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Personality Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Female Undergraduates

Description: Research indicates the existence of an eating disorder continuum. The two-component model of disordered eating suggests that certain personality traits may increase an individual's vulnerability to develop more severe variants of disordered eating symptomatology. The present study investigates pre-clinical elevations on a measure of personality based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and pre-clinical elevations on a measure of eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of nonclinical undergraduates. The personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness accounted for 7% of the variability in Body Dissatisfaction. Subcomponents comprising the personality dimensions of the FFM as determined by Saucier (1998) (see Appendix A) were analyzed. The Self-Reproach and Intellectual Interests subcomponents were the strongest predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction. The subcomponent Sociability was the strongest predictor of Bulimia. Findings present implications for prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the temporal directionality of personality and disturbed eating.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Baker, Kristine Genovese

Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior

Description: The influences of family relationship variables on motivations for adolescent sexual risk-taking were investigated. Previous research has linked these variables to adolescent sexual behavior, however, the nature of these links has not been specifically examined. Family variables were operationalized as child attachment to mother, parental support of each other, parental conflict strategies, and parental monitoring. Emotional motivations were operationalized as attachment and affiliation needs. The sample consisted of 40 single females ages 18 to22 recruited from a local pregnancy care center. Predictions that parent-child relationship and parental influence would predict emotional motivations for sexual risk-taking were not supported. The variable most highly related to sexual risk-taking, though not included in the model tested, was father's destructive conflict strategies. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Barrett, Susan

Prevalence of Undiagnosed Dissociative Disorders in an Inpatient Setting

Description: This study examined the prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in a sample of 201 adult patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital in a major metropolitan city in the south-central United States, over an eight-month period. A screening measure, two blind structured interviews, and a blind clinical interview were employed. The lifetime prevalence of dissociate disorders among the interviewed subjects was 40.8%. More specifically, 7.5% were diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, 15.4% with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 13.4% with dissociative amnesia, and 4.5% with depersonalization disorder. Dissociative fugue was not found in this sample. Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were computed between the three interview measures, resulting in significant findings for the presence of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified versus no dissociative disorder. The Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were as follows: DDIS-DES-T = 0.81; SCID-D-DES-T = 0.76; Clinician-DES-T = 0.74, DDIS-SCID-D = 0.74; DDIS-Clinician = 0.71, and SCID-D-Clinician = 0.56. A meeting was conducted at the end of all subject interviews to discuss discrepant findings between measures. Four additional sub-analyses were performed between dissociative and non-dissociative subjects on DSM-IV variables. Patients diagnosed with a dissociative disorder had higher rates of comorbid major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, and childhood history of physical and/or sexual abuse. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed as they relate to these findings.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Duffy, Colleen

Client's Perception of Seeking Counseling as a Function of Counselor Ethnicity, Counselor Acculturation, Counselor Gender, and Client Gender

Description: Due to demographic shifts and efforts to recruit culturally diverse professionals, it is plausible that more Caucasians will encounter ethnic minority counselors in the future. Yet, the majority of multicultural literature has only emphasized Caucasian counselors' multicultural counseling competence. Research has rarely discussed how ethic minority counselors influence the perceptions of Caucasian clients. The research purpose was to explore how acculturation and gender of Asian and Caucasian counselors influence Caucasians' perceptions of the counselors and counseling services. With an analog research design, 562 Caucasian college students read 1 of 8 randomly assigned counselor descriptions, which were varied by counselor characteristics, and reported their perceptions on dependent measures: Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S), Working Alliance Inventory - Short (WAI-S) and 4 Willingness items. With the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help - Shortened Form as a covariate, 15 hypotheses were expected that Caucasians would prefer high-acculturated, same sex, and same ethnic counselors tested by simple contrast, while an exploratory question, investigating main and interaction effects among independent variables (counselor ethnicity, acculturation and gender, and participant gender) on dependent measures, was examined by MANCOVA and ANCOVA. Although only 2 of 15 hypotheses showed significance, the exploratory investigation revealed: Caucasian participants had a preference of high-acculturated counselors on CRF-S attractiveness, WAI-S and willingness to seek help. However, present data did not replicate the impression of similar ethnic matching in counseling dyads. On CRF-S expertness, Caucasian participants reported that Asian male counselors were perceived as more expert than Caucasian male counselors. For gender differences, the current finding showed that female participants were more willing to seek help for academic/career concerns, whereas male participants were more willing to discuss their somatic concerns. For the research implications, with appropriate trainings in multicultural counseling competence, both Caucasian and non-Caucasian counselors could become effective therapists. Counseling ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Liu, Huan-Chung Scott

The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

Description: Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between each of the older samples, but also that such connections were weaker among younger adults. These findings are important in revealing that sociocultural shifts in opportunities for continued cognitive growth influence the impact of noncognitive (personality) factors on intellectual functioning in later life. Limitations of the current study, implications of the results, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Date: August 2000
Creator: O'Brien, Dina Paige Ragow

Variations of the Hand Test with young and older adults

Description: To explore the influence that variations in projective stimuli might have on the respondent's ability to identify with pictorial representations of hands derived from the Hand Test (Wagner, 1961, 1983), 61 young adults (M age = 23) and 60 older adults (M age = 73) were presented with four alternate versions of hand stimuli (young male, young female, old male, and old female) in addition to the original Hand Test. Results indicated main effects for age and gender of respondent, which were primarily consistent with previous Hand Test research. Main effects for gender and age of hand stimuli (p < .05) were also found. Significant interaction effects were revealed for age of respondent by age of hand stimuli and for age of respondent by gender of hand stimuli (p < .05). These interactions resulted in the elicitation of a variety of responses to a differentiated manner than a standard set of Hand Test stimuli. A gender of respondent by gender of hand stimuli interaction effect was also found (p &lt; .05), suggesting that gender alterations of the card may also be beneficial for increasing respondent identification for some individuals. Overall, the results of variations in Hand Test stimuli, as they interact with respondent personal characteristics, indicate the utility of alternate versions of the Hand Test. This is based on the assumption that the respondent will identify with the hand that best resembles his/her hands, resulting in the stimulus performing its projective function to a greater extent.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Radika, Lisa M.