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Subdirectly Irreducible Semigroups

Description: Definition 1.1. The ordered pair (S,*) is a semi-group iff S is a set and * is an associative binary operation (multiplication) on S. Notation. A semigroup (S,*) will ordinarily be referred to by the set S, with the multiplication understood. In other words, if (a,b)e SX , then *[(a,b)] = a*b = ab. The proof of the following proposition is found on p. 4 of Introduction to Semigroups, by Mario Petrich. Proposition 1.2. Every semigroup S satisfies the general associative law.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Winton, Richard Alan

The Riesz Representation Theorem

Description: In 1909, F. Riesz succeeded in giving an integral represntation for continuous linear functionals on C[0,1]. Although other authors, notably Hadamard and Frechet, had given representations for continuous linear functionals on C[0,1], their results lacked the clarity, elegance, and some of the substance (uniqueness) of Riesz's theorem. Subsequently, the integral representation of continuous linear functionals has been known as the Riesz Representation Theorem. In this paper, three different proofs of the Riesz Representation Theorem are presented. The first approach uses the denseness of the Bernstein polynomials in C[0,1] along with results of Helly to write the continuous linear functionals as Stieltjes integrals. The second approach makes use of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in order to write the functional as an integral. The paper concludes with a detailed presentation of a Daniell integral development of the Riesz Representation Theorem.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Williams, Stanley C. (Stanley Carl)

Continua and Related Topics

Description: This paper is a study of continue and related metric spaces, Chapter I is an introductory chapter. Irreducible continua and noncut points are the main topics in Chapter II. The third chapter begins with a few results on locally connected spaces. These results are then used to prove results in locally connected continua. Decomposable and indecomposable continua are dealt with in Chapter IV. Totally disconnected metric spaces are studied in the beginning of Chapter V. Then we see that every compact metric space is a continuous image of the Cantor set. A continuous map from the Cantor set onto [0,1] is constructed. Also, a continuous map from [0,1] onto [0,1]x[0,1] is built, Then an order preserving homeomorphism is constructed from a metric arc onto [0,1],
Date: August 1982
Creator: Brucks, Karen M. (Karen Marie), 1957-

Sufficient Criteria for Total Differentiability of a Real Valued Function of a Complex Variable in Rn an Extension of H. Rademacher's Result for RΒ²

Description: This thesis provides sufficient conditions for total differentiability almost everywhere of a real-valued function of a complex variable defined on a bounded region in IRn. This thesis extends H. Rademacher's 1918 results in IR2 which culminated in total differentiability, to IRn
Date: August 1982
Creator: Matovsky, Veron Rodieck

Fourier Transforms of Functions on a Finite Abelian Group

Description: This paper presents a theory of Fourier transforms of complex-valued functions on a finite abelian group and investigates two applications of this theory. Chapter I is an introduction with remarks on notation. Basic theory, including Pontrvagin duality and the Poisson Summation formula, is the subject of Chapter II. In Chapter III the Fourier transform is viewed as an intertwining operator for certain unitary group representations. The solution of the eigenvalue problem of the Fourier transform of functions on the group Z/n of integers module n leads to a proof of the quadratic reciprocity law in Chapter IV. Chapter V addresses the, use of the Fourier transform in computing.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Currey, Bradley Norton

An Existence Theorem for an Integral Equation

Description: The principal theorem of this thesis is a theorem by Peano on the existence of a solution to a certain integral equation. The two primary notions underlying this theorem are uniform convergence and equi-continuity. Theorems related to these two topics are proved in Chapter II. In Chapter III we state and prove a classical existence and uniqueness theorem for an integral equation. In Chapter IV we consider the approximation on certain functions by means of elementary expressions involving "bent line" functions. The last chapter, Chapter V, is the proof of the theorem by Peano mentioned above. Also included in this chapter is an example in which the integral equation has more than one solution. The first chapter sets forth basic definitions and theorems with which the reader should be acquainted.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hunt, Cynthia Young

Product Measure

Description: In this paper we will present two different approaches to the development of product measures. In the second chapter we follow the lead of H. L. Royden in his book Real Analysis and develop product measure in the context of outer measure. The approach in the third and fourth chapters will be the one taken by N. Dunford and J. Schwartz in their book Linear Operators Part I. Specifically, in the fourth chapter, product measures arise almost entirely as a consequence of integration theory. Both developments culminate with proofs of well known theorems due to Fubini and Tonelli.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Race, David M. (David Michael)

Axiom of Choice Equivalences and Some Applications

Description: In this paper several equivalences of the axiom of choice are examined. In particular, the axiom of choice, Zorn's lemma, Tukey's lemma, the Hausdorff maximal principle, and the well-ordering theorem are shown to be equivalent. Cardinal and ordinal number theory is also studied. The Schroder-Bernstein theorem is proven and used in establishing order results for cardinal numbers. It is also demonstrated that the first uncountable ordinal space is unique up to order isomorphism. We conclude by encountering several applications of the axiom of choice. In particular, we show that every vector space must have a Hamel basis and that any two Hamel bases for the same space must have the same cardinality. We establish that the Tychonoff product theorem implies the axiom of choice and see the use of the axiom of choice in the proof of the Hahn- Banach theorem.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Race, Denise T. (Denise Tatsch)

Algorithms of Schensted and Hillman-Grassl and Operations on Standard Bitableaux

Description: In this thesis, we describe Schensted's algorithm for finding the length of a longest increasing subsequence of a finite sequence. Schensted's algorithm also constructs a bijection between permutations of the first N natural numbers and standard bitableaux of size N. We also describe the Hillman-Grassl algorithm which constructs a bijection between reverse plane partitions and the solutions in natural numbers of a linear equation involving hook lengths. Pascal programs and sample output for both algorithms appear in the appendix. In addition, we describe the operations on standard bitableaux corresponding to the operations of inverting and reversing permutations. Finally, we show that these operations generate the dihedral group D_4
Date: August 1983
Creator: Sutherland, David C. (David Craig)

Convergence of Infinite Series

Description: The purpose of this paper is to examine certain questions concerning infinite series. The first chapter introduces several basic definitions and theorems from calculus. In particular, this chapter contains the proofs for various convergence tests for series of real numbers. The second chapter deals primarily with the equivalence of absolute convergence, unconditional convergence, bounded multiplier convergence, and c0 multiplier convergence for series of real numbers. Also included in this chapter is a proof that an unconditionally convergent series may be rearranged so that it converges to any real number desired. The third chapter contains a proof of the Silverman-Toeplitz Theorem together with several applications.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Abbott, Catherine Ann

Dimension Theory

Description: This paper contains a discussion of topological dimension theory. Original proofs of theorems, as well as a presentation of theorems and proofs selected from Ryszard Engelking's Dimension Theory are contained within the body of this endeavor. Preliminary notation is introduced in Chapter I. Chapter II consists of the definition of and theorems relating to the small inductive dimension function Ind. Large inductive dimension is investigated in Chapter III. Chapter IV comprises the definition of covering dimension and theorems discussing the equivalence of the different dimension functions in certain topological settings. Arguments pertaining to the dimension o f Jn are also contained in Chapter IV.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Frere, Scot M. (Scot Martin)

Generalized C-sets

Description: The problem undertaken in this paper is to determine what the algebraic structure of the class of C-sets is, when the notion of sum is to be the "set sum. " While the preliminary work done by Appling took place in the space of additive and bounded real valued functions, the results here are found in the more general setting of a complete lattice ordered group. As a conseque n c e , G . Birkhof f' s book, Lattice Theory, is used as the standard reference for most of the terminology used in the paper. The direction taken is prompted by a paper by W. D. L. Appling, "A Generalization of Absolute Continuity and of an Analogue of the Lebesgue Decomposition Theorem. " Since some of the results obtained provide another approach to a problem originally studied by Nakano, and improved upon by Bernau, reference is made to their work to provide other terminology and examples of alternative approaches to the problem of lateral completion. Thus Chapter I contains a brief history of the notion of C-sets and their relationship to lattice ordered groups, along with a summary of the properties of lattice ordered groups needed for later developments. In addition, several results in the general theory of lattice ordered groups are cited to provide insight into the comparability of the assumptions that will ultimately be made about the groups. Chapter II begins with the axiomatization of the collection of nearest point functions" for the closed A-ideals of the cone of a complete lattice ordered group. The basic results in the chapter establish that the functions defined do indeed characterize the complete A-ideals, and that the maps have a 'nearest point property." The maps are then extended to the entire group and shown to correspond to the "nearest point ...
Date: August 1974
Creator: Keisler, D. Michael

A Continuous, Nowhere-Differentiable Function with a Dense Set of Proper Local Extrema

Description: In this paper, we use the following scheme to construct a continuous, nowhere-differentiable function 𝑓 which is the uniform limit of a sequence of sawtooth functions 𝑓ₙ : [0, 1] β†’ [0, 1] with increasingly sharp teeth. Let 𝑋 = [0, 1] x [0, 1] and 𝐹(𝑋) be the Hausdorff metric space determined by 𝑋. We define contraction maps 𝑀₁ , 𝑀₂ , 𝑀₃ on 𝑋. These maps define a contraction map 𝑀 on 𝐹(𝑋) via 𝑀(𝐴) = 𝑀₁(𝐴) ⋃ 𝑀₂(𝐴) ⋃ 𝑀₃(𝐴). The iteration under 𝑀 of the diagonal in 𝑋 defines a sequence of graphs of continuous functions 𝑓ₙ. Since 𝑀 is a contraction map in the compact metric space 𝐹(𝑋), 𝑀 has a unique fixed point. Hence, these iterations converge to the fixed point-which turns out to be the graph of our continuous, nowhere-differentiable function 𝑓. Chapter 2 contains the background we will need to engage our task. Chapter 3 includes two results from the Baire Category Theorem. The first is the well known fact that the set of continuous, nowhere-differentiable functions on [0,1] is a residual set in 𝐢[0,1]. The second fact is that the set of continuous functions on [0,1] which have a dense set of proper local extrema is residual in 𝐢[0,1]. In the fourth and last chapter we actually construct our function and prove it is continuous, nowhere-differentiable and has a dense set of proper local extrema. Lastly we iterate the set {(0,0), (1,1)} under 𝑀 and plot its points. Any terms not defined in Chapters 2 through 4 may be found in [2,4]. The same applies to the basic properties of metric spaces which have not been explicitly stated. Throughout, we will let 𝒩 and 𝕽 denote the natural numbers and the real numbers, respectively.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Huggins, Mark C. (Mark Christopher)

Some Properties of Noetherian Rings

Description: This paper is an investigation of several basic properties of noetherian rings. Chapter I gives a brief introduction, statements of definitions, and statements of theorems without proof. Some of the main results in the study of noetherian rings are proved in Chapter II. These results include proofs of the equivalence of the maximal condition, the ascending chain condition, and that every ideal is finitely generated. Some other results are that if a ring R is noetherian, then R[x] is noetherian, and that if every prime ideal of a ring R is finitely generated, then R is noetherian.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Vaughan, Stephen N. (Stephen Nick)

The Mean Integral

Description: The purpose of this paper is to examine properties of the mean integral. The mean integral is compared with the regular integral. If [a;b] is an interval, f is quasicontinuous on [a;b] and g has bounded variation on [a;b], then the man integral of f with respect to g exists on [a;b]. The following theorem is proved. If [a*;b*] and [a;b] each is an interval and h is a function from [a*;b*] into R, then the following two statements are equivalent: 1) If f is a function from [a;b] into [a*;b*], gi is a function from [a;b] into R with bounded variation and (m)∫^b_afdg exists then (m)∫^b_ah(f)dg exists. 2) h is continuous.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Spear, Donald W.

Fundamental Issues in Support Vector Machines

Description: This dissertation considers certain issues in support vector machines (SVMs), including a description of their construction, aspects of certain exponential kernels used in some SVMs, and a presentation of an algorithm that computes the necessary elements of their operation with proof of convergence. In its first section, this dissertation provides a reasonably complete description of SVMs and their theoretical basis, along with a few motivating examples and counterexamples. This section may be used as an accessible, stand-alone introduction to the subject of SVMs for the advanced undergraduate. Its second section provides a proof of the positive-definiteness of a certain useful function here called E and dened as follows: Let V be a complex inner product space. Let N be a function that maps a vector from V to its norm. Let p be a real number between 0 and 2 inclusive and for any in V , let ( be N() raised to the p-th power. Finally, let a be a positive real number. Then E() is exp(()). Although the result is not new (other proofs are known but involve deep properties of stochastic processes) this proof is accessible to advanced undergraduates with a decent grasp of linear algebra. Its final section presents an algorithm by Dr. Kallman (preprint), based on earlier Russian work by B.F. Mitchell, V.F Demyanov, and V.N. Malozemov, and proves its convergence. The section also discusses briefly architectural features of the algorithm expected to result in practical speed increases.
Date: May 2014
Creator: McWhorter, Samuel P.

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Logistic Sinusoidal Regression Models

Description: We consider the problem of maximum likelihood estimation of logistic sinusoidal regression models and develop some asymptotic theory including the consistency and joint rates of convergence for the maximum likelihood estimators. The key techniques build upon a synthesis of the results of Walker and Song and Li for the widely studied sinusoidal regression model and on making a connection to a result of Radchenko. Monte Carlo simulations are also presented to demonstrate the finite-sample performance of the estimators
Date: December 2013
Creator: Weng, Yu

Polynomial Isomorphisms of Cayley Objects Over a Finite Field

Description: In this dissertation the Bays-Lambossy theorem is generalized to GF(pn). The Bays-Lambossy theorem states that if two Cayley objects each based on GF(p) are isomorphic then they are isomorphic by a multiplier map. We use this characterization to show that under certain conditions two isomorphic Cayley objects over GF(pn) must be isomorphic by a function on GF(pn) of a particular type.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Park, Hong Goo

Invertible Ideals and the Strong Two-Generator Property in Some Polynomial Subrings

Description: Let K be any field and Q be the rationals. Define K^1[X] = {f(X) e K[X]| the coefficient of X in f(X) is zero} and Q^1β[X] = {f(X) e Q[X]| the coefficent of β1(X) in the binomial expansion of f(X) is zero}, where {β1(X)}^∞ i=0 are the well-known binomial polynomials. In this work, I establish the following results: K^1[X] and Q^1β[X] are one-dimensional, Noetherian, non-Prüfer domains with the two-generator property on ideals. Using the unique factorization structure of the overrings K[X] and Q[X], the nonprincipal ideal structures of both rings are characterized, and from this characterization, necessary and sufficient conditions are found for a nonprincipal ideal to be invertible. The nonprincipal invertible ideals are then characterized in terms of the coefficients of the generators, and an explicit formula for the inverse of any proper invertible ideal is found. Finally, the class groups of both rings are shown to be torsion free abelian groups. Let n be any nonnegative integer. Results similar to the above are found in the generalizations of these two rings, K^n[X] and q^nβ[X], where the coefficients on the first n nonconstant basis elements are zero. For the domains K^1[X] and Q^1β[X], the property of strong two-generation is explored in detail and the following results are established: 1. K^1[X] and Q^1β[X] are not strongly two-generated, 2. In either ring, any polynomial with a constant term, or of degree two or three is a strong two-generator. 3. In K^1[X] any polynomial divisible by X^4 is not a strong two-generator, 4. An ideal I in K^1[X] or Q^1β[X] is strongly two-generated if and only if it is invertible.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Chapman, Scott T. (Scott Thomas)

Containment Relations Between Classes of Regular Ideals in a Ring with Few Zero Divisors

Description: This dissertation focuses on the significance of containment relations between the above mentioned classes of ideals. The main problem considered in Chapter II is determining conditions which lead a ring to be a P-ring, D-ring, or AM-ring when every regular ideal is a P-ideal, D-ideal, or AM-ideal, respectively. We also consider containment relations between classes of regular ideals which guarantee that the ring is a quasi-valuation ring. We continue this study into the third chapter; in particular, we look at the conditions in a quasi-valuation ring which lead to a = Jr, sr - f, and a = v. Furthermore we give necessary and sufficient conditions that a ring be a discrete rank one quasi-valuation ring. For example, if R is Noetherian, then ft = J if and only if R is a discrete rank one quasi-valuation ring.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Race, Denise T. (Denise Tatsch)

Weakly Dense Subsets of Homogeneous Complete Boolean Algebras

Description: The primary result from this dissertation is following inequality: d(B) ≀ min(2^< wd(B),sup{Ξ»^c(B): Ξ» < wd(B)}) in ZFC, where B is a homogeneous complete Boolean algebra, d(B) is the density, wd(B) is the weak density, and c(B) is the cellularity of B. Chapter II of this dissertation is a general overview of homogeneous complete Boolean algebras. Assuming the existence of a weakly inaccessible cardinal, we give an example of a homogeneous complete Boolean algebra which does not attain its cellularity. In chapter III, we prove that for any integer n > 1, wd_2(B) = wd_n(B). Also in this chapter, we show that if XβŠ‚B is ΞΊβ€”weakly dense for 1 < ΞΊ < sat(B), then sup{wd_ΞΊ(B):ΞΊ < sat(B)} = d(B). In chapter IV, we address the following question: If X is weakly dense in a homogeneous complete Boolean algebra B, does there necessarily exist b € B\{0} such that {xβˆ—b: x ∈ X} is dense in B|b = {c € B: c ≀ b}? We show that the answer is no for collapsing algebras. In chapter V, we give new proofs to some well known results concerning supporting antichains. A direct consequence of these results is the relation c(B) < wd(B), i.e., the weak density of a homogeneous complete Boolean algebra B is at least as big as the cellularity. Also in this chapter, we introduce discernible sets. We prove that a discernible set of cardinality no greater than c(B) cannot be weakly dense. In chapter VI, we prove the main result of this dissertation, i.e., d(B) ≀ min(2^< wd(B),sup{Ξ»^c(B): Ξ» < wd(B)}). In chapter VII, we list some unsolved problems concerning this dissertation.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Bozeman, Alan Kyle

Uniqueness of Positive Solutions for Elliptic Dirichlet Problems

Description: In this paper we consider the question of uniqueness of positive solutions for Dirichlet problems of the form - Δ u(x)= g(λ,u(x)) in B, u(x) = 0 on ϑB, where A is the Laplace operator, B is the unit ball in RˆN, and A>0. We show that if g(λ,u)=uˆ(N+2)/(N-2) + λ, that is g has "critical growth", then large positive solutions are unique. We also prove uniqueness of large solutions when g(λ,u)=A f(u) with f(0) < 0, f "superlinear" and monotone. We use a number of methods from nonlinear functional analysis such as variational identities, Sturm comparison theorems and methods of order. We also present a regularity result on linear elliptic equation where a coefficient has critical growth.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Ali, Ismail, 1961-

Automorphism Groups of Strong Bruhat Orders of Coxeter Groups

Description: In this dissertation, we describe the automorphism groups for the strong Bruhat orders A_n-1, B_n, and D_n. In particular, the automorphism group of A_n-1 for n β‰₯ 3 is isomorphic to the dihedral group of order eight, D_4; the automorphism group of B_n for n β‰₯ 3 is isomorphic to C_2 x C_2 where C_2 is the cyclic group of order two; the automorphism group of D_n for n > 5 and n even is isomorphic to C_2 x C_2 x C_2; and the automorphism group of D_n for n β‰₯ 5 and n odd is isomorphic to the dihedral group D_4.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Sutherland, David C. (David Craig)