UNT Libraries - 180 Matching Results

Search Results

Chronic Alterations in Joint Flexibility Associated with Aerobic Dance Instruction of College Age Females

Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if three selected aerobic dance related conditions would result in chronic alterations of flexibility of college women and (2) to compare flexibility measures of college age females during a semester of aerobic dance instruction. Subjects were sixty-three college women enrolled in aerobic dance, bowling, and archery classes. Eight flexibility measures were obtained during the third and eleventh weeks of the experimental period. Data were analyzed by a factor analysis the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and eight oneway analyses of covariance. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) a program of aerobic dance alone is not sufficient to promote flexibility, and (2) supplemental flexibility activities of ten minutes duration used with aerobic dance training are beneficial in increasing hip flexion.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Cooper, Melisa Lynne

A Comparison of Three Selected Exercises in Building Abdominal Strength and Endurance in Upper Elementary School Girls

Description: This study compares the effectiveness of three selected exercises (curl-up, conventional hook sit-up and modified hook sit-up) in building abdominal strength and endurance in upper elementary school girls. Ninety-nine subjects were randomly divided into four groups. The study was designed to determine (1) whether an eight week exercise program can increase abdominal strength and endurance; (2) the most effective exercise; (3) if muscle action intensity affects the results. A cable tensiometer measured abdominal strength and a timed sit-up measured abdominal endurance. An analysis of covariance determined significance. Significant gains in abdominal strength and endurance were shown by the conventional hook sit-up. Further study on the relationship between muscle development and maturation in young children is recommended.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Hemsell, Joyce

The Establishment of Norms for Two Selected Tennis Skills Tests at North Texas State University

Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to establish validity and reliability for a modified service test, 2) to determine male and female norms for the service test, and 3) to establish norms for the Kemp-Vincent Rally Test. Subjects were 677 students enrolled in beginning and intermediate tennis classes at North Texas State University, Denton, Texas. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance to establish reliability. Norms were established by converting raw scores to normalized standard T-scores. Conclusions of the investigation were 1) the modified service test is valid and reliable, and 2) there is a need for separate male and female norms when the skill is governed by strength.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Avery, Cathy Ann

A Comparison of Perceived Exertion Ratings of Aerobic Dance and Treadmill Performances Among College Age Males and Females

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare ratings of perceived exertion of aerobic dance and treadmill performances under equal work loads and to compare ratings of perceived exertion by males and females in aerobic dance and treadmill work. Subjects were twenty-six college men and women in co-educational conditioning classes. Heart rates were monitored after work bouts and perceived exertion was determined using Borg's RPE scale. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were: (1) aerobic dance is perceived as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal work loads, and (2) males and females perceive aerobic dance as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal energy bouts.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Walker, Nancy D.

Survey of Non-Triple Option and Triple Option Football Formation Success in Class AAAA Texas High Schools from 1968 to 1975

Description: This study was designed to survey the 239 Class AAAA high schools in Texas from 1968 to 1975. The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in the number of wins of non-triple option and triple option teams. A Tukey t test was computed on the data received from the Class AAAA schools to determine if a significant difference existed. Computation of data revealed that in no year was there a significant difference in the number of wins of non-triple option and triple option teams. The conclusion of this investigation is the type of offensive football formation does not significantly affect the prospects of winning or losing games.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Poteet, Don

Study of the Programs of Professional Preparation in Physical Education Colleges in India; Comparison of the Programs with the Recommendations Made by a National Conference on Professional Preparation in Health Education, Physical Education and Recreation Education, Washington, D. C., 1962

Description: Data were obtained through the syllabi and the questionnaires returned by the head of physical education institutes in India. From a total of thirty-seven questionnaires sent, sixteen were returned representing fourteen different institutions. The programs in India showed some diversity among the institutions regarding the length of time required to complete the courses and minimum qualifications prescribed for admission to the program. The programs did not meet the recommendations of the conference either in length or content. The newer programs more nearly met the recommendations.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Quraishi, Abdul S.

Male Attitudes Toward Sport Participation by Females

Description: This investigation was designed to determine if attitudinal differences toward involvement of females in athletic competitions existed between males when age, education, and sport backgrounds were considered. Subjects were 186 male employees of Air Products and Chemicals, Incorporated and the City of De Soto, Texas, and students at North Texas State University. A fifty-one item attitude inventory developed by the investigator was the instrument utilized in the study. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance. Conclusions of the study were that males of various ages, educational levels, and sport backgrounds do not differ in their attitudes and possess favorable opinions toward female sport participation, Males with nonactive sport backgrounds were more favorable than males with active-semiactive backgrounds when spectators at female sport events.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Hibbard, Jeana E.

Comparison of the Personalities of Non-Injured and Injured Female Athletes in Intercollegiate Competition

Description: This study was designed to determine if differences exist between the personalities of injured and non-injured athletes, injured and non-injured athletes in individual sports, and injured and non-injured athletes in team sports. Subjects were forty-three female athletes selected from six intercollegiate teams. The test instrument was the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that the personality of injured athletes does not differ from the personality of non-injured athletes, that non-injured athletes in individual sports are more self-assured than non-injured athletes in team sports, and that the personality of athletes in team sports does not differ from the personality of athletes in individual sports.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abadie, Deborah A.

A Cinematographic Comparison of Two Long-Hang Kip Techniques on the Horizontal Bar

Description: This study used cinematography to determine differences in velocity, acceleration, moments of force, and body centers of gravity in four different positions of two techniques of the long-hang kip. Three female gymnasts performed five attempts of each technique: the traditional method, with an arch in the lower back at the end of the forward swing, and approximate shoulder angle of 180 degrees or more; and the newer method, with no arch in the lower back and approximate shoulder angle of 90 degrees or less. Three. USGF-rated judges scored the kips, and due to inability to distinguish between the two techniques, two subjects were eliminated. Major differences occurred in the swing extension, with the newer technique producing more velocity and a higher center of gravity throughout the movement.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Cox, Pamela S.

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming

A Kinematic Analysis of the Baseball Batting Swings Involved in Opposite-Field and Same-Field Hitting

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine selected mechanical factors involved in hitting a baseball to the same and opposite fields. Special emphasis was placed on an identification of those factors which distinguish players of different hitting abilities. Twenty male college level baseball players, ten in each of two groups, hit six pitched baseballs, three each to two assigned areas of the playing field. The movement patterns for the opposite field and same field batting swings appeared to be similar in form with differences between the two swings due to (a) differences in the angular displacements at the left wrist and left elbow joints and (b) differences in the temporal characteristics.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Pfautsch, Eric W.

The Relationship of Self Concept to Participation in Extra-Curricular Activity Among Fourth Grade Children

Description: This study attempted to determine the relationship between self concept and participation in extra-curricular activity: specifically, whether self concept differentiates between participants and nonparticipants and whether self concept scores differed between male and female participants. Sixty fourth graders were assessed on self concept by the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale. Participation or non-participation was determined by written parental response. Analysis of variance was used, with level of significance at .05. There was no evidence that participants can be distinguished from non-participants on measures of self concept. Scores on self concept did not differ for males and females.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Campbell, Kelli M.

A Factor Analysis of Twelve Selected Resistance Exercises on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to clarify strength factors using 12 selected exercises on the Universal Gym, and to determine what measures present a valid method of assessing strength of college-aged males, Eighty-eight males enrolled in beginning weight-training classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks, Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 12 exercises, Alpha and canonical factor analyses were performed on raw scores of all measures, and on scores when body weight and standing height variances were removed. A three-factor structure of upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk strength was revealed when weight, and weight and height combined were statistically controlled. Results showed that residualized scores of weight can be used to evaluate strength on the Universal.Gym,
Date: August 1980
Creator: Watkins, Mark Edwin

The Effects of Anxiety on the Performance of Collegiate Golfers in Competitive and Non-Competitive Situations

Description: The purposes of the study were to provide additional information concerning the relationship of Competition Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Performance in collegiate golfers under non-competitive and competitive field settings. Subjects were thirty college males. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) low-Competition-Trait-Anxious golfers performed better and exhibited lower levels of state anxiety than high-and moderate-Competitive-Trait-Anxious golfers in competitive and non-competitive settings; (2) collegiate golfers exhibit higher levels of state anxiety in competitive versus practice settings; and (3) there was a significant relationship between SCAT and pre-competitive state anxiety.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Genuchi, Marvin C.

The Effects of Relaxation and Imagery on Karate Performance

Description: The present investigation attempted to determine whether imagery combined with relaxation (VMBR) facmlitated karate performance more effectively than either imagery or relaxation alone. Each subject (N=30) was randomly assigned to either a VMBR, relaxation, imagery or placebo control condition. Trait anxiety tests were administered at the beginning and the end of the six week test period. Performance tests were administered at the final class period along with precompetitive state anxiety. Trait anxiety results indicated a reduction in trait anxiety for all groups. State anxiety results indicated that the VIYBR and relaxation groups exhibited less state anxiety than the imagery and control groups. Performance results produced a main effect only for sparring with the VMBR group exhibiting better performance than all other groups.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Seabourne, Thomas G.

Psychobiological and Pacing Characteristics of Field Tested Endurance Performance

Description: This study investigated the psychobiological and pacing characteristics of the 1.5 mile run. Sixty-six males (18-27 years) performed the run, and were monitored for ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate and split times. The perceived exertion values increased in a near-linear fashion inconsistent with other measures, and thus are not considered a supportable indicator of physiological performance during the run. Pace was characterized by an initial sprint that slowed to a near-steady pace and concluded with a final sprint. The initial and final sprints were most highly related to the variance of performance time. Initially, heart rate accelerated greatly. This acceleration slowed, ending in near-maximum heart rates. The data suggested that performance may rely heavily upon anaerobic mechanisms, and that variance in previously reported correlational analyses of VO2max and 1.5 mile run performance times may be somewhat due to anaerobic mechanisms.
Date: May 1981
Creator: LaCroix, James Scott

A Study Comparing the Effects of Organized and Nonorganized Play on the Self-Concepts of Five, Six and Seven Year-Old Children

Description: This study investigated the self-concepts of five, six, and seven year old children after participation in organized and nonorganized play programs. The subjects were sixty boys and girls participating in Little League Tee-Ball programs and sixty boys and girls participating in the City Playground Program in the Fort Worth, Texas, area during the 1979 spring and summer season. The instrument used to measure self-concept was the Purdue Self-Concept Scale, Results indicated that the type of organization has little effect upon the self-concept of the children in this study.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Perry, Kaye

Effects of Age, Fitness Level, and Exercise Training upon Autonomic Control of Heart Rate

Description: In this study the effects of age (18-55 years), differing levels of fitness (VO 2max ranging from 35.5 to 68.8ml.kg-1.min-1) and endurance training (10 weeks) on heart rate control were investigated. Fitness level was initially determined by a VO2max stress test, succeeded by cold hand and cold face pressor test of autonomic activity. Following these baseline measurements, the subjects (32 nonsmoking male volunteers) were endurance-trained three to four times a week for a 10-week period. The baseline tests were readministered following the 10-week dynamic exercise training period. These data suggest that a natural consequence of aging is a diminishment of autonomic heart rate control; however, endurance training appears to interrupt the aging influence. Individuals of low fitness level appear to have heart rate control dominated by the sympathetic system, while individuals with high fitness levels have a vagally dominated heart rate control system.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Baun, William Boyd

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine

Swinging Gait Patterns and Preferred Rung Spacing During Free Choice Horizontal Ladder Traverses

Description: Fifty-one subjects each performed two trials which consisted of traversing a horizontal ladder. Film records were made of each trial using a high-speed camera. Absolute and relative temporal and kinematic parameters were obtained from the film records. The conclusions were that there was no age related interaction or differences in preferred rung spacing or contact/airborne times. A Chi-Square analysis did show a preference for a specific gait pattern for the six year old age group.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Roth, Charles H. (Charles Hillary)

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)

Initial Starting Posture and Total Body Movement-Reaction Time for Lateral Movement

Description: Eighteen subjects each performed fifty-five trials which consisted of assuming an initial stance and then in response to a visual stimulus running to either the left or right. For each trial both the foot width spacing and orientation of the feet were varied. Direct and indirect measurements were taken of selected temporal and kinematic parameters. The conclusions were that no interactions or differences exist among foot width spacing, foot orientation, and direction of movement; the jab step start is the preferred initial movement; the preferred foot width spacing is 46.6 centimeters; the preferred angular orientation of both feet is approximately 1.36 radians.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Darnall, Sylvia Pacheco

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne