UNT Libraries - 67 Matching Results

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Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation

Description: The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Prentice, Ray (Grant Ray)

Physiological and Psychological Effects of an Acute Stressor: Comparing Coping Strategies Among Very Physically Active and Less Active Adults

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity status of healthy adult males (N = 59) while in a coping strategy condition (association, disassociation, or control) influences psychophysiological responses to an acute painful stimulus. Measures of pain tolerance, state anxiety, body awareness, and salivary cortisol were investigated. Results indicated no significant differences between physical activity groups for pain tolerance, stress responses (i.e., self-reported state anxiety and cortisol levels), or body awareness. Though, those who indicated using a disassociation coping technique during the exit interview tolerated the acute, surface pain longer. More research is required to further understand the effects of physical activity and coping strategies on pain perception and psychophysiological responses.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Brandt, Grace A.

The Effect of Season Performance on Male and Female Track and Field Athletes’ Self-identity

Description: Although the “self” has generally been conceptualized as relatively stable in sport-specific research, events such as deselection, injury, and career termination have been found to negatively affect athletes’ levels of identification with the athlete role. Additionally, there has been limited research regarding competitive failure and its ability to negatively affect athletes’ levels of identification with the athlete role. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide additional evidence regarding the influence poor competitive seasons have on the malleability of athletes’ self-identity. Athletes were followed throughout the course of their season to determine whether athletes who encountered a poor competitive season reported lowered levels of athletic identity. Specifically, male and female NCAA Division I track and field athletes completed pre-indoor, post-indoor, and post-outdoor assessments of athletic identity. Contrary to previous research, the current study’s results indicated no identifiable relationship between male and female athletes’ season performance satisfaction and their level of post-indoor and post-outdoor athletic identity. Thus, the greatest predictor of athletes’ post-season level of athletic identity was their pre-season level of athletic identity, regardless of season performance. Given these results, future research should assess self-esteem as well as other potential coping strategies athletes might use in order to gain a better understanding of the effect encountering a poor competitive season may have on athletes’ self-identity.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Bradstreet, Tyler C.

Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in College Students: a Social Cognitive Perspective

Description: Engaging in regular physical activity is important for maintaining and improving health. Unfortunately, most college students fail to meet the recommendations for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Psychosocial factors described within the social cognitive theory are related to the acquisition and retention of physical activity behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of gender, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support with college students meeting aerobic, muscle-strengthening and both PAGs. Participants (N = 396) completed online questionnaires assessing their physical activity behaviors, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support. Self-reported physical activity was classified as meeting / not meeting PAGs. Using gender, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support as predictors, separate logistic regressions were used to examine their relations with the three PAG classifications. Analyses revealed that being male and level of social support increased the odds of meeting muscle-strengthening PAGs, but students’ level of self-efficacy and outcome expectations increased the odds of meeting all three PAG classifications. These findings indicate that interventions designed to increase self-efficacy and outcome expectancy may be beneficial for increasing college students’ physical activity for meeting the PAGs. Promotion of muscle-strengthening activities targeted at young women is also warranted.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Farren, Gene L.

The Effects of a Mental Training Program on Tennis Players’ Service Form and Consistency

Description: The current study investigated whether combining a ten-week imagery training and video modeling intervention would improve the consistency and form of tennis serves, and to determine if differences in intervention effectiveness were based on skill level of the players. Sixty-one high school tennis players (Mage = 15.44, SD = .98) were separated into four groups; a control group and an experimental group which received the mental training program. Univariate analyses of covariance controlling for possible pre-test differences, gender, and years of tennis experience and a chi-squared analysis for responders to treatment showed no significant differences for the experimental group. Thus, the ten-week imagery training and video modeling intervention used in this study appeared to not influence tennis service form and consistency. There is a need for longitudinal studies of mental training techniques to determine whether these practices are effective for athletes of different sports and competitive levels.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Lauer, E. Earlynn

The Acute Hormonal Response to the Kettlebell Swing Exercise

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to a bout of kettlebell swing exercise. Ten healthy men (19-30 y, 23.6 ± 3.5 y, 174.6 ± 5.7 cm, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) who were engaged in resistance training at least twice per week but were inexperienced with kettlebell swings participated in this study. Participants were familiarized with the kettlebell swing exercise during an initial visit. During the subsequent experimental protocol visit, participants performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16-kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of every round of swings. Fasted blood samples were collected pre-exercise (PRE), immediately post (IP), 15 minutes post (P15), and 30 minutes post exercise (P30) and analyzed for total testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and lactate concentrations. Participants completed a total of 227 ± 23 swings (average swings per round: 19 ± 2). HR and RPE increased significantly (P < 0.05) throughout the exercise protocol. Lactate concentrations were significantly increased at all post exercise time points compared to PRE. T was significantly increased at IP compared to PRE. GH was significantly increased at IP, P15, and P30 compared to PRE. Cortisol was significantly increased at IP and P15 compared to PRE. 12 rounds of 30 seconds of kettlebell swing exercise induced an acute increase in T, GH, and cortisol concentrations in resistance trained men. Additionally, this exercise protocol induced a large increase in HR and lactate concentration. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide an effective method for simultaneous endurance and resistance training.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Budnar Jr., Ronald Gene

Reliability of an On-line System to Assess Physical Activity Behaviors in an Active Group of Kinesiology Undergraduate Students

Description: Engaging in muscle strengthening activities (MSA) as part of a physical activity program offers health benefits. Although the merits of physical activity are well documented, many adults fail to meet appropriate levels as recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA). To get a more complete understanding on an individual's physical activity behaviors, the Tracking Resistance Exercise and Strength Training (TREST) internet based survey was developed. The purpose of the current study was to determine the test-retest reliability of TREST items. Additionally, the prevalence of participants meeting the 2008 PAGA was reported by gender. The survey was completed approximately two weeks apart by 224 (52% male) undergraduate kinesiology students. Analysis of the survey items presented TREST as a reliable instrument in assessing an individual's physical activity behavior with a focus on MSA. Among the convenience sample of 445 participants (56% male) that completed the survey in assessment #1, 73% met the 2008 PAGA minimum recommendations for MSA (>=2 days/week) and aerobic activity (>= 150 min MVPA). A more complete MSA and MVPA criteria was established (requiring MSA of all seven major muscle groups) and only 32% of participants met this guideline. In general, men engaged in aerobic exercise and MSA more than women. These results cannot be generalized due the age, activity level, and education of the study's participants. Future studies should investigate the validity of TREST items among a sample of varying fitness levels, races/ethnicities, ages, and educational levels.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Knell, Gregory

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)

The Significance of Time to Exhaustion at the Velocity at VO2Max

Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if inter-individual variability in time to exhaustion at the velocity associated with V02max (Tlim at Vmax) was explained by anaerobic capacity (AC), Vmax, anaerobic threshold (AT), and/or a combination variable in the form [AC • (Vmax - vAT)^-1]. The second goal was to determine if AC could be predicted from Tlim at Vmax, AT, and/or a combination variable in the form [Tlim • (Vmax - vAT)].
Date: May 1998
Creator: Ehler, Karen

Effects of Music on Vividness of Movement Imagery

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on self reported vividness of movement imagery. Eighty-four undergraduate kinesiology majors (42 males; 42 females) were subjects. Based on identical perceptions of precategorized music (classical and jazz), selected subjects were randomly assigned to one of three music treatment conditions (sedative, stimulative, and control) and administered the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire. A 3 x 2 x 2 (Treatment x Gender x Perspective) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor was employed. The results revealed that the two music conditions significantly enhanced the vividness of internal and external imagery perspectives when compared to the no music condition, and that music facilitated the vividness of males and females equally.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Tham, Edgar Kok Kuan

Factors that Influence Men to Coach Women's NCAA Division II Basketball

Description: This study identified factors that influenced men to coach women's basketball. The CCFQ, designed to determine relative importance of each of nine factors in career selection, was completed by 78 male head coaches of women's NCAA II basketball. Data was analyzed using univariate analysis with repeated measures, t-tests, and ANOVA. These coaches indicated fulfill need for competition, help female athletes reach full potential, and serve as role model as significant influences. Moderate influences included personal attributes of athletes, job attributes, and career advancement. Job availability, belief in own success, and income were not considered influential in career selection. Few differences were indicated between demographic sub-groups on any factor. Factors associated with well being of athletes had the greatest influence.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Jackson, James Calvin

Responses During Exercise at 90% and 100% of the Running Velocity Associated with VO2max (vVO2max)

Description: Six male long-distance runners participated in this study to evaluate the responses to exercise at 90% and 100% vV02max. Subjects participated in five maximal exercise tests: one incremental, three tests at 90% vV02max, and one test at 100% vV02max. The results of this study demonstrate that V02max can be elicited in a constant-velocity test at 90% vV02max.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Burt, Shane E. (Shane Eugen)

The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

Description: There has been an interest in the kinetics of the V02 response during exercise at various intensities. However, most studies focus on the response of submaximal intensities whereas few studies have examined V02 kinetics at severe intensities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise intensity on V02 kinetics over a range of severe intensities.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Williams, Christine Suzanne

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason

Critical Power as a Predictor of Performance in a Bicycle Time Trial

Description: Certain measures of aerobic power have been shown to have a high relationship with endurance performance. Critical power (CP) has also been shown to be well correlated to endurance performance, but few studies have evaluated its use in a competitive scenario. In this study, cardiorespiratory-metabolic measures were evaluated in 13 highly trained cyclists to determine their relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Critical power, determined from the nonlinear power-time model, was also evaluated to determine its relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Results indicate that the traditional indicators of V02max and ventilatory anaerobic threshold were well correlated to TT performance (r=-0.86, r=-0.79, respectively). The principal finding from this study was that performance in a bicycle time trial is related to CP at least as well as to cardiorespirator-ymetabolic measures. In fact, the results fromthis study suggest that the relationship between performance and CP is stronger (r=-0.89). Use of the critical power concept is attractive because testing requires only a cycle ergometer and a stopwatch to estimate a parameter of aerobic fitness.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Dangelmaier, Brian (Brian S.)

Students' and Teachers' Perspective of Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity

Description: Purposes for engaging in physical activities were examined from the perspective of university students enrolled in physical activity classes and kinesiology faculty. Data was collected from 473 students and 20 faculty members. Both groups completed the Personal Purposes and Meanings in Movement Inventory (PPMMI). Independent t-tests were conducted for each of the twenty-two purpose statements to determine differences between faculty and students in the rating of purposes. Students attending individual sport activity classes rated self-knowledge, transcendence, object projection/reception, awareness, competition, neuromuscular efficiency, movement appreciation, and muscular strength significantly lower (p<.01) than the faculty. Students attending team sport activities rated self-knowledge, transcendence, participation, object projection/reception, teamwork, awareness, competition, leadership, and expression significantly (pc.01) lower than the faculty. Students attending fitness activity classes rated self-knowledge, competition, leadership, transcendence, participation, teamwork, circulo-respiratory efficiency, and personal integration significantly (p<.01) lower than faculty.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Thomason, Jonathan E.

Measurement of Mood State Changes Throughout a Competitive Volleyball Season

Description: Mood state changes have been assessed in endurance sport athletes such as swimmers, distance runners and rowers. However, much less is known about the psychological changes that occur in team sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess mood state changes of intercollegiate female volleyball players across a competitive season.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Schultes, Bruce A. (Bruce Anthony)

Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas

Description: This study evaluated the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included type of delivery, length of labor, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and maternal weight gain. The 137 nulliparas were categorized as active (N=44) or sedentary (N=93) based on self-reported aerobic exercise. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant women who were active during pregnancy were more likely to have vaginal deliveries than sedentary women. No significant differences between active and sedentary women were found in neonatal birth weight, maternal weight gain, length of labor, or gestational age.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Melgar, Dian L. (Dian Louise)

Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Books, Gregory D. (Gregory Douglas)

The Influence of Perceived Support From Parental and Peer Relationships on Students' Health-related Beliefs and Behaviors

Description: College is an important time for young adults, but most college students fail to meet the daily recommendations for physical activity. Social support is associated with positive health practices, but limited research is available on the role of perceived support from specific relationships, (e.g., peers and parents). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perceived support from parental and peer relationships on health-related beliefs and behaviors. Participants (N = 333) completed the Quality of Relationships Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction With Life scale, and a short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. While highly active students did not necessarily have more socially support relationships, females self-reported more conflict with both parents and more depth and support with a special person in their life than males, and parental and peer relationships appeared to be a greater influence on females' perceptions of satisfaction and self-worth.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Barton, Mitch

Hormonal Response to Free Weight and Machine Weight Resistance Exercise

Description: No study has examined the effect of exercise modality (free weight vs. machine weight) on the acute hormonal response using similar multi-joint exercises. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of resistance exercise modality on acute hormonal responses by comparing the squat and leg press which are multi-joint, and similar in action and lower-body muscle involvement. Ten resistance trained men (21-31 y, 24.7 ± 2.9 y, 179 ± 7 cm, 84.2 ± 10.5 kg) participated in the study. Sessions 1 and 2 determined the participants’ 1-RM in the squat and leg press. During acute heavy resistance exercise testing visits (AHRET), sessions 3 and 4, participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions with an initial intensity of 80% of their 1-RM for the squat and leg press exercises. There was a 2 minute rest period between each set. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 15 and 30 minutes after exercise via intravenous catheter during the AHRET visits and were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone. Lactate, plasma volume change, heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were also measured. Total work was calculated for external load only and for external load and the body mass used in the exercises. The 4 sessions were counterbalanced and randomized for exercise mode. Testosterone for the squat (Pre: 23.9 ± 8.7 nmol•L-1; IP: 31.4 ± 10.3 nmol•L) and leg press (Pre: 22.1 ± 9.4 nmol•L-1; IP: 26.9 ± 7.8 nmol•L) increased but more significantly after the squat. Growth hormone increased in both the squat (Pre: 0.2 ± 0.2 µg/L; IP: 9.5 ± 7.3 µg/L) and the leg press (Pre: 0.3 ± 0.5 µg/L; IP: 2.8 ± 3.2 µg/L). The increase was significantly higher after the squat compared to the leg press. Cortisol also increased after performing the squat (Pre: ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Shaner, Aaron Arthur

Soul Line Dancing Among African American Women in the Church: an Expectancy-value Model Approach

Description: Guided by the expectancy value model of achievement choice, this study examined the relationships among expectancy value constructs (expectancy related beliefs and subjective task values), effort and intention for future participation in a culturally specific dance, soul line, among African American adult women in the church setting. Participants were 100 African American women who were members of the women’s ministries from four predominantly African American churches in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metropolitan area. Participants completed a 20-minute soul line session and responded to survey questions, validated in previous research, assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, effort, intention for future participation and physical activity. This was the first study to use the expectancy value model as a guide to determine motivations attached to physical activities among African American adult women. Usefulness, a component of subjective task values, emerged as a predictor of intention for future participation. Eighty-one percent of the women did not meet physical activity guidelines for aerobic activity. Of those inactive women 60% indicated an interest in doing soul line dancing often at their church after one short exposure to the activity as indicated by the strongest possible response to both intention questions. A slightly smaller percent of the active women provided with a strong positive response for future intention. These findings suggest that soul line dancing is a practical avenue to increase physical activity among African American women in the church. Future research should test this theoretical model on a wider variety of individuals who are sedentary to physically active, measure actual participation, and directly measure BMI and physical activity.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Rose, Melanie