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A Comparative Study of Job Satisfaction of Two-Year Community/Junior College and Four-Year University Physical Education Faculty

Description: This investigation was undertaken to compare the degree of job satisfaction of physical education faculty who were employed at community/junior colleges and four-year universities. The relationship of selected demographic variables (sex, age, contract longevity, teaching experience, and highest degree completed) to faculty job satisfaction was also investigated. Faculty (N = 70) who were employed in community/junior colleges and universities in the Dallas-Fort Worth area were chosen as subjects for the study. Two instruments were utilized to collect the data. These were the Personal Data Inventory (PDI) and the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire (PTO). Analysis of the data indicated that university faculty and community/junior college faculty differed significantly in their perceptions of job satisfaction in the specific areas of teacher rapport with immediate supervisor, curriculum issues, and school facilities and services. Four demographic variables (sex, age, contract longevity, and teaching experience) were significantly related to ten specific areas of job satisfaction and to the subjects' total job satisfaction.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sinardi, Michael S.

The Effects of Supportive and Non-Supportive Nonverbal Movements Upon the Acquisition of a Gross Motor Skill

Description: The purposes of the study were (1) to validate five selected supportive and five selected non-supportive nonverbal movements, and (2) to determine the effects of the nonverbal expressions upon subjects' learning of a gross motor skill. Subjects were twenty-eight college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Bachman Ladder. Fourteen subjects received the supportive-- non-supportive nonverbal treatment sequence; fourteen subjects received the reverse treatment sequence. Subjects numerically ranked the degree of treatment following each experimental session. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance method. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were (1) that nonverbal supportive and non-supportive treatments do not significantly affect gross motor learning, and (2) the selected expressions are valid techniques for nonverbal communications.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Laflin, Joyce

The Effect of the Tonic Neck Reflex upon Fatigue of the Extensor Leg Muscles

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of the tonic neck posture upon fatigue induced by exhaustive exercise of the knee extensor muscles of college women. The subjects were college females enrolled in physical education activity classes at North Texas State University. The F ratio was used to determine significance of the difference in fatigue measures in the three head positions. The results of the present investigation revealed no statistically significant difference between the three head positions with respect to their influence on endurance of the leg extensors. Conclusions were that the tonic neck reflex does not facilitate or inhibit leg extensor endurance.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Cate, Susan Carol

The Effects of Shoe Type on Foot Functioning and Contact Pressures During Walking Performances

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effectiveness of a selection of women's walking shoes with particular attention being directed towards an assessment of specific shoe modifications which were included in a prototype model to theoretically reduce the undesirable characteristics associated with flexible shoes. Nine female subjects performed three trials for each of five shoe conditions. The prototype model decreased the encountered pressures and pressure integrals in the region of the second metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The use of the prototype shoe did not appear to unduly affect the gait of the subject.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Raley, Brenda F.

The Relationship Between Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Left Ventricular Function with Respect to Age

Description: In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO₂max) and left ventricular function was examined in two distinct age groups. A young group (20 - 30 years of age) and an elderly group (over 60 years of age) were compared. Left ventricular function was examined over wide variations in preload accomplished by 5º head-down tilt (TILT) for ninety minutes and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to -40 mm Hg. with two-dimensional echocardiography. A greater response to an increase in preload (TILT) was related to high VO₂max levels in the young subjects but not in the elderly groups of subjects, suggesting that lower VO₂max levels of the elderly population affected the mechanism of response to the increased levels of preload. Additionally, in the elderly, greater reductions in ventricular volume reflected increased peripheral pooling due to decreased venous tone and/or increased venous compliance during LBNP and were related to increased VO₂max. In the young, VO₂max does not appear to affect the response to reduced preload.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Page, Kimberly Ann

A Comparison of Selected Coachability Traits as Ranked by Male and Female Coaches

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences and relationships in male and female coaches assessment of coachability traits. Subjects were twenty-five male and twenty-five female coaches, The testing included a paired comparison of ten coachability traits, Data were analyzed by a Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation and analysis of variance. The conclusion of this study was that the two groups of subjects are very similar in the selection of coachability traits.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Dunn, Judy L.

The Effect of Hypoxic Training Upon the Speed of Sprint Freestyle in High School Competitive Swimming

Description: This study investigated possible effects of hypoxic training upon speed of high school sprint freestyle. Thirty-eight subjects, grouped as their two schools, performed identical loads during the ten-week program. The Experimental group used hypoxic techniques for about one-half of each workout. Pretests and posttests conducted for the 50-yard and 100-yard distances yielded highly correlated mean scores, with marked differences between the two groups. Analysis of covariance was used, selecting the .05 level for rejection. The comparison of adjusted group means indicated neither group superior at 50 yards, while the 100-yard F-ratio was significant at the .0047 level favoring hypoxic training. It is recommended that hypoxic techniques be incorporated into existing programs, possibly benefitting other strokes.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Young, William Lee

The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

Description: This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Reading, Rosemary

The Relationship of Anxiety to Performance in Stressful Situations in Slo-Pitch Softball

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare (1) the relationship between competitive A-trait and competitive A-state in Slo-Pitch softball and (2) the relationship between A-trait and performance in selected stressful situations in softball. The study also considered the ranking of players by a manager and overall performance. The Sport Competition Anxiety Test and a competitive short form of the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure A-trait and A-state. Trait anxiety, state anxiety and performance were compared using the Pearson product moment correlation technique. Trait anxiety scores were found to be accurate predictors of pregame state anxiety, but not of performance. The manager's rating was a better predictor of performance than competitive A-trait in selected stress situations.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Rogers, Michael E.

The Influence of Psychological Stress and Personality upon Athletic Performance of Intercollegiate Tennis Players

Description: This investigation was designed to study coach and self-appraised groupings of intercollegiate tennis players who yield to stress and withstand stress and to determine if personality differences existed between groups. Subjects were 75 intercollegiate tennis players from Texas. A stress inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were instruments utilized in the study. Data were subjected to hierarchical profile-groupings, three-way analyses of variance, and a correlational analysis. Conclusions of the study were that intercollegiate tennis players and male and female players respond to stress differently; intercollegiate tennis players and male and female players who experience different levels of stress have different personalities; and players and coaches do not evaluate the ability to cope with stress similarly.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Reed, Rebecca Lee

Chronic Alterations in Joint Flexibility Associated with Aerobic Dance Instruction of College Age Females

Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if three selected aerobic dance related conditions would result in chronic alterations of flexibility of college women and (2) to compare flexibility measures of college age females during a semester of aerobic dance instruction. Subjects were sixty-three college women enrolled in aerobic dance, bowling, and archery classes. Eight flexibility measures were obtained during the third and eleventh weeks of the experimental period. Data were analyzed by a factor analysis the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and eight oneway analyses of covariance. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) a program of aerobic dance alone is not sufficient to promote flexibility, and (2) supplemental flexibility activities of ten minutes duration used with aerobic dance training are beneficial in increasing hip flexion.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Cooper, Melisa Lynne

A Comparison of Three Selected Exercises in Building Abdominal Strength and Endurance in Upper Elementary School Girls

Description: This study compares the effectiveness of three selected exercises (curl-up, conventional hook sit-up and modified hook sit-up) in building abdominal strength and endurance in upper elementary school girls. Ninety-nine subjects were randomly divided into four groups. The study was designed to determine (1) whether an eight week exercise program can increase abdominal strength and endurance; (2) the most effective exercise; (3) if muscle action intensity affects the results. A cable tensiometer measured abdominal strength and a timed sit-up measured abdominal endurance. An analysis of covariance determined significance. Significant gains in abdominal strength and endurance were shown by the conventional hook sit-up. Further study on the relationship between muscle development and maturation in young children is recommended.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Hemsell, Joyce

The Establishment of Norms for Two Selected Tennis Skills Tests at North Texas State University

Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to establish validity and reliability for a modified service test, 2) to determine male and female norms for the service test, and 3) to establish norms for the Kemp-Vincent Rally Test. Subjects were 677 students enrolled in beginning and intermediate tennis classes at North Texas State University, Denton, Texas. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance to establish reliability. Norms were established by converting raw scores to normalized standard T-scores. Conclusions of the investigation were 1) the modified service test is valid and reliable, and 2) there is a need for separate male and female norms when the skill is governed by strength.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Avery, Cathy Ann

A Comparison of Perceived Exertion Ratings of Aerobic Dance and Treadmill Performances Among College Age Males and Females

Description: The purposes of the study were to compare ratings of perceived exertion of aerobic dance and treadmill performances under equal work loads and to compare ratings of perceived exertion by males and females in aerobic dance and treadmill work. Subjects were twenty-six college men and women in co-educational conditioning classes. Heart rates were monitored after work bouts and perceived exertion was determined using Borg's RPE scale. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were: (1) aerobic dance is perceived as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal work loads, and (2) males and females perceive aerobic dance as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal energy bouts.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Walker, Nancy D.

Survey of Non-Triple Option and Triple Option Football Formation Success in Class AAAA Texas High Schools from 1968 to 1975

Description: This study was designed to survey the 239 Class AAAA high schools in Texas from 1968 to 1975. The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in the number of wins of non-triple option and triple option teams. A Tukey t test was computed on the data received from the Class AAAA schools to determine if a significant difference existed. Computation of data revealed that in no year was there a significant difference in the number of wins of non-triple option and triple option teams. The conclusion of this investigation is the type of offensive football formation does not significantly affect the prospects of winning or losing games.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Poteet, Don

Study of the Programs of Professional Preparation in Physical Education Colleges in India; Comparison of the Programs with the Recommendations Made by a National Conference on Professional Preparation in Health Education, Physical Education and Recreation Education, Washington, D. C., 1962

Description: Data were obtained through the syllabi and the questionnaires returned by the head of physical education institutes in India. From a total of thirty-seven questionnaires sent, sixteen were returned representing fourteen different institutions. The programs in India showed some diversity among the institutions regarding the length of time required to complete the courses and minimum qualifications prescribed for admission to the program. The programs did not meet the recommendations of the conference either in length or content. The newer programs more nearly met the recommendations.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Quraishi, Abdul S.

Male Attitudes Toward Sport Participation by Females

Description: This investigation was designed to determine if attitudinal differences toward involvement of females in athletic competitions existed between males when age, education, and sport backgrounds were considered. Subjects were 186 male employees of Air Products and Chemicals, Incorporated and the City of De Soto, Texas, and students at North Texas State University. A fifty-one item attitude inventory developed by the investigator was the instrument utilized in the study. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance. Conclusions of the study were that males of various ages, educational levels, and sport backgrounds do not differ in their attitudes and possess favorable opinions toward female sport participation, Males with nonactive sport backgrounds were more favorable than males with active-semiactive backgrounds when spectators at female sport events.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Hibbard, Jeana E.

Comparison of the Personalities of Non-Injured and Injured Female Athletes in Intercollegiate Competition

Description: This study was designed to determine if differences exist between the personalities of injured and non-injured athletes, injured and non-injured athletes in individual sports, and injured and non-injured athletes in team sports. Subjects were forty-three female athletes selected from six intercollegiate teams. The test instrument was the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that the personality of injured athletes does not differ from the personality of non-injured athletes, that non-injured athletes in individual sports are more self-assured than non-injured athletes in team sports, and that the personality of athletes in team sports does not differ from the personality of athletes in individual sports.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Abadie, Deborah A.

A Cinematographic Comparison of Two Long-Hang Kip Techniques on the Horizontal Bar

Description: This study used cinematography to determine differences in velocity, acceleration, moments of force, and body centers of gravity in four different positions of two techniques of the long-hang kip. Three female gymnasts performed five attempts of each technique: the traditional method, with an arch in the lower back at the end of the forward swing, and approximate shoulder angle of 180 degrees or more; and the newer method, with no arch in the lower back and approximate shoulder angle of 90 degrees or less. Three. USGF-rated judges scored the kips, and due to inability to distinguish between the two techniques, two subjects were eliminated. Major differences occurred in the swing extension, with the newer technique producing more velocity and a higher center of gravity throughout the movement.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Cox, Pamela S.

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming

A Kinematic Analysis of the Baseball Batting Swings Involved in Opposite-Field and Same-Field Hitting

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine selected mechanical factors involved in hitting a baseball to the same and opposite fields. Special emphasis was placed on an identification of those factors which distinguish players of different hitting abilities. Twenty male college level baseball players, ten in each of two groups, hit six pitched baseballs, three each to two assigned areas of the playing field. The movement patterns for the opposite field and same field batting swings appeared to be similar in form with differences between the two swings due to (a) differences in the angular displacements at the left wrist and left elbow joints and (b) differences in the temporal characteristics.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Pfautsch, Eric W.

The Relationship of Self Concept to Participation in Extra-Curricular Activity Among Fourth Grade Children

Description: This study attempted to determine the relationship between self concept and participation in extra-curricular activity: specifically, whether self concept differentiates between participants and nonparticipants and whether self concept scores differed between male and female participants. Sixty fourth graders were assessed on self concept by the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale. Participation or non-participation was determined by written parental response. Analysis of variance was used, with level of significance at .05. There was no evidence that participants can be distinguished from non-participants on measures of self concept. Scores on self concept did not differ for males and females.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Campbell, Kelli M.

A Factor Analysis of Twelve Selected Resistance Exercises on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to clarify strength factors using 12 selected exercises on the Universal Gym, and to determine what measures present a valid method of assessing strength of college-aged males, Eighty-eight males enrolled in beginning weight-training classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks, Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 12 exercises, Alpha and canonical factor analyses were performed on raw scores of all measures, and on scores when body weight and standing height variances were removed. A three-factor structure of upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk strength was revealed when weight, and weight and height combined were statistically controlled. Results showed that residualized scores of weight can be used to evaluate strength on the Universal.Gym,
Date: August 1980
Creator: Watkins, Mark Edwin

The Effects of Anxiety on the Performance of Collegiate Golfers in Competitive and Non-Competitive Situations

Description: The purposes of the study were to provide additional information concerning the relationship of Competition Trait Anxiety, State Anxiety, and Performance in collegiate golfers under non-competitive and competitive field settings. Subjects were thirty college males. Data were analyzed by a three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) low-Competition-Trait-Anxious golfers performed better and exhibited lower levels of state anxiety than high-and moderate-Competitive-Trait-Anxious golfers in competitive and non-competitive settings; (2) collegiate golfers exhibit higher levels of state anxiety in competitive versus practice settings; and (3) there was a significant relationship between SCAT and pre-competitive state anxiety.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Genuchi, Marvin C.