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Temporal Complexity and Stochastic Central Limit Theorem

Description: Complex processes whose evolution in time rests on the occurrence of a large and random number of intermittent events are the systems under study. The mean time distance between two consecutive events is infinite, thereby violating the ergodic condition and activating at the same time a stochastic central limit theorem that explains why the Mittag-Leffler function is a universal property of nature. The time evolution of these complex systems is properly generated by means of fractional differential equations, thus leading to the interpretation of fractional trajectories as the average over many random trajectories, each of which fits the stochastic central limit theorem and the condition for the Mittag-Leffler universality. Additionally, the effect of noise on the generation of the Mittag-Leffler function is discussed. Fluctuations of relatively weak intensity can conceal the asymptotic inverse power law behavior of the Mittag-Leffler function, providing a reason why stretched exponentials are frequently found in nature. These results afford a more unified picture of complexity resting on the Mittag-Leffler function and encompassing the standard inverse power law definition.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Pramukkul, Pensri

Relaxation Time Measurements for Collision Processes in the Surface Layers of Conductors and Semiconductors Near 10 Ghz

Description: This thesis represents one phase of a joint effort of research on the properties of liquids and solids. This work is concerned primarily with the microwave properties of solids. In this investigation the properties exhibited by conductor and semiconductor materials when they are subjected to electromagnetic radiation of microwave frequency are studied. The method utilized in this experiment is the perturbation of a resonant cavity produced by introduction of a cylindrically shaped sample into it.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Childress, Larry Wayne

Microwave Line Widths of the Asymmetric Top Formic Acid Molecule

Description: This work consisted of an experimental investigation of the formic acid (HCOOH) molecule's rotational spectrum. Measurements of line widths were obtained for J = 5, 12, 13, 19, and 20 for a pressure range from 1 to 10 microns. A linear behavior between Av and p was observed as predicted by theory. The line width parameter Avp was observed to depend on the quantum number J. Hard sphere collision diameters b1 were calculated using the obtained AvP values. These deduced hard sphere values were found to be larger than the physical size of the molecule. This result was found to be in general agreement with other investigation in which long range forces (dipole-dipole) dominate.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Maynard, Wayne R.

Effects of Discharge Tube Geometry on Plasma Ion Oscillations

Description: This study considers the effect, on plasma ion oscillations, of various lengths of discharge tubes as well as various cross sections of discharge tubes. Four different gases were used in generating the plasma. Gas pressure and discharge voltage and current were varied to obtain a large number of signals. A historical survey is given to familiarize the reader with the field. The experimental equipment and procedure used in obtaining data is given. An analysis of the data obtained is presented along with possible explanations for the observed phenomena. Suggestions for future study are made.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Simmons, David Warren

A Technique for Increasing the Optical Strength of Single-Crystal NaCl and KCl Through Temperature Cycling

Description: This thesis relates a technique for increasing the optical strength of NaCl and KCl single-crystal samples. The 1.06-μm pulsed laser damage thresholds were increased by factors as large as 4.6 for a bulk NaCl single-crystal sample. The bulk laser damage breakdown threshold (LDBT) of the crystal was measured prior to and after heat treatment at 800*C using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.06 μm. Bulk and surface LDBTs were also studied on samples annealed at 400° C. These samples showed differences in damage morphology on both cleaved and polished surfaces, and the cleaved surfaces had improved damage thresholds. However, neither the polished surfaces nor the bulk showed improved threshold at the lower annealing temperature.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Franck, Jerome B. (Jerome Bruce)

Automatic Frequency Control of Microwave Radiation Sources

Description: Resonant cavity controlled klystron frequency stabilization circuits and quartz-crystal oscillator frequency stabilization circuits were investigated for reflex klystrons operating at frequencies in the X-band range. The crystal oscillator circuit employed achieved better than 2 parts in 10 in frequency stability. A test of the functional properties of the frequency standard was made using the Stark effect in molecules.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Payne, Bobby D.

The Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics

Description: The Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a path integral representation for a propagator or probability amplitude in going between two points in space-time. The wave function is expressed in terms of an integral equation from which the Schrodinger equation can be derived. On taking the limit h — 0, the method of stationary phase can be applied and Newton's second law of motion is obtained. Also, the condition the phase vanishes leads to the Hamilton - Jacobi equation. The secondary objective of this paper is to study ways of relating quantum mechanics and classical mechanics. The Ehrenfest theorem is applied to a particle in an electromagnetic field. Expressions are found which are the hermitian Lorentz force operator, the hermitian torque operator, and the hermitian power operator.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Hefley, Velton Wade

Microwave Properties of Liquids and Solids, Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe

Description: The frequency shifts and Q changes of a resonant microwave cavity were utilized as a basis for determining microwave properties of solids and liquids. The method employed consisted of varying the depth of penetration of a cylindrical sample of the material into a cavity operating in the TM0 1 0 Mode. The liquid samples were contained in a thin-walled quartz tube. The perturbation of the cavity was achieved by advancing the sample into the cavity along the symmetry axis by employing a micrometer drive appropriately calibrated for depth of penetration of the sample. A differentiation method was used to obtain the half-power points of the cavity resonance profile at each depth of penetration. The perturbation techniques for resonant cavities were used to reduce the experimental data obtained to physical parameters for the samples. The probing frequency employed was near 9 gHz.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Hong, Ki H.

Shubnikov-de Haas Effect Under Uniaxial Stress: A New Method for Determining Deformation Potentials and Band Structure Information in Semiconductors

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of demonstrating the applicability of a particular theory and technique to two materials of different band structure, InSb and HgSe, and in doing so, determining the deformation potentials of these materials. The theory used in this investigation predicts an inversion-asymmetry splitting and an anisotropy of the Fermi surface under uniaxial stress. No previous studies have ever verified the existence of an anisotropy of the Fermi surface of semiconductors under stress. In this work evidence will be given which demonstrates this anisotropy. Although the inversion-asymmetry splitting parameter has been determined for some materials, no value has ever been reported for InSb. The methods presented in this paper allow a value of the splitting parameter to be determined for InSb.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Hathcox, Kyle Lee

Proton-Induced L-shell X-Rays of Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy

Description: Characteristic L-shell x rays of the five rare earths Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were studied in this work. The x rays were produced by ionization from 0.3 to 2.0 MeV protons from the 2.0 MV Van de Graaff at North Texas State University. Total L-shell ionization and x-ray production cross sections were measured for Sm and compared to the BEA, CBEA and PWBA theories. Total L-shell ionization cross sections were measured for Pr, Eu, Gd, and Dy and compared to the BEA, CBEA, and PWBA. The CBEA and PWBA fit the samarium data well for both ionization and x-ray production cross sections. The BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data. The CBEA and the PWBA also fit the ionization cross section data for Pr, Eu, Gd and Dy, while the BEA was generally 40 per cent lower than the data.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Abrath, Frederick G.

K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections of Selected Elements from Fe to As for Proton Bombardment from 0.5 to 2.0 MeV

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of making experimental measurements of proton-induced K-shell x-ray production cross sections and to study the dependence of these cross sections upon the energy of the incident proton. The measurements were made by detection of the characteristic x-rays emitted as a consequence of the ionization of the K-shell of the atom. The method for relating this characteristic x-ray emission to the x-ray production cross section is discussed in this work.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Lear, Richard Dean

Collision Broadening in the Microwave Rotational Spectrum of Gaseous Monomeric Formaldehyde

Description: A source-modulation microwave spectrograph was utilized to measure line width parameters for several spectral lines in the pure rotational spectrum of formaldehyde (H₂CO). The spectrograph featured high-gain ac amplification and phase-sensitive detection, and was capable of measuring microwave lines having absorption coefficients as small as 10⁻⁷ cm⁻¹ with a frequency resolution on the order of 30 kHz. Center frequencies of the measured lines varied from 4,830 MHz to 72,838 MHz; hence, most of the observations were made on transitions between K-doublets in the rotational spectrum. Corrections were applied to the measured line width parameters to account for Doppler broadening and, where possible, for deviations due to magnetic hyperfine structure in some of the K-doubled lines. Low modulation voltages and low microwave power levels were used to minimize modulation and saturation broadenings; other extraneous broadenings were found to be insignificant. The primary broadening mechanism at low gas pressure is pressure broadening, and a review of this topic is included. Line width parameters for the several observed transitions were determined by graphing half-widths versus pressure for each spectral line, and performing a linear least-squares fit to the data points. Repeatability measurements indicated the accuracy of the line width parameters to be better than ±10 percent. The reasons for this repeatability spread are discussed, Broadening of each line was measured for self- and foreign-gas broadening by atomic helium and diatomic hydrogen. Effective collision diameters were calculated for each broadening interaction, based on the observed rates of broadening.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Rogers, David Valmore

Synthesis, Characterization, Structural, and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Embedded in Silicon Based Substrates

Description: Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by low energy ion implantation technique were examined. ZnO molecular ions were implanted into Si/SiO2 substrates at room temperature and then furnace annealed under different temperatures and environments. In all as-implanted samples only Zn nanostructures with varying diameters distributed into the Si/SiO2 matrices were observed. No trace of ZnO was found. The distributions of Zn nanostructures in Si/SiO2 closely matched results from Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulations. During annealing at 750 oC, Zn diffused both toward and away from the surface of the substrate and combine with oxygen to form ZnO nanostructures. At higher annealing temperatures ZnO bonding started to break down and transfer to zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4), and at 900 oC the ZnO was completely converted into Zn2SiO4. The average sizes of Zn/ZnO nanostructures depended on the ion fluence. If the fluence increased the average sizes of nanostructures also increased and vice versa. For room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL), band-edge emission in the ultraviolet (UV) region was observed from all samples annealed at 700 oC/750 oC and were slightly blue shifted as compare to bulk ZnO. Donor-bound exciton (D,X) and acceptor-bound exciton (A,X) transitions were observed in low temperature photoluminescence (PL). The lifetime of both donor-bound excitonic emission (D, X) and acceptor-bound excitonic emission (A, X) were found to be in the picosecond (ps) range.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Pandey, Bimal

An Electro- Magneto-static Field for Confinement of Charged Particle Beams and Plasmas

Description: A system is presented that is capable of confining an ion beam or plasma within a region that is essentially free of applied fields. An Artificially Structured Boundary (ASB) produces a spatially periodic set of magnetic field cusps that provides charged particle confinement. Electrostatic plugging of the magnetic field cusps enhances confinement. An ASB that has a small spatial period, compared to the dimensions of a confined plasma, generates electro- magneto-static fields with a short range. An ASB-lined volume thus constructed creates an effectively field free region near its center. It is assumed that a non-neutral plasma confined within such a volume relaxes to a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Space charge based confinement of a second species of charged particles is envisioned, where the second species is confined by the space charge of the first non-neutral plasma species. An electron plasma confined within an ASB-lined volume can potentially provide confinement of a positive ion beam or positive ion plasma. Experimental as well as computational results are presented in which a plasma or charged particle beam interact with the electro- magneto-static fields generated by an ASB. A theoretical model is analyzed and solved via self-consistent computational methods to determine the behavior and equilibrium conditions of a relaxed plasma. The equilibrium conditions of a relaxed two species plasma are also computed. In such a scenario, space charge based electrostatic confinement is predicted to occur where a second plasma species is confined by the space charge of the first plasma species. An experimental apparatus with cylindrical symmetry that has its interior surface lined with an ASB is presented. This system was developed by using a simulation of the electro- magneto-static fields present within the trap to guide mechanical design. The construction of the full experimental apparatus is discussed. Experimental results that show the characteristics of ...
Date: May 2014
Creator: Pacheco, Josè L.

The Effects of Residual Gases on the Field Emission Properties of ZnO, GaN, ZnS Nanostructures, and the Effects of Light on the Resistivity of Graphene

Description: In this dissertation, I present that at a vacuum of 3×10-7 Torr, residual O2, CO2, H2 and Ar exposure do not significantly degrade the field emission (FE) properties of ZnO nanorods, but N2 exposure significantly does. I propose that this could be due to the dissociation of N2 into atomic nitrogen species and the reaction of such species with ZnO. I also present the effects of O2, CO2, H2O, N2, H2, and Ar residual gas exposure on the FE properties of GaN and ZnS nanostructure. A brief review of growth of ZnO, GaN and ZnS is provided. In addition, Cs deposition on GaN nanostructures at ultra-high vacuum results in 30% decrease in turn-on voltage and 60% in work function. The improvement in FE properties could be due to a Cs-induced space-charge layer at the surface that reduces the barrier for FE and lowers the work function. I describe a new phenomenon, in which the resistivity of CVD-grown graphene increases to a higher saturated value under light exposure, and depends on the wavelength of the light—the shorter the wavelength, the higher the resistivity. First-principle calculations and theoretical analysis based on density functional theory show that (1) a water molecule close to a graphene defect is easier to be split than that of the case of no defect existing and (2) there are a series of meta-stable partially disassociated states for an interfacial water molecule. Calculated disassociation energies are from 2.5 eV to 4.6 eV, that match the experimental observation range of light wavelength from visible to 254 nm UV light under which the resistivity of CVD-grown graphene is increased.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Mo, Yudong

Synthesis Strategies and a Study of Properties of Narrow and Wide Band Gap Nanowires

Description: Various techniques to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes as a function of growth temperature and time were investigated. These include growth of nanowires by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism and electro-chemical synthesis of nanowires and nanotubes. Narrow band gap InSb Eg = 0.17 eV at room temp) nanowires were successively synthesized. Using a phase diagram, the transition of the nanowire from metallic- semiconducting- semi-metallic phase was investigated. A thermodynamic model is developed to show that the occurrence of native defects in InSb nanowires influenced by the nanowire growth kinetics and thermodynamics of defect formation. Wide band gap ZnO (Eg = 3.34 eV) and In2O3 (3.7 eV) were also synthesized. ZnO nanowires and nanotubes were successfully doped with a transition metal Fe, making it a Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor of great technological relevance. Structural and electronic characterizations of nanowires were studied for different semiconducting, metallic and semi-metallic nanowires. Electron transport measurements were used to estimate intrinsic material parameters like carrier concentration and mobility. An efficient gas sensing device using a single In2O3 nanowire was studied and which showed sensitivity to reducing gas like NH3 and oxidizing gas like O2 gas at room temperature. The efficiency of the gas sensing device was found to be sensitive to the nature of contacts as well as the presence of surface states on the nanowire.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Sapkota, Gopal

Effects of Quantum Coherence and Interference

Description: Quantum coherence and interference (QCI) is a phenomenon that takes place in all multi-level atomic systems interacting with multiple lasers. In this work QCI is used to create several interesting effects like lasing without inversion (LWI), controlling group velocity of light to extreme values, controlling the direction of propagation through non-linear phase matching condition and for controlling the correlations in field fluctuations. Controlling group velocity of light is very interesting because of many novel applications it can offer. One of the unsolved problems in this area is to achieve a slow and fast light which can be tuned continuously as a function of frequency. We describe a method for creation of tunable slow and fast light by controlling intensity of incident laser fields using QCI effects. Lasers are not new to the modern world but an extreme ultra-violet laser or a x-ray laser is definitely one of the most desirable technologies today. Using QCI, we describe a method to realize lasing at high frequencies by creating lasing without inversion. Role of QCI in creating correlations and anti-correlations, which are generated by vacuum fluctuations, in a three level lambda system coupled to two strong fields is discussed.
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Date: August 2013
Creator: Davuluri, Subrahmanya Bhima Sankar

How Cooperative Systems Respond to External Forces

Description: Cooperative interactions permeate through nature, bringing about emergent behavior and complexity. Using a simple cooperative model, I illustrate the mean field dynamics that occur at the critical point of a second order phase transition in the framework of Langevin equations. Through this formalism I discuss the response, both linear and nonlinear, to external forces. Emphasis is placed on how information is transferred from one individual to another in order to facilitate the collective response of the cooperative network to a localized perturbation. The results are relevant to a wide variety of systems, ranging from nematic liquid crystals, to flocks and swarms, social groups, and neural networks.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Svenkeson, Adam

Novel Semi-Conductor Material Systems: Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Characterization

Description: Semi-conductor industry relies heavily on silicon (Si). However, Si is not a direct-band gap semi-conductor. Consequently, Si does not possess great versatility for multi-functional applications in comparison with the direct band-gap III-V semi-conductors such as GaAs. To bridge this gap, what is ideally required is a semi-conductor material system that is based on silicon, but has significantly greater versatility. While sparsely studied, the semi-conducting silicides material systems offer great potential. Thus, I focused on the growth and structural characterization of ruthenium silicide and osmium silicide material systems. I also characterized iron silicon germanide films using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to reveal phase, semi-conducting behavior, and to calculate nearest neighbor distances. The choice of these silicides material systems was due to their theoretically predicted and/or experimentally reported direct band gaps. However, the challenge was the existence of more than one stable phase/stoichiometric ratio of these materials. In order to possess the greatest control over the growth process, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been employed. Structural and film quality comparisons of as-grown versus annealed films of ruthenium silicide are presented. Structural characterization and film quality of MBE grown ruthenium silicide and osmium silicide films via in situ and ex situ techniques have been done using reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and micro Raman spectroscopy. This is the first attempt, to the best of our knowledge, to grow osmium silicide thin films on Si(100) via the template method and compare it with the regular MBE growth method. The pros and cons of using the MBE template method for osmium silicide growth are discussed, as well as the structural differences of the as-grown versus annealed films. Future perspectives include further studies on other semi-conducting silicides material systems in terms ...
Date: December 2013
Creator: Elmarhoumi, Nader M.

Field Dependence of Optical Properties in Quantum Well Heterostructures Within the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin Approximation

Description: This dissertation is a theoretical treatment of the electric field dependence of optical properties such as Quantum Confined Stark (QCS) shifts, Photoluminescence Quenching (PLQ), and Excitonic Mixing in quantum well heterostructures. The reduced spatial dimensionality in heterostructures greatly enhances these optical properties, more than in three dimensional semiconductors. Charge presence in the quantum well from doping causes the potential to bend and deviate from the ideal square well potential. A potential bending that varies as the square of distance measured from the heterostructure interfaces is derived self-consistently. This potential is used to solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation for bound state energies and wave functions within the framework of the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin (WKB) approximation. The theoretical results obtained from the WKB approximation are limited to wide gap semiconductors with large split off bands such as gallium arsenide-gallium aluminum arsenide and indium gallium arsenide—indium phosphide. Quantum wells with finite confinement heights give rise to an energy dependent WKB phase. External electric and magnetic fields are incorporated into the theory for two different geometries. For electric fields applied perpendicular to the heterostructure multilayers, QCS shifts and PLQ are found to be in excellent agreement with the WKB calculations. Orthogonality between electrons and holes gives rise to interband mixing in the presence of an external electric field. On the contrary, intraband mixing between light and heavy holes is not sufficiently accounted for in the WKB approximation.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Wallace, Andrew B.

L-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₂₉Cu, ₃₂Ge, ₃₇Rb, ₃₈Sr, and ₃₉Y and M-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₇₉Au, ₈₂Pb, ₈₃Bi, ₉₀Th, and ₉₂U by 70-200 keV protons

Description: L-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of 29Cu, 32Ge, 37Rb, 38Sr, and 39Y. M-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of 79Au, 82Pb, 83Bi, 90Th, and 92U. All targets were irradiated with a beam of H+ ions with energies in a range from 70 to 200 keV. Experimental cross sections are compared to other measurements at higher energies and to first Born (Plane Wave Born Approximation for direct ionization and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers-Nikolaev approximation for electron capture) and the ECPSSR (Energy loss, Coulomb deflection, Perturbed Stationary State calculations with Relativistic effects) theoretical cross sections.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Gressett, David

Detection of the Resonant Vibration of the Cellular Membrane Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Description: An optical detection technique is developed to detect and measure the resonant vibration of the cellular membrane. Biological membranes are active components of living cells and play a complex and dynamic role in life processes. They are believed to have oscillation modes of frequencies in the range of 1 to 1000 GHz. To measure such a high-frequency vibration, a linear laser cavity is designed to produce a train of femtosecond pulses of adjustable repetition rate. The method is then directly applied to liposomes, "artificial membrane", stained with a liphophilic potential sensitive dye. The spectral behavior of a selection of potential sensitive dyes in the membrane is also studied.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Jamasbi, Nooshin

Microwave Spectra of ¹³C Isotopic Species of Methyl Cyanide in the Ground, v₈=1 and v₈=2 Vibrational States

Description: The problem of the quadrupole interaction occurring in a vibrating-rotating C₃v symmetric top molecule has been studied in detail. The quadrupole interaction has been treated as another perturbation term to a general frequency expression accounting for the vibrating-rotating interaction of the molecule so that a complete frequency formula is obtained for both interactions, and from which hyperfine spectral components are predicted and measured. The hyperfine transitions in the ground, and v₈=1 and v₈=2 excited vibrational states of the ¹³C isotopes of methyl cyanide have been investigated in the frequency range 17-72 GHz, primarily in the low J transitions (0≤J≤3). The study of the ground state of isotope i3CH3i3CN, and the v₈=1, v₈=2 excited vibrational states for all the isotopes have been conducted here for the first time. A substantial perturbation has been discovered and discussed at the ΔJ=3→4 transitions within the Kl=1 sets in the v₈=1 mode for isotopes ¹³CH₃CN and CH₃¹³CN. A total of 716 hyperfine transitions have been assigned from measurements, only 7 of which have been measured previously. A total of 84 molecular constants have been reported; 70 of these constants are derived for the first time from microwave data.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Tam, Hungsze

Nonlinear Absorption Initiated Laser-Induced Damage in [Gamma]-Irradiated Fused Silica, Fluorozirconate Glass and Cubic Zirconia

Description: The contributions of nonlinear absorption processes to laser-induced damage of three selected groups of transparent dielectrics were investigated. The studied materials were irradiated and non-irradiated fused silica, doped and undoped fluorozirconate glass and cubic zirconia stabilized with yttria. The laser-induced damage thresholds, prebreakdown transmission, and nonlinear absorption processes were studied for several specimens of each group. Experimental measurements were performed at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm using nanosecond and picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. In the irradiated fused silica and fluorozirconate glasses, we found that there is a correlation between the damage thresholds at wavelength λ and the linear absorption of the studied specimens at λ/2. In other words, the laser-induced breakdown is related to the probability of all possible two-photon transitions. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with a proposed two-photon-initiated electron avalanche breakdown model. In this model, the initial "seed" electrons for the formation of an avalanche are produced by two-photon excitations of E' centers and metallic impurity levels which are located within the bandgaps of irradiated Si02 and fluorozirconate glasses, respectively. Once the initial electrons are liberated in the conduction band, a highly absorbing plasma is formed by avalanche impact ionization. The resultant heating causes optical damage. In cubic zirconia, we present direct experimental evidence that significant energy is deposited in the samples at wavelength 532 nm prior to electron avalanche formation. The mechanism is found to be due to formation of color centers (F+ or F° centers) by the two-photon absorption process. The presence of these centers was directly shown by transmission measurements. The two-photon absorption (2PA) process was independently investigated and 2PA coefficients obtained. The accumulated effects of the induced centers on the nonlinear absorption measurements were also considered and the 2PA coefficients were measured using short pulses where this effect ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Mansour, Nastaran