randomly selected teachers colleges in Thailand; 368 usable instruments were returned (97.15%). The data were treated to produce numbers and percentages. The t tests for two independent samples were computed to determine any statistically significant differences between the respondent groups of practicing teachers and college instructors, and between the practicing elementary and secondary school teachers. The F tests were also utilized to determine any statistically significant differences among the variables of practicing teachers and college instructors.
This study examined the contribution of several variables to the prediction of perceived freedom in leisure (PFL) and life satisfaction in older adults. Demographic, health and socioeconomic variables were compared with participation in recreation programs, church involvement and PFL. Church involvement was viewed as a leisure activity rather than a measure of religiosity. The survey instrument incorporated all these variables and was pretested and revised before use in the study. The sample consisted of 198 persons 60 years of age and older who were members of two Southern Baptist churches. Subjects were randomly selected, but persons considered by church staff members to be incapable of completing the survey were eliminated. Surveys were hand delivered and picked up by volunteer workers, and a 38 percent return rate was obtained. Alpha reliability for the church involvement, PFL and life satisfaction scales in the instrument were .87, .94, and .77, respectively. Frequency counts and percentages or means and standard deviations were calculated for the demographic variables. Subjects were categorized by level of involvement in church and community recreation programs. Persons involved in community but not church recreation programs were underrepresented in the sample. A selective sampling procedure was utilized to obtain more respondents in this category, but the data from these individuals were analyzed separately. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were utilized to ascertain the impact of different variables upon PFL and life satisfaction. Three predictors of PFL emerged— participation in recreation programs, church involvement and satisfaction with health. Correlations between these variables and life satisfaction were consistent with the findings in the literature. Inclusion of church involvement, participation in recreation programs and, for the life satisfaction analysis, PFL raised the percentage of variance explained. Thus, greater predictive power emerged using these variables than when only demographic, health and socioeconomic variables were included.
This study utilized ethnographic methodology to describe the communicative interactional patterns in families with a member who has breast cancer. Three breast cancer patients whose families were between the adolescent and launching of children developmental lifestage (McGoldrick & Carter, 1982) were chosen for the study. Data were collected from a series of three interview sessions over a period of four weeks with a two week time lapse between each of the interview sessions. Interview sessions were conducted in the families' homes by the researcher. All interviews were video and audio tape recorded for the purpose of preserving data for transcribing and coding. Research questions examined individual perception of meaning in regard to the disease, the structure and organization of the family in relation to the illness, and the effects of family communicative interaction on the course and management of the disease. Findings indicated that family members' responses to the diagnosis of "breast cancer were influenced by multi-generational "beliefs. All three families formulated a collective belief which supported the mother's belief about the disease. Each of the three families were mother-centered, and each mother seemed to use a metacommunicative approach to mediating family transactions. Each of the three fathers were reported as having been isolated and withdrawn within the family at various times. However, each father appeared to play a protective role in deflecting tension and stress away from the mother. All three couples appeared to have constructed an egalitarian relationship with an implicit agreement as to who was more skilled to hold the power within a particular context. In all three families, the generational boundaries were clearly defined. Conflict and affect were most generally expressed in an indirect manner through wit and sarcasm. However, because each of these three families were structured to allow for personal autonomous functioning of each ...
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials.
The problem of this study was to determine the effect of industrial arts experiences on changing the attitudes of North Texas State University freshmen toward industrial arts generally and toward specific curriculum areas in industrial arts.
The problem of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational group techniques upon selected personality and behavioral variables. Particular emphasis was placed upon changes in personality and behavior with respect to freshmen college students.
The objective of this study was to observe evidence of structural transfer among subjects in a group problem-solving activity and determine whether mode of collaborative technology or use of a priming agent affected the nature of transferred structures. Evidence for structural transfer is found in three theoretical perspectives: organizational ditransitive (linguistic) verb structures, adaptive structuration theory, and mental model transfer theory. Dependent variables included various grammatical structures and coefficients derived from pretest and posttest scores on David Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory, modified for the experiment. The combination of changes in grammatical frequencies and learning style may suggest that one or more media or the priming agent may affect structural transfer. Results indicate that groups using the GroupSystems collaborative technology produced less overall linguistic content than did subjects using a generic chat system, but employed more complex language as indicated by frequency of the organizational ditransitive verb structure. Also, subjects supplied with an organization chart (priming agent) during the group problem-solving session experienced greater change on the learning styles inventory than did those participating in the session without the chart. These findings suggest that mode of communication and use of priming agents may contribute positively or negatively to the transfer of structures among group members. Researchers, collaborative system designers, organizational leaders, trainers & educators, and frequent collaborative technology system end-users should be aware of these potential affects. Suggestions for future research are provided. Relationship of theoretical foundations of structural transfer to constructivism is discussed.
This study examines the effect of class discussion as a pre-writing activity on actual writing performance. The experiment was conducted with all the Level 3 and Level 4 students enrolled in the Intensive English Language Institute of North Texas State University in the Spring, 1986 semester. Cochrans C test was performed to test significant differences between groups at the beginning of this test. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the treatment effect between and within groups, and a matched t-test was also utilized to analyze the difference within tests. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the discussion activity score and the actual writing score. Analysis of covariance tests were used to determine which variance of discussion activities had greater effect on the actual writing score.
This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to identify role functions and characteristics perceived as important to Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs) in Texas, and to identify differences in perceived importance of role functions and characteristics of ANPs according to gender, educational preparation, practice setting, and whether the practitioner entered practice before or after the current rules and regulations for ANP practice were adopted. Two questionnaires and a demographic data form were mailed to 300 ANPs in primary health care in Texas, with 152 responding. Data from the questionnaire, "Characteristics of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner," were analyzed using independent group t-tests. The findings indicated that the characteristics "person-oriented," "perceptive," and "skilled in problem-solving" were the most valued by the practitioners, while aggressive" was the least valued. Independent group t-tests were used to analyze data from the instrument, "Advanced Nurse Practitioner Functions." The results of this analysis were not significant. The Chi square test was used to further examine data from this questionnaire to determine if the responses differed from chance. With the exception of four items, all of the responses differed significantly from chance. The responses "extremely important or important" were selected significantly more frequently that any of the other options. Not appropriate," was selected significantly more often than could be expected by chance for two functions: suturing minor lacerations and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Fourteen functions were examined further using frequency, percentage of responses, and the Chi square test to determine if there were differences in responses between groups. There were significant differences in responses between ANPs in nurse-managed settings and those in physician-managed settings on four functions: ordering diagnostic tests, prescribing medications in consultation with a physician, suturing minor lacerations, and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Practice setting and educational preparation were the variables which had ...
The direct effect of spouse presence during graded exercise testing on anxiety and performance has not been previously delineated. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to (a) ascertain if spouse presence during graded exercise testing affects state anxiety or physiological performance variables, and (b) determine differences in psychological status between cardiac patients and healthy adults.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a technology-enhanced unit on slope in algebra. The technology used in the study was the Topological Panorama Camera (Topocam). The research questions explored the learning and transfer of knowledge about slope and the engagement level of students during Topocam learning activities. The Topocam is a computer-controlled camera that moves on a modular track while it scans a scene through a vertical slit. Students can program the speed of the camera and frequency of pictures. They then witness the results of time and motion in the image created by the camera. Data for this study were collected from a pretest/posttest, as well as from observations of indicators of engaged learning. The research population consisted of 46 students from three classes of Algebra I students. Three classroom teachers each taught a unit on slope, while a fourth teacher conducted the activities with the Topocam for all the classes. The classroom activities focused on the concept of slope as a rate of change utilizing coordinate grids. The Topocam activities involved students in collaboratively making and testing predictions about slope. The findings of the study indicate that student learning did occur with this technology-enhanced unit on slope in algebra. Students showed statistically significant improvement in understanding slope and in transferring that concept to other situations. Since technology was only part of the unit presentation, the amount of learning attributed to the Topocam activities cannot be determined. However, students demonstrated a high degree of engagement in learning while working with the Topocam which suggests that the activities were a factor. A low correlation between students slope unit test scores and previous algebra performance may indicate that students who have not been successful in algebra were more successful in the technology-enhanced unit. Some variation was ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sixth grade students' academic achievement levels in math and their perceptions of school climate. Student characteristics of socioeconomic status and gender were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data was gathered using the five independent variables of the My Class Inventory (satisfaction, friction, competitiveness, difficulty, and cohesiveness) and the dependent variable of the Stanford Achievement Total Math scores. The results of the data collection were tested using a Pearson product-moment analysis and a backward multiple regression analysis. A univariate analysis of variance was also used to compare the five independent variables of the My Class Inventory as well as to compare socioeconomic status and gender with the Stanford Achievement Total Math scores. The schools selected for this study were from a city in Texas with a population of approximately 100,000. The sample consisted of 262 sixth grade mathematics students. The findings of this study are as follows: (a) The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis revealed little, if any, correlation for any of the five subscale predictor variables; (b) the multiple regression analysis revealed that all five classroom climate indicators combined together could explain only 10.5% of the variance in mathematics achievement; (c) the univariate analysis of variance revealed that there is a significant relationship between the climate factors of friction and difficulty when compared to mathematics achievement; and (d) the univariate analysis of variance also revealed that mathematics achievement scores vary significantly as a function of economic category membership, but there appears to be no relationship to gender.
This study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of group discussion upon sociometric status, selfactualization, and number of stated problems with respect to student nurses. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether group discussion will enhance sociometric status of student nurses, (2) to determine whether group discussion will positively affect self-actualization of student nurses, (3) to determine whether group discussion will lessen the number of stated problems of student nurses, and (4) to examine the group process and interaction of the group discussion sessions.
This study is designed to determine the degree to which female principals and vice-principals in Texas derive job satisfaction from their work and to identify those factors, both negative and positive, which affect the job satisfaction of these principals and vice-principals. A single questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. Usable questionnaires were returned by 331 vice-principals and 504 principals. These represented 336 school districts throughout the state. Respondents were compared as to their view of their overall job satisfaction, the importance assigned to intrinsic and extrinsic job facets, their satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic job facets, and the differences in facet satisfaction connected with various personal characteristics.
The purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the effect of levels of questioning used on secondary public school students in social studies, as measured by (a) their achievement scores, and (b) their critical thinking ability; 2. To determine the effect of feedback to student teachers on their patterns of asking convergent and divergent questions, as measured by coding frequencies of each type on an Observation Schedule and Record form? 3. To draw conclusions from the findings--and develop implications concerning levels of questioning used by teachers and the use of feedback from college supervisors to student teachers.
The purposes of this study were to determine whether brain growth spurts occur in normal pupils and to determine whether there was a uniform difference in head circumference between boys and girls. Subjects were 3,062 normal elementary pupils, grades one through six, from one suburban school district. Fiberglass measuring tapes were used to measure pupils' head circumference. The hypotheses of the study predicted that the relationship between head circumference and age would be linear. Further, it was predicted that the differences in head circumference between boys and girls would be uniform over seven specified ages. The first hypothesis was tested using a test for linear trend and deviation from linear trend using the General Linear Models procedure. The results indicated that there was a significant linear trend between head circumference and age. The test for deviation from the linear trend was not significant. This would suggest that any deviation from a straight line observed in the data can be attributed to chance. It was concluded that since there was no significant deviation from linear trend, it would suggest a continuous growth of the brain for the ages included in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the second hypothesis. The results indicated that the male mean head circumference was significantly larger than that of the female in all age groups. As the interaction of sex and age groups was tested, there was no interaction between sex and age groups. It was concluded that since the interaction between sex and age groups was not significant, there is no indication of differences in the rates of brain growth between boys and girls.
The problem of this study is to present a complete historical record of Henderson State College, Arkadelphia, Arkansas, from 1890 to 1970. The sources of data included public records, legislative acts, court decisions, reports, catalogues, bulletins, periodicals, newspapers, letters, minutes, yearbooks, files, official records, interviews, and histories of public education and higher education in the United States. Standard methods of historical research were employed in examining 'materials.. pertinent to the study.
The music of Béla Bartók is defined in part by its unique blend of rhythmic vitality and inventiveness, and his string quartets offer a glimpse into a consistency of technique evident throughout his compositional career. Bartók's rhythmic environments are primarily metrical, but many of his rhythmic configurations are placed in such a way as to potentially override established meter. It is necessary, therefore, to institute an analytical means by which the delineation and comparison of rhythmic structures both within and without the metrical context may be accomplished. An analytical method using Timepoint Accent Structures (TAS) allows for the comparison of rhythms resulting from patterns of accent produced by pitch onset, dynamic stress, articulation or any other accentual factors. Timepoint Grouping Structures (TGS) delineate the number of timepoints present in alternating groups/blocks in a texture, thereby allowing for the recognition of patterning created by these larger groups. By applying TAS and TGS analysis, relationships of rhythmic equivalency, rotation, retrograde, complementation, augmentation, diminution, subset, superset, exchange, compression and expansion are clearly confirmed in the string quartets. In addition, symmetrical structures and arithmetic progressions are discovered. In many ways, Bartók's rhythmic organization mimics his procedures of pitch structuring.
Because international students are an increasingly significant aspect in American colleges and universities and on the North Texas State University campus in particular, this study was undertaken to explore the intercultural clash which Thai students at North Texas State University experience. Twenty-two Thai students were interviewed in depth using the oral history method. Ten faculty and administrators who work with international students were interviewed concerning their observations of Thai students. The information gleaned from these thirty-two interviews and from an examination of the basic socio-cultural differences between Thailand and the United States resulted in the isolation of the following basic difficulties. 1. Thais do not have command of written and oral English. 2. Americans do not have an appreciation of foreigners and lack tolerance in everyday exchanges with them. 3. Thais avoid becoming involved in American society. 4. Thais are not efficiently prepared for the American classroom. 5. American instructors do not appear prepared to handle the problems of Thai students. The study also developed a number of suggested solutions: 1. Raise the consciousness of Americans concerning Thai students; 2. Provide more effective ways of improving oral and listening skills in the English proficiency of Thai students beginning with American-directed programs in Thailand and including a revamping of the Intensive English Language Institute; 3. Provide studies in American culture for Thai students which would require them to become acquainted with this society; 4. Develop in Americans an appreciation of foreign culture and an international awareness; perhaps even a formal international cultures program should be initiated; 5. Involve Thai students with Americans in crosscultural activities: encourage membership in campus organizations, invite them to speak at civic and educational occasions, develop the host family program; 6. Provide effective services for Thai students especially through the International Office; and 7. Set tuition and ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible events in the external environment between 1987 and 1997 that may affect the future of North Texas State University. Two groups of experts participated in the study, a group of individuals from outside North Texas State University and a group of experts from the university.
The problem of this investigation was to compare the perceptions of college environments held by college-bound high school seniors, their teachers, and their parents, from a specified geographical area with the perceptions of students actually experiencing the environments represented by these campuses.
The primary purpose of this study was the development of a model graduate program leading to a master's degree in physical education which could be used in Thailand and provide suitable guidelines for Thai colleges and universities interested in establishing such a program. A secondary purpose was to develop a systematic approach for student admission and a retention plan which would be compatible with the current trends and administration of higher education in Thailand. Following a review of the literature that included the history of general education, higher education, and physical education in Thailand as well as graduate study in physical education in the United States, a research instrument was devised to elicit responses from chairpersons of physical education departments in 156 U.S. institutions of higher learning and from a professional panel of five physical educators in Thailand concerning four aspects of master's degree programs in physical education: patterns and organization, curricular concepts, admission and retention requirements, and core course requirements. The return rate for the chairpersons surveyed in the United States was 85 per cent. The responses received from the U.S. and Thai professionals revealed a consensus between the two groups with regard to a number of the items in all four of the topic areas covered by the questionnaire. Based upon the survey results, guidelines were suggested for a model master's degree program in physical education in Thai colleges and universities. In addition, recommendations for further research were made, notably a review of master's programs in physical education in other countries which could provide valuable information for further modification of the model and systematic evaluation of the model program as implemented within a university setting.
The problem of this study was to determine through the use of taped media receptivity to dissonant or consonant information and to appraise those conditions which bring about change in attitude in light of dissonance theory.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of specific learning disabilities in school-aged hearing impaired children based on the proposed theoretical definition of the National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities (1981) and the theoretical definition constructed by the Canadian Association for Children and Adults with Learning Disabilities (1981). The operationalization of these theoretical definitions, coupled with the current operational definition issued by the Texas Education Agency (1983), formulated the investigative framework.
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