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Employed Stepmothers: Psychological Stress, Personal Adjustment, Psychological Needs, and Personal Values

Description: Employed and non-employed stepmothers were compared on four psychological dimensions: stress, adjustment, needs, and values. Employed stepmothers were hypothesized to experience greater stress, lower adjustment, different needs, and different values. Racial and race by employment status differences along these four dimensions were also addressed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Rila, Barbara A. (Barbara Ann)

Assessment of Visual Memory and Learning by Selective Reminding

Description: A test of free recall visual memory and learning was developed for the present study. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of the Visual Selective Reminding Test and the Verbal Selective Reminding Test for differentiating among groups of patients having memory impairments with organic etiologies. It was hypothesized that neurologically impaired patients would perform differently on the Visual and Verbal Selective Reminding Tests, the difference depending on the location of the underlying brain damage. Forty right handed male patients at a Veterans Administration hospital served as subjects. The patients were grouped according to the location of their brain damage; left hemisphere, right hemisphere, diffuse damage, and no brain damage. There were 10 patients in each group. Each patient was given the verbal and the visual memory tests in counterbalanced order and the Shipley estimate of intelligence.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cummins, Shirley Jean

Accuracy of Eyewitness Memory Under Leading Questioning: The Effects of Hypnosis and Anxiety

Description: Hypnosis has gained substantial support in the psychological community, as well as related health professions. The intense renewal of interest in hypnosis has also affected our legal-judicial system. Many police investigators trained in hypnosis operate from an exactcopy memory theory. They claim eyewitness eyewitness retrieve veridically stored memory traces from long-term memory, if questioned under hypnosis. Conversely, other researchers ascribe to a reconstructive memory theory. They believe hypnosis increases the likelihood of eliciting erroneous memories from eyewitnesses, especially under leading questioning. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the effects of hypnotic induction and anxiety on the accuracy of subjects' memory for eyewitnessed events when questioned with leading, non-leading, and embedded misinformation questions.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Atkins, Loy Keith, 1955-

Religious Inventory for the Assessment of Psychologically Healthy and Unhealthy Beliefs

Description: The problem concerns determining whether healthy and unhealthy religious beliefs can be distinguished. A 150 item Religious Beliefs Inventory (RBI) was developed to assess healthy and unhealthy religious beliefs. In a pilot study, RBI scales were developed and the MMPI-168 was used as the criteria measure. Fifteen of the 23 RBI scales yielded an average reliability of .79 and an average validity of .48 for 95 undergraduate university subjects. The present study seeks to cross-validate the results of the pilot study with a church-active sample. Six judges/pastors evaluated RBI items as healthy or unhealthy and their responses were used to formulate and validate the RBI scoring system. For the 196 church-active subjects, Hypothesis 1 is supported by eleven of the seventeen significant predicted correlations between the RBI and the validity criteria MMPI- 168, ranging from .14 to .28 with an average of .20. The average reliability of 15 RBI scales is .71. Hypothesis 2 is supported by five of eight significant predicted positive correlations between the RBI and the Rehfisch RI (Rigidity) scale, ranging from .18 to .25 with an average of .17. One or more of the following explanations may account for the absence of higher and more numerous significant correlations for support for Hypotheses 1 and 2 found in the present study: (a) the distribution of scores on 18 of 24 RBI scales are skewed to the right; (b) there are significant differences between characteristics of the pilot study undergraduate sample and the church-active sample participating in the present study; (c) there is a need to assess an individual's degree of involvement in his religious beliefs; (d) psychometric improvements are needed in the RBI; and (e) limitations of the validity criteria. In conclusion, although the RBI is not ready for clinical use, fifteen of the RBI scales appear ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Gardiner, Joseph R. (Joseph Rowe)

Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Description: In an effort to determine whether job satisfaction and expectations in a group of workers undergoing major change in the workplace differ from groups of workers not undergoing major change, data were collected from three groups of workers at the operator level in a major U.S. electronics manufacturing company. Two of the groups were not undergoing a major work redesign and served as control groups. A group undergoing the early stages of a major work redesign, characterized primarily by their formation into a self-managed work team, served as the experimental group. The experimental group and one control group were located at the same manufacturing plant, while the other control group was located at another plant. It was hypothesized that the group of workers undergoing change would differ in job satisfaction and that over time, the difference would grow. It was also hypothesized that the group undergoing change would have different expectations about the nature of their jobs in the future. Data were collected from members of the three groups using a modified version of Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey, with two administrations of the survey seven months apart. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Groups) X 2 (Perception: "Now" versus "Near Future") x 2 (Administration) factorial design, with repeated measures Oil the Perception variable. Results revealed a difference in job satisfaction between the groups, as hypothesized. Results also revealed that members of the experimental group did have a few expectations for the future not held by members of the control groups; otherwise, expectations differed very little between the groups. Explanations for these findings are offered. This study suggests that those charged with implementing major change in the workplace should keep in mind that they may not see dramatic reactions from workers asked to make major changes, at least ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cheney, Alan B. (Alan Bruce)

The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

Description: This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the fourth session. As anticipated, reduction in negative attributions did not precede or coincide with reduction in depression. It was not possible to determine the change in the attributional style of subject during the time period of this study. The results were discussed in terms of Bower's Associative Network Theory in which activation of mood facilitates the access to memories, behaviors, and interpretation of events which are congruent with the mood state.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Swenson, Carol

The Premenstrual Syndrome: Daily Stress and Coping Style

Description: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) continues to be an enigma for many: those women who report PMS, for professionals who attempt to treat premenstrual symptoms, and for researchers attempting to identify PMS and to compare treatments. The present study investigated the responses from 86 subjects between the ages 30-45 for their perceptions of daily stress and coping styles by PMS level. Three levels of PMS were formulated by subject responses to the questionnaire (a) PMS for scores within the criteria, (b) Non-PMS for scores lower than the criteria, and (c) Psy-Non-PMS for certain scores higher than the criteria with a psychological, or neurotic, profile. Hassle intensity (daily stress) and coping style, whether problem-focused (P) or emotion-focused (E), were assessed by questionnaire. In addition, help seeking behavior, i.e., whether a woman sought help from a doctor in the past twelve months, was examined but did not significantly relate to level of PMS, hassle intensity, or coping style. Psy-Non-PMS women reported perceiving significantly more hassles and significantly greater use of four of the E coping styles, Detachment, Focusing on the Positive, Self-blame, and Keep to Self, than the Non-PMS women. PMS women endorsed perception of significantly more hassles and significantly greater use of two of the E coping styles, Detachment and Keep to Self, than the Non-PMS women. These E coping styles are consonant with detached, avoidant, escapist, and self-deriding coping mechanisms, typical of depressed and anxious persons. There was some difficulty in differentiating the PMS group from the Psy-Non-PMS group. Only one coping style, Focusing on the Positive, was endorsed by the Psy-Non-PMS group significantly more than the PMS group. Further statistical analysis of the data could determine psychological/behavioral PMS subtypes as distinct from physiological PMS subtypes, providing more clearly defined PMS groups. Future research involving a carefully controlled study for determining ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Schulte, Murriel Ardath

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques

Description: Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lindberg, Cheryl Senf

An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

Description: Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not self-reflective), and person-oriented. They are more oriented toward relationship with their children and had felt dissatisfied with how their wives had cared for their children. Several overlapping characteristics of the Type I/II typology with Mendes1 seeker/assenter continuum are discussed. Limitations of the longitudinal adjustment data restrict the conclusions that can be drawn about differential adjustment of Types I and II. Comparisons with adjustment of other typologies suggest that extremes on the typology continuum are most at risk for problems in adjustment to the single custodial role. Implications for helping professions and future research are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Theurer, Gregory W. (Gregory Wayne)

Female Adolescent Runaways: Personality Patterns in Response to Physical or Sexual Abuse

Description: Personality patterns of sexually abused female adolescent runaways are compared to personality patterns of physically abused female adolescent runaways. Eighty-six female adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age completed a self report inventory to determine personality traits. To test the hypotheses of the study, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted, followed with univariate tests to find differences on separate dependent measures. Results indicated that on the Jesness Inventory there may be a common personality pattern associated with abuse. Univariate tests yielded data which indicated that although there may be a general personality pattern for abused adolescents, there were significant differences between the physically and sexually abused adolescents on some personality variables. Results were evaluated taking into account the selective sample from which the population was drawn. Recommendations for future research included the use of projectives, a more comprehensive personality inventory, and selected demographics.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Keefe, Carmen Kay

First-Time Parenthood: Attachment, Family Variables, Emotional Reactions, and Task Responsibilities as Predictors Of Stress

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore factors which are predictive of parenting stress for first-time parents. Based on attachment theory and empirical research, the factors investigated were the responsibility for child care and housework, the current and retrospective relationship with the family of origin, the change in emotions related to parenthood, the marital relationship, and attachment and individuation.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Abbott, Donna Christine

A Comparison of Counterconditioning and Role-Playing Strategies in the Hypnotic Treatment for Cigarette Smoking

Description: This study compared the relative efficacy of two different theoretically-derived strategies in the hypnotic treatment for cigarette smoking. The use of counterconditioning suggestions (present or absent) was compared to the use of role-playing suggestions (present or absent) in a two-way factorial design. Also investigated was whether there were any pretreatment variables which could predict successful long-term smoking control. Fifty adult chronic smokers were matched on the dimensions of baseline smoking rate, number of years smoking and number of previous attempts to quit smoking, then assigned to one of four treatment groups. All subjects were offered four sixty-minute group hypnotherapy treatment sessions over a three week period, with smoking rate assessed at the second, third and fourth sessions, and at one-month, three-months and six-months post-treatment. The two dependent measures of percentage reduction from baseline smoking rate and percentage of subjects in each treatment group remaining abstinent from smoking showed similar results. ANOVA procedures found a significant Time of assessment X Counterconditioning interaction, indicating that the use of counterconditioning suggestions facilitates the long-term maintanence of smoking control more than the use of role-playing suggestions or a "hypnotic relaxation" treatment using no specific suggestions. The demographic variables of increased age, having a smoking-related health problem, and being a "stimulation" type of smoker were found to correlate highly with successful long- term outcome and to correctly classify subjects as abstainers or nonabstainers the majority of the time.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Bowman, David Ross

Interpersonal Reactions to Bereaved Parents: An Exploration of Attachment and Interpersonal Theories

Description: The experiment examined negative social reactions to bereaved parents from unrelated others. Both the behavior displayed by the parent and attachment style of the perceiver were expected to influence reactions to bereaved parents. Undergraduates at a southern university (N = 239) completed both attachment measures and measures of reactions to videotapes of bereaved parents. Results indicated that bereaved parents do indeed receive negative evaluations from unrelated others, in the form of decreased willingness to interact in various roles. However, a nonbereaved parent displaying depressive symptoms also received negative evaluations. Depressed targets in the present study did receive negative evaluations, supporting the predictions of Coyne's interpersonal-process theory of reactions to depressed individuals. Contrary to the predictions of interpersonal-process theory, a bereaved parent displaying loss content without depressive symptoms also elicited negative evaluations. Coyne's hypothesis that the amount of induced negative affect in the perceiver leads to negative evaluations was not supported by the data. Subjects appear to react to a complex set of factors when forming these evaluations, including both personal and situational information. Two factors may have undermined the present study s ability to adequately test this theory. Subjects may have perceived depressive symptoms in loss content in the present study. Further, subjects may not have identified with the parent in the present study as anticipated. Research is necessary to identify the amount and focus of subjects' identifications with depressed and bereaved targets. Only minor support was found for the prediction that attachment style would be related to reactions to bereaved parents. Continuous measures of attachment style were related to amount of induced negative affect. However, grouping subjects by attachment patterns was not related to either induced negative affect or evaluations. The present study and previous research suggest the possibility that conceptually attachment may contain several components which relate to ...
Date: June 1990
Creator: Wilhite, Thomas R. (Thomas Ray)

Perceived Influence of Single-Parent Sexual Behavior on Quality of Parenting and Sexual Development of Offspring

Description: Double standard effects in inferences about quality of parenting and adult sexual outcomes for children were investigated under five conditions of single-parent sexual behavior. The sample comprised six hundred married parents from three major metropolitan areas in Texas. Subjects were administered a scenario about a hypothetical single parent family. The scenario varied with respect to parent gender, child gender, and type of parental sexual activity (e.g., abstinence, limited affairs away from home, involvement with a live-in lover, frequent partners spending the night, and a control condition containing no sexual message). Subjects were asked to rate a parent from the scenario on quality of parenting and predict the adult sexual behavior of the child. Hypothesized double standard effects did not emerge. A double standard in judgments about sexually active single parents and parenting did appear. Main effects were found for child gender and sexual lifestyle of the parent (e.g., parents with boys rated less favorably than parents with girls; promiscuous fathers were rated lower than promiscuous mothers). Several interaction effects among parent gender, child gender, and sexual lifestyle condition were also found (e.g., promiscuous parents were rated lower as parents and seen as negatively influencing the child's sexual development). Recommendations for future research include refining the two scales used in this study; extending the study to include data from single parents; examining whether the judgments of sexually active single parents affect the quality and quantity of interactions others have with either the parent or child.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Castillo, Michael G. (Michael George)

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille

A Psychometric Comparison of Bulimics With and Without a Prior History of Anorectic-Like Behavior, Normals, and Those Concerned About Weight

Description: Based on psychodynamic and object relations theories, 17 variables were proposed to be salient for those suffering from bulimia. In the present study four groups were compared: (a) bulimics with a prior history of anorectic-like behavior (FAB); (b) bulimics without a prior history of anorectic-like behavior (NAB); (c) a nonobese, nonbulimic group who evidenced excessive concerns about their weight (CAW); and (d) a normal control group (Control). Differences were predicted between both the bulimic and control groups as well as between both bulimic groups (FAB and NAB). Seventy-five women between the ages of 18 and 35 completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Eating Disorders Inventory, and Levenson's Locus of Control Scale. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance procedure revealed differences across the groups on 12 variables. Post hoc testing indicated that both bulimic groups differed from the control groups confirming the first hypothesis. Further, the bulimic groups were differentiated from each other in the predicted direction on 10 of the 12 variables, lending support for the second hypothesis. Overall, the results suggest a progression of psychopathology and clinical symptomatology. In order of decreasing psychopathology were the following groups: FAB, NAB, CAW, and Control groups. Also, a discriminant analysis procedure identified 11 variables which successfully differentiated among the FAB, NAB and nonbulimic groups. It was concluded that within the syndrome of bulimia a prior history of anorectic-like behavior was related to increased psychopathology and clinical symptomatology. A clear distinction between the syndrome of bulimia and occasional instances of bulimic behavior was also indicated. Lastly, results of this study seemed to rule out excessive concerns about weight as a factor related specifically to the bulimic syndrome. Limitations and alternative explanations for the results are discussed and suggestions for further research are put forth.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Segal, Jan David

An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

Description: This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective in creating a significant change in performance on the dependent measure. The results are discussed as support for the hypothesized differences between depressives and normals. Differences between the measures used in the present study and that of Crawford and Allen suggest that hypnosis may mediate imagery at a conceptual level but not at the level of the primary visual-perceptual system.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wilson, Lucy Erma

Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Description: The rationale for this study was based on the application of the cycle of domestic violence theory to elder abuse. It examined the effect of history of experienced childhood violence on tolerance, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors of elder abuse toward general and specific elderly targets. The effectiveness of educational interventions for altering tolerance and behavioral intentions of elder abuse was examined. Two hundred and twenty-five undergraduates were assessed for aging knowledge, general aging attitudes, aging anxiety, elder abuse attitudes, and elder abuse intentions and past behaviors. Participants were assigned to a High or Low Experienced Violence group and participated in an educational group or control group. Posttest and one-month followup measures were obtained. No differences were found at pretest between High and Low Violence. Level of Violence did not impact intervention efficacy. Elder abuse education altered attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of elder abuse at posttest significantly more than did aging education or control groups (p < .001), but these effects were no longer significant at followup. Elder abuse attitudes had higher relationships with elder abuse intentions and reported past behaviors than did global aging attitudes or aging anxiety (p < .05). General elderly targets yielded more tolerance, intentions, and reported past behaviors of elder abuse than did specific elderly targets (p < .001). Experienced childhood abuse was unrelated to elder abuse expression yielding no support for the role of cycle of violence in elder abuse. Specificity of target mediated elder abuse attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Primary prevention interventions which aim to reduce tolerance and intentions of elder abuse should include specific information on elder abuse; aging education is ineffective for this goal.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Reinberg, Julie A. (Julie Ann)

The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

Description: This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while injured, use of a stopwatch during training, or effort exerted in races. Overall, these findings suggest that an ability to perform under split-attention (dual task) conditions is positively related to aerobic fitness, a low-fat diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. In addition, Type A Runners differ from B Runners in some, but not all, aspects related to the Type A pattern, suggesting that aerobic exercise may modify to a limited extent the Type A behavior pattern. The failure to find A-B differences in attentional style consistent with prior research (Matthews & Brunson, 1979) or interaction of type and exercise ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Morton, Anne Aldredge

Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus

Description: The hypothesis was tested that meditation using an audible word-sound would be superior to silent repetition of the same word in producing decrements in autonomic arousal and improvements in anxiety, mood, and the ability to cope with stress. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility upon improvement was also evaluated. Thirty subjects, assigned to one of three groups: audible meditation, silent meditation, and relaxation control, met one hour weekly for six weeks to practice their respective technique and discuss their progress. All subjects were evaluated using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a medical symptom checklist, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, a self-rating of state anxiety, and factors C and Q4 of the 16PF. Finger temperature was taken as a measure of physiological arousal. Confidence ratings of the respective strategies were taken pre- and post-treatment.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Shaw, Patricia (Patricia Hyman)

Training and Practice Effects on Performance Attributions Among Non-Depressed and Depressed Older Persons

Description: Previous research examining the impact of training and practice effects on modifying performance of fluid intelligence tasks (Gf) and crystallized intelligence tasks (Gc) were extended to include self-rated performance attributions among non-depressed and depressed older persons. The following general questions were addressed. How does level of depression affect performance on Gf and Gc measures and performance attributions? How does level of depression and degree of benefit from either training or practice relate to changes in attributional styles? The framework used for predicting shifts in attributional styles was the reformulated learned helplessness model. Three hundred twenty-five community-dwelling older persons completed the Gf/Gc Sampler, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attributions for Success/Failure Questionnaire at pretest, posttest (one week), and follow-up (one month). Between the pretest and posttest sessions, subjects participated in one of three experimental conditions; (a) cognitive (induction) training, (b) stress inoculation training, and (c) no-contact control groups. The results from univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance procedures provided partial support for the hypotheses. At pretest, both non-depressed and depressed older persons had internal attributional styles, although based on differential performance outcomes. The depressed persons were found to have more failure experiences as a result of their significantly poorer performance on Gf tasks, versus the non-depressed. Specific Gf training effects were documented regarding attributional shifts for the non-depressed, while there were no changes on their attributional style due to practice on either Gf or Gc tasks. In contrast, only differential practice effects were documented for depressed subjects across Gf and Gc tasks. The importance of assessing personality dimensions in older persons and their xelationship to training and practice effects were discussed, in addition to limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Segal, Carolyn

Effects of Counselors' Smoking on Clients' Perceptions and Counseling Outcome

Description: This study investigated the impact of counselor smoking behavior upon nonsmoking clients' perceptions of therapists both during and at the conclusion of treatment. Clients' impressions when counselor smoking behavior was consistent across sessions and when counselors smoked in only the first or only the second interview were examined. In addition, the effect of therapists' smoking behavior on the outcome of counseling was assessed in two ways: changes in clients' career decisiveness and counselors' ability to influence client behavior. Eighty-two female undergraduates met with a vocational counselor for two sessions during which the counselor either smoked or refrained from smoking. Prior to the first interview, subjects completed the Behavioral Indecision Scale. Subjects then met and discussed their vocational concerns with a counselor. Following the interview, subjects completed the Counselor Rating Form and the California Occupational Preference System. The latter instrument, an interest inventory, was interpreted by the counselor during the second interview. The Counselor Rating Form and the Behavioral Indecision Scale were again administered following the conclusion of treatment. Data were analyzed by 2 (counselors) X 2 (conditions) X 2 (interviews) multivariate analyses with repeated measures on the third factor. No significant differences emerged for clients' perceptions when the counselors' indulgence in or restraining from smoking was constant from the first to the second sessions. Similarly, clients' impressions did not differ in relation to the inconsistency of counselors' smoking behavior from the first to the second interviews. In addition, subjects' compliance to a counselor initiated behavioral task and reported certainty of career choice were not differentially affected by counselors' smoking behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that it makes no difference in nonsmoking clients' impressions of therapists and in counseling outcome if the latter smoke during treatment. Suggested variables to further explore include the effects of counselors' smoking in brief and ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Stewart-Bussey, Elysabeth L. (Elysabeth Langfeld)

Childhood Fears and the Impact of Divorce and Remarriage

Description: Different family structures and levels of parental and financial stress were investigated in relation to children's overtly expressed fears, and secondarily, covertly measured fears and concerns. The family structures consisted of divorced and remarried families divided into those divorced less than two years and those divorced greater than two years. Intact families were used as the control group. One-hundred-twenty-one children from six to eleven years of age and their biological mothers from a semirural, southwestern town comprised the sample. The children were administered five instruments assessing overt fears, covert fears/concerns, and positiveness in family relationships. Mothers were given eight self-report measures which included a questionnaire, a report of their child's overt fears, and an indication of the positiveness in family relationships. Results indicated that the children of divorced, single mothers tended to report greater overt fears than remarried and intact families. Indications of covert fears of death and separation were also suggested. This was especially true for those single mothers divorced less than two years. Children of intact families did not generally differ from remarried groups although there were implications that remarriage too soon after divorce may impact covert fears as well as positive feelings toward the stepfather. Children of mothers reporting high levels of stress reported greater levels of overt fears than children of low stress mothers. Financial stress for mothers appeared to have greater implications for children's overt and covert fears than did parental stress. In contrast to the children of mothers reporting high levels of stress, mothers who reported low levels of stress tended to have children who reported fewer overt fears but greater covert fears and concerns. Recommendations for future research including adding parental measures to assess the coping styles as well as the effectiveness of such coping with divorce and remarriage, using different measures of ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Pickard, David C.

Type A Behavior Pattern: Its Relationship to the Holland Types and the Career Choice Process

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the Type A behavior pattern to Holland's occupational types and the career choice process. The Type A behavior pattern is characterized by high levels of achievement striving, time urgency, chronic activation and hostility, and is an independent risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. It was hypothesized that Type A college students would be more attracted than Type B individuals to aspects of a future work environment which would reinforce their Type A behaviors. Previous research had suggested a relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and Holland's Enterprising and Investigative types (Martin, 1986). This study sought to replicate those findings, and further examine the nature of the Type A/B-Holland types relationship. Data were collected from undergraduate students in a variety of academic fields of study. Subjects completed a questionnaire packet consisting of the student version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (Jenkins, Rosenman, and Zyzanski, 1965; Glass, 1977), the Vocational Preference Inventory (Holland, 1985b), and a modified version of the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (Rosen, et al., 1972) . The findings demonstrated that the Type A/B pattern is a significant factor in the career choice process. Type A's and Type B's had different levels of attraction to several aspects of a work environment in anticipating a career choice. The study also revealed that Type A/B pattern and the Holland types play separate roles in the career choice process. Implications of the study and future research directions are discussed.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Martin, Kyle Thomas