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A Study of Perceived Leadership Styles of Vocational Administrators within Two-Year Postsecondary Institutions in Texas

Description: This study investigated effects of selected demographic variables and styles of leadership on the self-perceived leader effectiveness scores of vocational administrators at two-year postsecondary institutions in Texas. Demographic variables were type of institution represented, teaching experience, age, trade experience, administrative experience in vocational education, highest degree earned, institutional enrollment and vocational enrollment. Seventy-eight administrators were mailed copies of the Leader Behavior Analysis II—Self (LBA) and a demographic questionnaire. The LBA contained twenty supervisory situations. Respondents were to select the alternative approach that most closely resembled action they might take. Scoring determined the respondents' primary leadership styles and leader effectiveness scores. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine if selected demographic variables or primary leadership style was significant in determining a difference in their effectiveness scores. Primary leadership style and degree held were significant in determining leader effectiveness scores at alpha .05. It was determined that 84 percent of the administrators completing the questionnaire preferred the supporting style. None of the administrators preferred delegating or directing styles. Recommendations included studies using the LBA with supervisors in associations serviced by the institutions to provide an understanding of relationships between the leadership style of the administrators of training institutions and those of the associations served. Additional studies should be done to ascertain any differences in the self-perception of the administrators' leadership style and perceptions of their subordinates. A final recommendation included the implementation of programs to assist administrators in the utilization of the broader situational leadership approach.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Schroeder, Charles Olin

Intimate Relationships of Adult Children of Alcoholics

Description: Difficulties developing and maintaining intimate relationships are often attributed to adult children of alcoholics (ACAs). However, the focus of the literature has been on those obtaining psychological treatment and has primarily involved clinical impressions. The purpose of this study was to examine intimacy in the close friendships and love relationships of ACAs. Autonomy and intimacy in respondents' families of origin were also analyzed. Comparisons were made between ACAs currently in (n = 59) and not in (n = 53) therapy, and comparisons who had (n = 48) and had not (n = 77) received therapy. Alcoholics were eliminated. It was hypothesized that ACAs would score significantly lower than comparisons on love and friendship intimacy and autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin. Among the ACAs, those in therapy would score lower than those not in therapy. Hypotheses were tested using MANOVAS. ANOVAs were administered where there were significant differences, and Newman-Keuls contrasts further delineated the divergence. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to obtain explanatory data. The two ACA groups seem to represent distinct populations with those not in therapy failing to report intimacy differences previously ascribed to them. While all of the groups were similar in friendship closeness, only the ACAs in therapy had significantly less intimacy in love relationships. Furthermore, clinical ACAs differed from the other groups by having less family of origin health, more physical and sexual abuse, more maternal drinking, more depression, and more suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Family of origin health predicted intimacy in a love relationship. Family characteristics encompassing honesty, empathy and respect, which may or may not involve alcoholism, seemed to create an atmosphere of faulty parenting in the ACA clinical group which may have subsequently affected the child's intimacy in a love relationship. Results of the study support a developmental model and ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Settle, Karen Ree

Government and Private Funding of Nonprofit Visual Arts Organizations in the State of Texas: An Analysis

Description: The problem addressed in this study is the administrative process and criteria used by nonprofit visual arts organizations in the State of Texas in acquiring government and private funding. The purposes of the study were to examine the organization and administrative process of the nonprofit visual arts organization, to determine the criteria utilized by government and private funding sources for distribution of funds to nonprofit visual arts organizations, and to examine the process used by nonprofit visual arts organizations when acquiring funds from government and private sources. The data were obtained by means of a descriptive survey questionnaire which was mailed to 336 selected nonprofit visual arts organizations in the State of Texas. These organizations represent the following six areas of visual art: foundations, galleries, museums, associations, photography, and schools. From these areas the population was further refined to include only museums and associations, which represent the extreme diversity of administrative processes used. The resulting subpopulation was comprised of forty-six organizations which had filed for grants from the Texas Commission on the Arts within the past three years. Thirty research questions were answered from the results of the questionnaire. Research questions one, and three through thirty were analyzed and presented in narrative discussion with the results. Categorical data were listed to show range. The second research question was analyzed using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. On the basis of the literature review and the survey responses received, an authentic problem exists in the funding process of these organizations. The organizations surveyed appear to recognize the funding problems, but the results of the study reveal that many have yet to develop effective and efficient strategies to solve several of these problems.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Howard, Maurine C. (Maurine Carroll)

Cross-Cultural Validity of the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which a non-verbal test of intelligence, the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI), may be used for assessing intellectual abilities of children in India. This investigation is considered important since current instruments used in India were developed several years ago and do not adequately reflect present standards of performance. Further, current instruments do not demonstrate adequate validity, as procedures for development and cultural transport were frequently not in adherence to recommended guidelines for such practice. Data were collected from 91 normally achieving and 18 mentally retarded Indian children, currently enrolled in elementary schools. Data from an American comparison group were procured from the authors of the TONI. Subjects were matched on age, grade, and area of residence. Subjects were also from comparative socioeconomic backgrounds. Literature review of the theoretical framework supporting cross-cultural measurement of intellectual ability, a summary of major instruments developed for cross-cultural use, non-verbal measures of intellectual ability in India, and issues in cross-cultural research are discussed, with recommended methodology for test transport. Major findings are: (a) the factor scales derived from the Indian and American normally achieving groups indicate significant differences; (b) items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 22 are biased against the Indian group, though overall item characteristic curves are not significantly different; (c) mean raw scores on the TONI are significantly different between second and third grade Indian subjects; and (d) mean TONI Quotients are significantly different between normally achieving and mentally retarded Indian subjects. It is evident that deletion of biased items and rescaling would be necessary for the TONI to be valid in the Indian context. However, because it does discriminate between subjects at different levels of ability, adaptation for use in India is justified. It may prove to be a more ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Parmar, Rene S. (Rene Sumangala)

A Descriptive Profile of Freshman Student-Athletes on a Division IAA University Intercollegiate Football Team for Consideration in General Administrative Decision Making Processes

Description: The purpose of this study is to identify which characteristics of student-athletes are most helpful in making administrative decisions about intercollegiate athletic programs, and then to develop a descriptive profile of a group of student-athletes at a particular university. Additional purposes include comparing these descriptive data with other group data and with perceptions of the same group of student-athletes by faculty administrators at the same university. Data were collected in four phases. First, a jury of three experts developed a list of student-athlete characteristics they believed to be helpful in making administrative decisions regarding those athletes. Next, information was gathered to develop a descriptive profile of a selected group of eighteen student-athletes based on the identified characteristics. Next, statistical comparisons were made with available data from other groups of students and from the eight Athletic Council members' perceptions of the study group. Major findings include the identification of useful characteristics, inconsistencies between student-athlete high school ranks in class and SAT scores, high scores in hostility, and accurate perceptions of student-athletes by Athletic Council members.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Gunn, Lindsey

Intramolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Phenoxyketenes and Intermolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Aminoketenes

Description: One objective of this study was to explore the intramolecular [2+2] cycloadditions of phenoxyketenes to carbonyl groups with isoflavones and benzofurans as target compounds. The other objective was to investigate the eyeloaddition reactions of rarely studied aminoketenes. The conversion of 2-(carboxyalkoxy)benzils to the corresponding phenoxyketenes leads to an intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition to ultimately yield isoflavones and/or 3-aroylbenzofurans. The product distributions are dependent upon the substitution pattern in the original benzil acids. The initial cycloaddition products, β-lactones, are isolated in some instances while some β-lactones spontaneously underwent decarboxylation and could not be isolated. The ketene intermediate was demonstrated in the intramolecular reaction of benzil acids or ketoacids with sodium acetate and acetic anhydride. It is suggested that sodium acetate and acetic anhydride could serve as a source for the generation of ketenes directly from certain organic acids. The treatment of ketoacids with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate provides a simpler procedure to prepare benzofurans than going through the acid chloride with subsequent triethylamine dehydrochlorination to give the ketenes. N-Ary1-N-alkylaminoketenes were prepared for the first time from the corresponding glycine derivatives by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine. These aminoketenes underwent in situ cycloadditions with cyclopentadiene, cycloheptene and cyclooctenes to yield only the endo -bicyclobutanones. The cycloheptene and cyclooctene cycloaddition products underwent dehydrogenation under the reaction conditions to yield bicycloenamines. A mechanism is proposed for this dehydrogenation involving a radical cation of the arylalkylamine. (N-Phenyl-N-methyl) aminomethylketene was also prepared and found to undergo an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type acylation to yield an indole derivative when prepared by the acetic anhydride, sodium acetate method. The in situ cycloaddition of N-aryl-N-alkyl aminoketenes with various imines was found to form predominately cis-3-amino-2-azetidinones. A mechanism involving a dipolar intermediate is provided whereby the structure of the intermediate is determined by both electronic and steric effects. The stereochemistry of ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Gu, Yi Qi