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Selected Structural Characteristics of Community Innovativeness: An Analysis of the Urban Development Action Grant Program

Description: This study is an investigation of the relationship between selected structural characteristics of the community and innovation among cities. Four major Structural characteristics were chosen to serve as independent variables. These independent variables were community differentiation, community poverty, community maturity and type of local government. Innovation, as measured by applicant status to the federal Urban Development Action Grant Program, served as the dependent variable. Analysis of the data indicated support for several of the postulated hypotheses. The structural characteristic community differentiation was found to be significantly related to applicant status. For the structural characteristic community poverty no significant relationship to applicant status was observed. Community maturity revealed a significant relationship to applicant status. Finally, for the structural characteristic local form of government a significant relationship with applicant status was observed. Based on the interpretation of the findings, an original typology of innovation was developed. This typology included planned revitalizing innovation, social enhancing innovation, entrepreneurial stimulating innovation, and needs inducing innovation.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Williams, Frank R. (Frank Robinson)

Futures-Forward Price Differences and Efficiency in the Treasury Bill Futures Market

Description: This study addressed two issues. First, it examined the ability of two models, developed by Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (CIR), to explain the differences between futures and implicit forward prices in the thirteen-week T-bill market. The models imply that if future interest rates are stochastic, futures and forward prices differ; the structural difference is due to the daily settlement process required in futures trading. Second, the study determined the efficiency of the thirteen-week T-bill futures market using volatility and regression tests. Volatility tests use variance bounds to examine whether futures prices are excessively volatile for the market to be efficient. Regression tests investigate whether futures prices are unbiased predictors of future spot prices. The study was limited to analysis of the first three futures contracts, using weekly price data as reported in the Wall Street Journal from March, 1976 to December, 1984. Testing of the first CIR model involved determination of whether changes in futures-forward price differences are related to changes in local covariances between T-bill futures and bond prices. The same procedure applied in testing the second model with respect to changes in futures-forward price differences, local covariances between T-bill spot and bond prices, and local variances of bond prices. Volatility tests of market efficiency involved comparison of mean variances on both sides of two inequality equations. Regression tests involved determination of whether slope coefficients are significantly different from zero.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wong, Alan, 1954-

Experience of Time as a Function of Locus of Control

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects that achievement and locus of control have on a person's ability to estimate the passage of time. The subjects were a group of 116 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Mountain View College. Achievement was measured by the grade obtained in the course, and the locus of control was measured by the individual's score obtained on the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Five different cutoffs were used to determine the locus of control orientation (internal/external). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. No significant differences between any of the groups were found.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Payton, Tommy O. I.

A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Naive Users in the Use of a Microcomputer System

Description: The problem addressed in this study is the need for efficient and economic methods to train naive college students to operate microcomputers as a necessary step in their acquisition of computer proficiency. Two methods of training were compared. These were training by live demonstration and training by videotape. These methods were considered economically viable because each could be presented in a classroom and neither required a one-to-one student-to-computer or student-to-tutor ratio. Four sections of an introductory computer science class were used in the study. Two classes were presented each treatment. The effectiveness of the presentations was measured by means of a written quiz administered immediately after the presentation and by the number of microcomputer system operation tasks successfully completed during an individual laboratory session. The computer anxiety level of each participant was measured prior to the presentation to determine if anxiety was a factor in finding the best training method. When scores of naive users who saw the videotape were compared with the scores of naive users who saw the live demonstration, no significant differences were found. However, when novice users (those who had some previous experience with operating or programming a microcomputer) were included, the group that saw the videotape scored significantly higher on the written quiz than the group that saw the live demonstration. A two by two analysis of variance showed no significant interactions between anxiety and treatment. User satisfaction was found to be significantly higher for the videotape group than for the live demonstration group. This study concluded with the recommendation that the Computer Science Department of North Texas State University utilize videotapes to train students in introductory classes to use a microcomputer system. This recommendation was based on the superior test results for naive and novice users who saw the videotape, the user satisfaction scores ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wallace, Susan Ree Heil

A Systematic Analysis and Critical Comparison of the Educational Provision for Students in Nigeria with the Available Educational Opportunity for Handicapped Students

Description: The problem of the study was the inadequate education of handicapped students in Nigeria. The primary purpose of the study was to develop a construct based on the United States models and research on special education, and to compare educational provisions for Nigerian students with the available educational opportunity for handicapped students. In order to achieve the stated objectives of the study, two methodological approaches were utilized: (1) Likert scale for opinion questionnaires, and (2) personal interviews. Both of these instruments included demographic information about the participants. The questionnaire was categorized into three areas (differences between educational opportunities for non-handicapped and handicapped students, formal learning opportunities for handicapped Nigerian students, and factors for being attentive or not being attentive to special education). The interview instrument focused on special education constraints, responsibility for special education provision, and improvement in education for the handicapped. Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were reached. 1. Handicapped Nigerian students do not have equal educational opportunities, as compared to non-handicapped students. Therefore, equal instructional opportunities should be provided for handicapped and non-handicapped students. 2. The federal and state governments of Nigeria should be financially responsible for special education. Therefore, the administration of special education must be taken over from private organizations. 3. Lack of funds, personnel and specialists, equipment, and adequate facilities hinders education for the handicapped in Nigeria. In order to improve education for the handicapped, therefore, the following provisions should be made: (1) build more schools, (2) train more specialists, (3) make funds available for special education, (4) provide more facilities and equipment, (5) intensify efforts in early detection of handicaps in children, and (6) educate parents on the importance of special education.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Ogunrinu, Thomas B. (Thomas Bode)

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille

A Comparison of Imagery Relaxation and an Educational Treatment Modality for Dysmenorrhea

Description: This study is a comparison of four treatments involving education and imagery relaxation for the amelioration of dysmenorrhea. Treatment was presented to 76 subjects by videotape during a one-hour session. A six month follow-up was performed using one of the original instruments, the Symptom Severity Scale (Cox & Meyer, 1978) and a questionnaire designed for the study. Analysis of the test instruments indicated a significant treatment effect for the educational group. The second most effective treatment was a combined treatment utilizing imagery relaxation and education, although this group did not produce significant results. The no-treatment control group was more effective in diminishing symptoms than the fourth group, imagery relaxation alone. The lack of effectiveness of the imagery relaxation treatment was hypothesized to be due to lack of reinforcement of the technique. The educational treatment modality offered the individual an opportunity to learn about many different etiological facets of dysmenorrhea, including biological, learning, and cognitive factors. The presentation also introduced the individual to several different treatment modalities in order to provide an armamentarium of effective methods for diminishing or eliminating dysmenorrhea. These results suggest that there is a need for education about dysmenorrhea before menarche, in order to prepare, prevent, treat, and cope with this syndrome.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Skewis, Sally Sweitzer

American Women Artists and the Female Nude Image (1969-1983)

Description: This research surveys ideology and iconology in the presentation of the autobiographical and biographical female nude as envisioned by American women artists in the painting, drawing and printmaking media from 1969 to 1983. Contemporary dialogue by critics, artists and feminists on the definition of feminine content led to the articulation of the undraped nude torso as the central icon of the study. This static icon was pushed through a variety of styles into multi subtleties of iconology. The female nude by women artists is autobiographical even in biography emphasizing self-identification and authenticity. General constraints were placed on the survey the definability or explicit articulation of the female torso as opposed to suggestive imagery, the time frame in which the nude was created, and the chosen media for study. Art historical methodology was employed to descriptively examine image and intent of the nude presentations in references through time as well as visual traditions of symbology. This survey began at the turn of the century for historical background to emphasize the greater proliferation of the nude from 1969 to 1983. There were limitations specifically associated with the earlier time frame (1900-1969)--the lack of art educational opportunities for the female student, the socio-political climate dealing with the acceptability of the nude, and a very general lack of attention from the publishing market towards women artists. Six artists were identified: Lillian Genth, Romaine Brooks, Margarite Zorach, Isobel Bishop, Louise Nevelson and Louise Bourgeois. The coalescence of socio-political circumstances around 1969, allowing for the greater incidence of the female nude occasioned the selection of 1969 as a perimeter of research. Within 19 69-1983 a greater number of artists and a far greater number of works were evident, seventeen in all, including Alice Neel, Marisol, Mary Frank, Nancy Spero, Joan Brown, Sylvia Sleigh, Martha Mayer Erlebacher, ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: McEwin, Florence Rebecca

Questions Used by Teachers with Skilled and Less Skilled Readers

Description: This study described the way teachers used questions with skilled and less skilled readers during reading instruction. The cognitive level and functions of questions were analyzed based on data collected through direct observation within the natural environment of the classroom. In addition, the patterns of questioning which included wait-time and sequencing of questions were identified and reported. Twenty sixth grade teachers randomly selected from a metropolitan school district were observed while instructing skilled readers and less skilled readers. Data collected during non-participatory observation of reading instruction through audiotape recordings, a low-inference observation instrument, and field notes were analyzed using the chisquare statistic, log-linear analysis, and descriptive statistics. Each question/response/response loop which occurred during the eighty observations was analyzed as to the cognitive level and function of the question, designation and wait-time of the student's response, the appropriateness, type, and length of the student's response, and the content of the teacher's response. Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions have been formulated. 1. Teachers use different cognitive levels of questions for particular functions as dictated by the specific needs and characteristics of the students in the skill level. 2. Although teachers ask the majority of questions at the cognitive-memory and convergent levels rather than the higher divergent and evaluative levels among both skilled and less skilled readers, the primary function is that of extending. It appears that teachers use questions as a way of encouraging student participation during reading instruction. 3. Among both skilled and less skilled readers, teachers practice a fast pace approach to questioning, waiting an average of one to two seconds for a response. 4. Paths of sequence for question/response/response loops are similar for both skilled and less skilled reading groups. The function of extending typically followed focusing and clarifying, demonstrating the teacher's apparent effort to ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Loring, Ruth M.

Effects of Citizenship Curriculum Training on Ninth-Grade Discipline-Problem Students

Description: This study was conducted to measure the effects of classroom instruction entitled Citizenship curriculum Training on high school discipline. Data for this study were collected and analyzed for fifty-eight ninth-grade students who had been referred to the principal's office three or more times the semester prior to the experimental treatment. An experimental group of twenty-nine students received citizenship curriculum instruction. The control group of twenty-nine students received only the school's traditional curriculum during second period class. Two teachers presented the citizenship curriculum training which included instructional units on beliefs, attitudes, emotions, anger, decision-making, communications, confrontation, positive attention, stress, peer pressure, authority figures, getting along in school, and the society game. Data were collected relative to grade-point average, absences, discipline referrals, and attitude toward high school as measured by the Remitters High School Attitude Scale. T-tests for correlated samples and analysis of covariance examined the effects of the Citizenship Curriculum Training on the four variables measured. The .05 level of significance was used to test the four hypotheses. The results of the study indicate that Citizenship Curriculum Training does not improve the students' gradepoint averages, absentee rate, lower the number of discipline referrals, and does not improve students' attitude as measured by the Remitters High School Attitude Scale. It is recommended that similar studies be conducted to address the problems of grade-point average, number of discipline referrals to the office, high absentee rate, and attitudes toward high school by teaching discipline students in small classes with a curriculum that aims at improving these specific problems. Future studies should collect the posttest data the first grading period following the experimental treatment to test for immediate results.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Pedraza, Antonio M. (Antonio Morales)

Communication and Conflict in Marital Dyads: A Personal Construct Approach

Description: A typology of marital dyads derived from Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Psychology was used to investigate the communicative behaviors of married companions. Four groups based on Kelly's Commonality (dyadic similarity) and Sociality (dyadic understanding) corollaries were contrasted: similar-understanding, dissimilar-understanding, similar-misunderstanding, and dissimilar-misunderstanding couples. It was expected that dyadic understanding would contribute more to self-disclosure, cooperative involvement, and marital satisfaction than dyadic similarity. Furthermore, it was anticipated that couples high in understanding and low in similarity would represent optimally functioning couples, as evidenced by disclosure, satisfaction, and involvement with each other. Sixty-three married couples who had known each other at least two years completed questionnaire items assessing demographic variables, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and self-reported communication behaviors (Partner Communication Inventory, Dyadic Disclosure Inventory). Each spouse also completed an 8 X 8 Repertory Grid and predicted the mate's responses on the Rep Grid. Subjects then participated in three different audio-taped discussion tasks (an informal conversation, a consensus decision-making task, and a role-played conflict-resolution scene) which were rated for avoidant, competitive, and cooperative responses, as well as overall self-disclosure. Although understanding facilitated disclosure in conflict situations and similarity fostered marital satisfaction, communicative behaviors generally reflected the joint influence of both similarity and understanding. Dissimilar-understanding couples were intensely involved with each other and freely disclosed, but were not highly satisfied. Similar-understanding couples were the most content and had the greatest sense of validation as a couple. Similar-misunderstanding couples restricted their relationship by attempting to avoid expected confrontations. Dissimilar-misunderstanding couples viewed themselves in a socially desirable light, tried to maintain congenial, nonintimate interactions, and were moderately contented. Implications for therapeutic programs, for Kelly's theory, and for future research were discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Loos, Victor Eugene

A Study of the Outcomes of Stress Management Training in Ministerial Programs of Higher Education

Description: This dissertation studies the outcomes that higher education courses and seminars in stress management have on the stress levels of pastors. It identifies stress level differences between a sample of pastors who have and who have not been trained in stress management. The instrument that was used to assess the levels of stress was the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The Inventory is a twenty-two item dual-rating instrument that measures the frequency and intensity of three aspects of the burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a lack of personal accomplishment. Demographic questions were used to determine the respondents' sex, age, education, and experience in the clergy. These questions were asked for descriptive purposes only. In addition, questions were asked that would determine whether or not the pastors had had stress management training.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Shirley, Philip E. (Philip Elwood)

The President's Role in Reorganization in Two Texas Metropolitan Community College Districts

Description: This study describes perceptions of the president's role in organizational change in each of ten colleges in two metropolitan community college districts. The purposes included (1) tracing major administrative reorganizations from the fall of 1975 to the spring of 1985, (2) ascertaining perceptions of the reasons for those reorganizations, and (3) obtaining perceptions of the role of the president in those reorganizations.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Norton, Joe Lee

British Pastoral Style and E.J. Moeran's Fantasy Quartet: A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of J.S. Bach, B. Britten, L. Foss, G. Handel, A. Marcello, E. Rubbra, C. Saint-Saens, and Others

Description: British musical style changed dramatically after 1880 primarily due to factors which may be subsumed under the general heading of nationalism. This change from an essentially Germanic style has been termed the British musical renaissance by many writers on the subject. Within this new musical language, several distinctive substyles arose. One of these, British pastoral style, has been alluded to by Frank Howes and others, but these allusions do not contribute to an understanding of the works purportedly belonging to that style. It is the purpose of this study to define British pastoral style and examine its relation to the British musical renaissance. The method employed for defining style will be that of Jan LaRue's as described in his Guidelines for Style Analysis. What is British pastoral style? Judging from the literature, British pastoral style is a type of British music written between 1900 and 1950 which evokes pastoral images, especially those associated with the British landscape. A stylistic analysis of selected works will define British pastoral style through enumeration and discussion of the style's musical constituents. A more refined definition of British pastoral style is achieved by an in-depth analysis of E. J. Moeran's Fantasy Quartet, which represents a large portion of British pastoral music, that is, works featuring the oboe. Finally, an examination of British pastoral style's relation to the British musical renaissance will reveal reasons for this particular manifestation of British musical style.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Perkins, Tedrow Lewis

Effects of Adlerian Parent Education on Parents' Stress and Perception of Their Learning Disabled Child's Behavior

Description: This study examined the effects of an Adlerian-based parent education program on parental stress and perception of Learning Disabled (LD) childrens' behavior. Forty parents, randomly assigned to treatment or waiting-list control groups, took the Parental Stress Index (PSI) and the Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Rating Scale (APACBS) as pre and post tests. Parents in the treatment group attended a six-session Active Parenting program. No significant differences were found on the analysis of covariance for perceived parental stress following the parent education program. Seventy percent of the parents in this study had total PSI scores in the range defined as high stress by the PSI author. All of the PSI Child Domain pretest z scores were elevated indicating that parents perceive their LD children to be demanding, moody, distractible, and unadaptable. LD children's behavior is perceived as unacceptable and does not positively reinforce parents. The elevated z scores on the PSI parent Domain pretest indicate that parents of LD children feel less competent as parents and experience less attachment to their children than do parents of normal children. No significant differences were found on the APACBS following treatment, but 80 percent of the parents in the treatment group did perceive some positive behavior change. A positive correlation was found between the PSI and the APACBS indicating that perceived parental stress and child behavior are related. Parents identified 67 perceived stresors of raising LD children on a questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that parents of LD children perceive themselves to experience greater parenting stress than parents of normal childrenn. This perceived parental stress was not reduced and perception of children's behavior was not improved after participation in the Active Parenting program. Therefore, parent education groups for parents of LD children may need to be smaller, provide more time ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Latson, Sherry R. (Sherry Rose)

A Comparison of Achievement in Technical Drawing of Students Enrolled in the Nigeria Certificate of Education (Technical) at the Kaduna Polytechnic, Kuduna, Nigeria

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement mean test scores in Technical Drawing of students enrolled for the NCE (Technical) program at the College of Science and Technology, Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. Test score means were compared between direct and remedial (preparatory) entry students and secondly among type of high school attended. Data were collected directly from students' permanent records. Two major hypotheses with three sub-hypotheses for each were tested. The first major hypothesis compared direct and remedial entry students. The second major hypothesis compared among three types of high schools attended. The One Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. The Duncan Multiple Comparison Test was also applied on the second major hypothesis. Both hypotheses I and II were retained at the .05 level of significance. However, hypothesis I was rejected at the .01 level of significance because the remedial entry students were found to have higher mean test scores than the direct entry students. Findings for hypothesis II indicated no significant difference among type of high school attended. It was recommended that selection for admissions for both the remedial and direct enrollments should not be based only on type of high school attended or type of subjects taken; data collected for remediation should bear directly on individuals' academic problems; and aptitude tests should be conducted in addition to transcripts currently demanded.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Maiyaki, Joseph Y. (Joseph Yakubu)

An Examination of Two Sextets of Carlos Chávez, Toccata for Percussion Instruments and Tambuco for Six Percussion Players

Description: This lecture-recital deals with the two percussion sextets of Carlos Chavez. Each of the compositions is analyzed by examining compositional characteristics and performance problems. The selection, substitution, and construction of the necessary instruments for performance are explored. Suggestions for stage set-up are also included. The percussion ensemble has become an integral part of most high school and university percussion programs. Much of the literature composed for this medium has not become part of the standard literature. Chlvez's Toccata has obtained its place in the literature—it is one of the most often performed percussion works in the world. Although Tambuco has not yet attained the same status as Toccata, it is, nevertheless, an important contribution to the literature. An attempt is also made to identify the significance of these works by examining some of the early influences on Chavez's compositional style both from his native Mexico, and from other composers writing for percussion ensembles.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Peterman, Timothy J. (Timothy James)

The Perceptions of Public School Principals in the State of Texas Concerning Selected Court Decisions

Description: The problem of this study was to determine the extent of agreement or disagreement by public school principals in the State of Texas with fifty selected court decisions. The population of the study consisted of all the public school principals in the State of Texas. From this population, a subject of 600 potential respondents was chosen for participation in the study upon the recommendation of the doctoral advisory committee using a random sampling technique. The instrument used in this study was a law questionnaire that was developed in conjunction with Dr. Roosevelt Washington of North Texas State University. The first part of the law questionnaire requested background information from the respondents which was used for the independent variables of the study. The second part of the law questionnaire contained fifty summarized court decisions to which principals were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Nwanne, Andrew Ihielu

Texture in Selected Twentieth-Century Program Music for Trumpet and Organ, A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of J. Alain, J.S. Bach, G. Bohm, N. Degrigny, H. Distler, M. Durufle, J. Guillou, A. Heiller, W.A. Mozart, E. Raxache, M. Reger, L. Vierne

Description: This dissertation is concerned with the relationship between the trumpet and organ in twentieth-century music for this ensemble and how that relationship effects performance with regard to organ registration and synchronization. The compositions discussed include "The Other Voices of the Trumpet," by Daniel Pinkham (1971); "Jericho: Battle Music," by William Albright (1976); "Three Pictures of Satan," by Jere Hutcheson (1975); and "Okna," by Petr Eben (1980). The theoretical writings of Pierre Boulez, Robert Erickson, and Donald Cogan deal with developing a contemporary concept of texture. This dissertation applies their theory that texture exists in two dimensions: vertical and horizontal. Stratification and blending of timbres comprise the vertical dimension. The succession of textures, governed by tempo, creates the second dimension. Chapter I provides an historical setting for the genre, introduces the theory of Boulez, Erickson, and Cogan, and supplies the programmatic content of the four works chosen for analysis. In Chapter II , the vertical elements of texture in these four works are isolated and examined. Chapter III deals with Pierre Boulez's theory that the succession of textures, governed by tempo, shapes the work. Each work is examined with regard to tempo, either mobile (fluctuating) or fixed. In Chapter IV the analysis is related to performance. Stratified textures, fused ensemble timbres, and their horizontal progression present problems for the ensemble in organ registration and synchronization. There are general guidelines given for registration as well as specific registration problems encountered in stratified textures and fused ensemble timbres. Synchronization, or coordination of events is the second challenge presented by the horizontal progression of textures.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Howard, Beverly A. (Beverly Ann)

Competencies Required for the Design and Implementation of Manufacturing Systems for Advanced Composite Structures

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of identifying and prioritizing the competencies required to design and implement manufacturing systems for advanced composite structures. The classical Delphi procedure is the research method used for the conduct of this study. A five-member advisory board developed a list of seventeen categories under which the competencies would reside. In the first-round questionnaire, the seventeen categories were presented to a Delphi panel of experts who provided up to five competencies required in each category. The first-round returns provided two new categories and 973 competency statements. Duplications were eliminated and 366 competency statements remained in nineteen categories. The second, third, and fourth rounds were a reiterative rating process. The panel was asked to rate the items in the questionnaire based on their relative importance to the intent of the study. The importance rating scale included "very important," "important," "slightly important," and "unimportant." The means and interquartile ranges were calculated for each statement and provided as feedback in the successive round. Kendall's coefficient of concordance W for tied ranks was used to validate the panel consensus. The W was significant at the .01 level for each of the three rounds where rating was performed. The data were presented in rank order within categories by importance level. Eighteen percent of the competency statements were rated "very important," 77 percent "important, and 5 percent "slightly important." No statements were rated "unimportant" by the panel. It was concluded that, as indicated by the 19 categories and 366 competencies, the scope of the requirements for designing and implementing manufacturing systems for advanced composite structures represent a broad range of knowledge and skill requirements. The breadth of the range of the requirements indicated the need for the development of areas of specialization within the subject field to adequately ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Lange, Robert Douglas

The Characteristics and Properties of the Threshold and Squared-Error Criterion-Referenced Agreement Indices

Description: Educators who use criterion-referenced measurement to ascertain the current level of performance of an examinee in order that the examinee may be classified as either a master or a nonmaster need to know the accuracy and consistency of their decisions regarding assignment of mastery states. This study examined the sampling distribution characteristics of two reliability indices that use the squared-error agreement function: Livingston's k^2(X,Tx) and Brennan and Kane's M(C). The sampling distribution characteristics of five indices that use the threshold agreement function were also examined: Subkoviak's Pc. Huynh's p and k. and Swaminathan's p and k. These seven methods of calculating reliability were also compared under varying conditions of sample size, test length, and criterion or cutoff score. Computer-generated data provided randomly parallel test forms for N = 2000 cases. From this, 1000 samples were drawn, with replacement, and each of the seven reliability indices was calculated. Descriptive statistics were collected for each sample set and examined for distribution characteristics. In addition, the mean value for each index was compared to the population parameter value of consistent mastery/nonmastery classifications. The results indicated that the sampling distribution characteristics of all seven reliability indices approach normal characteristics with increased sample size. The results also indicated that Huynh's p was the most accurate estimate of the population parameter, with the smallest degree of negative bias. Swaminathan's p was the next best estimate of the population parameter, but it has the disadvantage of requiring two test administrations, while Huynh's p index only requires one administration.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Dutschke, Cynthia F. (Cynthia Fleming)

The Eosinophil and Lysophospholipase Responses in Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis: A Role for the Lymphocyte and Macrophage

Description: The relationship among eosinophils, lysophospholipase activity and the immune response in animals infected with Trichinella spiralis was studied using in vivo and in vitro techniques. In an in vivo experiment, anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) was administered to mice infected with T. spiralis and its effects on intestinal lysophospholipase (EC 3.1.1.5.) activity, peripheral blood, bone marrow and intestinal eosinophilia were measured in the same experimental animal. The ATS caused a significant temporally related suppression of both the tissue lysophospholipase response and eosinophilia, in all three compartments. These findings support the hypothesis that parasite-induced eosinophilia is the cause of the increased lysophospholipase activity of parasitized tissue and that the responses are thymus cell-dependent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the eosinophil was the primary inflammatory cell source of lysophospholipase among eosinophils, neutrophils macrophages and lymphocytes. The role of other cells and antigen in the production of the enzyme by the eosinophil was also investigated in vitro• Results demonstrated that eosinophils cultured with both T. spiralis antigen and other leukocytes yielded enzyme activities significantly greater than eosinophils cultured alone or with only antigen. More specific experiments showed that T-lymphocytes were the cells responsible for influencing the eosinophils' lysophospholipase activity in the presence of antigen, and that their influence was enhanced by the presence of macrophages. These results suggested that increased lysophospholipase activity present in parasitized tissue was not only due to increased numbers of eosinophils infiltrating parasitized tissue but was also due to each eosinophil synthesizing more of the enzyme. The necessity for antigen and other cells suggests a role for cell cooperation in the production of the enzyme, specifically T-lymphocytes and macrophage interaction with the eosinophil. A lymphocyte soluble factor collected from sensitized lymphocytes stimulated with specific antigen or concanavalin A was found to enhance the eosinophil lysophospholipase activity when added to cultures of ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Adewusi, Iyabode Olukemi, 1958-

Relationships Between Student Alienation in the Secondary School and Student Attitudes Toward Selected Factors in the School Environment: An Exploratory Correlational Study

Description: The problem of this study was to identify relationships which might exist between variables measuring alienation feelings in high school students and variables measuring attitudes exhibited by those students toward the school environment. Mackey's Adolescent Alienation Scale was used to obtain student scores on three dimensions of alienation—Personal Incapacity, Cultural Estrangement, and Guidelessness. The Minnesota School Attitude Survey (MSAS) was used to obtain scores on attitudes toward factors in the school environment: School Curriculum, Self at School, Others at School, Support Received at School, Pressure at School, and Personal Development at School. Pearson Product moment correlations were computed for each dimension of alienation and the attitude clusters. Correlations were computed for each of nine statistical subgroups which comprised the sample group of 294 students— ninth-, tenth-, eleventh-, and twelfth-grade subgroups, male and female subgroups, and Anglo, Black, and Hispanic subgroups. Students in the population for the study were enrolled in a traditionally-organized, comprehensive curriculum, racially-integrated urban high school in a large-city public school district. Findings revealed that the single most influential environmental factor related to student alienation in this study was a feeling of pressure in the school setting. Pressure was related directly both to feelings of Personal Incapacity and to feelings of Guidelessness. Also, the greater students' feelings of Personal Incapacity, the less pleasant (more unpleasant) they felt their experiences were with the curriculum, themselves, and others at school. Alienation in the sense of Cultural Estrangement was related strongly and inversely to personal growth and development experiences at school. Feelings of Guidelessness were associated inversely with both students' attitudes of pleasantness/unpleasantness and their attitudes of importance/unimportance toward the school curriculum, themselves, and others at school. It is recommended that studies be conducted to determine specific learning activities, school experiences, and organizational processes which can reduce effectively students' feelings of ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: MacQuigg, Georganna

Consistency in Lattices

Description: Let L be a lattice. For x ∈ L, we say x is a consistent join-irreducible if x V y is a join-irreducible of the lattice [y,1] for all y in L. We say L is consistent if every join-irreducible of L is consistent. In this dissertation, we study the notion of consistent elements in semimodular lattices.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Race, David M. (David Michael)