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Depressive Subtypes and Dysfunctional Attitudes: a Personal Construct View

Description: The influence of cognitive organization, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive "subtype" on the perceptions of negative life events is explored. BDI scores are used to delineate symptomatic and non-symptomatic groups. Construct content (sociotropic versus autonomous, as first defined by Beck) is used to identify predominant schema-type. Subjects completed a Problematic Situations Questionnaire with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. Results indicate that depressed individuals display more dysfunctional attitudes and negative affect in all types of negative situations; further the endorsement of dysfunctional attitudes is significantly more likely to occur in the context of schema-congruent situations. Findings are discussed a) in terms of the utility of personal constructs in the assessment of schema-type and b) in accordance with a person-event interactional model of depression.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Longhorn, Alison J. (Alison Jane)

Premorbid Level of Functioning and Perspective Taking During Self-Narratives

Description: Two interviews were conducted with 20 participants from a Mental Health and Mental Retardation (MHMR) crisis house. Subjects were classified as good or poor premorbid level of functioning using a case history form and information from their social history charts. The study employed a self-narrative method to direct self disclosure. In the first interview, participants were asked to describe themselves. In the second interview they were asked to identify what they would change about their histories and to describe how this would make a difference in how their lives turned out. Support was not found for the hypothesis that those with the higher premorbid functioning would be better able to shift perspectives and use more positive self constructs. Methodological, theoretical and future research areas are discussed.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Isler, William C. (William Charles)

The Relationship Between Level of Security Clearance and Stress in Engineering and Design Personnel

Description: The present study investigated the relationship between level of security clearance in engineering occupations and stress. A total of 63 male employees in the field of engineering and design with varying levels of security clearance employed by a large Southwestern defense company participated in the study. Data was obtained utilizing the Engineering Stress Questionnaire which measures sources of stress, work locus of control, social support, job difficulty, job characteristics, perceived stress, and demographic variables. T-tests revealed no statistically significant differences between employees with low security clearances and high security clearances with regard to perceived stress level. However, correlational support was found for hypotheses involving social support, job difficulty, job characteristics, sources of stress, and perceived stress. Path analysis was performed to investigate the impact of variable relationships.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Luce, Lauri D. (Lauri Diane)

Reaction Toward Rape as a Function of Rater Sex, Victim Sex, and Form of Injury

Description: Raters' response toward victim and perpetrators in the context of rape is examined. More blame is attributed to a female than a male victim by all raters, particularly if the female victim is described only as being raped. Detailed description of different forms of injury resulting from the rape tends to act as a mediating factor in the amount of blame assigned to victims. Whereas the delineation of injury tends to decrease the amount of blame assigned to the female victim, this pattern is reversed for the male. Raters also claim a physically injured rape victim would require a substantially longer recuperation time than one whose injuries are psychological or unspecified.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Ee, Juliana Soh-Chiew

Relationship of a Situational Interview to the Job Performance of Convenience Store Clerks

Description: A situational interview was developed for use in the selection of convenience store cashiers. One hundred two newly hired cashiers were interviewed using the situational interview. Ninety days later, a performance appraisal was completed for all subjects who were still employed. There was no significant difference in interview scores between those still working 90 days after hire and those who were not (t = 1.14, df = 100, n.s.). Correlations between the total interview scores and the total performance appraisal scores were generally very low or negative. Potential explanations for the failure of the interview to predict turnover or job performance are discussed
Date: August 1990
Creator: Hays, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Jane)

Psychoimmunological Aspects of Anger: T-cell Correlates

Description: Immunological correlates of anger conditions were investigated. Participants were 33 females and 36 males, ranging from 25 to 55 years old. Percentages of total T-lymphocytes, suppressor-T, helper-T, and ratio of helper-T to suppressor-T cells were measured. Differences were found between males and females for Anger Control and Anger Expression. For females, total T-cell percentages correlated with State Anger, Angry Temperament, Anger Out, and the combination of State Anger/Angry Reaction. Suppressor-T cell percentages correlated with State Anger, Trait Anger, Angry Temperament, Anger Out, Anger Expression, and the combination of Angry Temperament/Anger In. Helper-T cells correlated with State Anger, Angry Temperament, Angry Reaction, Anger Out, and Anger Control. Mindbody appears to function in a unified fashion.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Franks, Susan F. (Susan Faye)

Development of a Model of Leadership for Self-Managed Teams in a Greenfield Environment

Description: This study identified and defined leader behaviors with two levels of leadership in a self-managed team organization. Job analysis methodology was used. A comparison of task importance values was made within groups and between hierarchical levels in the organization. Identified leader behaviors were compared with effective, traditional leader performance. Qualitative data collected throughout the investigation clarified an integrative model for effective organizations developed from the literature. The model included leader characteristics and team member behaviors when using self-managed teams.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Burress, Mary Ann

Academic Achievement Among Language-Impaired Children as a Function of Intensive Preschool Language Intervention

Description: Parents and professionals are concerned about the long-term effects of language problems on later academic, communicative and behavioral functioning of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of level of language impairment with type of class placement, reading achievement, and social emotional functioning. Subjects were 19 children, aged 4 years, 10 months through 10 years, 4 months, who had previously been enrolled in a preschool language development program. Statistical analyses were performed on data from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), Test of Early Reading Ability (TERA), and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC). Results do not support a relationship between level of language impairment and academic or social/emotional functioning.
Date: August 1990
Creator: McCormack, Sarah (Sarah Smith)

An Employee Participation Change Project and Its Impact on the Organization: a Case Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to document and assess the consequences of implementing employee involvement in a manufacturing setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study utilized information from various sources of data including archives, interview, and questionnaire data for a three to four year period. Time series comparisons were used. The results indicated that production increased initially, but then dropped back to original level. Quality of products increased and continued to improve gradually. The highest rate of improvement was observed in safety. An attempt was made to measure current level of commitment at the plant but was unsuccessful due to a low return rate of questionnaires. Overall, data collected partially support the hypotheses. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Roustaei, Simin

The Aronson Cognitive Residual Evaluation Scale (ACRES): an Evaluation of Reliability with the Elderly

Description: The Aronson Cognitive Residual Evaluation Scale (ACRES) is a new, relatively short neuropsychological test which attempts to measure residual cognitive skills. This study evaluated the ACRES test-retest reliability over a one to twelve month interval. The Trail Making Test (TMT) was included as a validation measure. Subjects were 58 males and females, aged 68 to 94, living in a retirement center or in the community. The ACRES exhibited moderate to strong reliability correlations and the TMT demonstrated low to moderate correlations with the ACRES. There was no time interval effect. Age had a negative effect on four of five ACRES subtests and gender was significant for one ACRES subtest and the TMT Part B. Percent of subjects classified as brain impaired using traditional cutoffs was higher than when age-corrected norms were used. Clinical utility of the ACRES and the TMT is discussed regarding need for age-corrected norms.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Marcontell, Deborah K. (Deborah Kay)

Seasonality of Birth in Schizophrenia in Taiwan

Description: The phenomenon of seasonality of birth in schizophrenia is important in the study of the etiology of this mental disorder because it helps to give directions for further research. Patients' hospital files from 1981 to 1991 of two of the largest hospitals with psychiatric wards in Taiwan were reviewed, and dates of birth collected on 3346 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. After adjusting for the variations of the total monthly births in the population, an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was applied. Results support a seasonality phenomenon and indicate a disproportional excess of births in schizophrenia in the cold months (Nov. to Feb.) compared to the hot months (May to Aug.). These findings are compatible with many other studies in other countries and climates. Further investigations of season-related environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia are recommended.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

Autostereotypes and Acculturative Stress in Hispanic College Students: Implications on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation

Description: This study evaluated the impact of acculturative stress and negative autostereotypes on the level of self-esteem and achievement motivation among subgroups of Hispanic college students. Subjects were classified by generational level as Second-generation (i.e., foreign-born parents), or Other (i.e., first-generation, foreign-born individuals, and third-generation, foreign-born grandparents;). By country/region of origin, subjects were divided into Central-Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Mexican, Mexican-Americans, and South Americans. Results showed that acculturative stress may facilitate loss of self-esteem particularly in Second-generation individuals, while negative autostereotypic attitudes may actually increase the student's level of motivation for achievement, particularly in Mexican-American individuals. Also, country/region of origin overall influenced negative autostereotypic attitudes.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)

The Relationship of Exercise Duration to Disordered Eating, Physical Self-Esteem, and Beliefs About Attractiveness

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise duration and level of disordered eating, physical self-esteem, and endorsement of societal mores about attractiveness. Two hundred twenty-nine female college students completed the Bulimia-Test Revised, the Physical Self Perception Profile, the Beliefs About Attractiveness Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Subjects were classified into one of four levels of exercise duration based on the number of hours they reported engaging in planned exercise per week. Significant differences were identified among the four exercise groups in relation to physical self-esteem. The amount of exercise activity individuals engaged in per week, however, was not indicative of their eating disorder symptomatology or beliefs about attractiveness.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Helmcamp, Annette Marguerite

Training Evaluation: Measuring the Benefits of Training with Levels of Behavioral Change

Description: Employee training is designed to help ensure successful achievement of business goals. Training's expense encourages the investigation of behavioral changes. The present study evaluated behavioral changes that occurred as a result of a Business Process training course. A performance rating measure was designed to assess the behaviors addressed in the course. A group of 52 people took the training. Performance was measured using a pretest, and then posttest three months later. A control group of 52 people also responded to the performance measure twice, without training. A second control group of 52 took a posttest only. MANOVA results showed a significant difference between change scores at the .001 level, indicating that the training did change behavior. The control group posttest scores differed somewhat between the two control groups, indicating a possible pretest effect.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Horner, Melissa A. (Melissa Amy)

The Relationship Between Nightmare Frequency and Hypnotic Susceptibility: Valid Correlation or Context-Mediated Artifact?

Description: The possibility that a positive correlation between nightmare frequency and hypnotic susceptibility reported by Belicki and Belicki (1986) was an artifact of administering a sleep questionnaire in the context of a hypnosis experiment was tested in the present study. Measures of vividness and absorption were also administered. Forty subjects, twenty of whom were told that the measures were related to hypnotic responding, completed the questionnaires immediately prior to hypnosis. Twenty other subjects, who completed the questionnaires in contexts unrelated to hypnosis, were later hypnotized. The hypothesis that context of administration of the questionnaires influenced the relationship between the measures and hypnotic susceptibility was not supported. Replication using a larger sample was recommended.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Callahan, Theresa A. (Theresa Ann)

Caregiver Personality as a Contributing Factor in Caregiver Burden

Description: Personality characteristics of spousal and adult children and active potential caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's Disease were studied in order to better predict caregiver burden and aspects of well-being. Contrary to prediction, no differences were found between spouse and adult children active caregivers on measures of well-being. Additionally, adult children potential caregivers indicated feeling less control over their lives than spouse potential caregivers. When social desirability was controlled, active caregivers reported greater fluctuations in affect than did potential caregivers. As predicted, personality characteristics of individuals were found to have the biggest role in determining which individuals experience stress or burden.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Anderson, Cristina L. (Cristina Lee)

Symptom Based Classification of Environmentally Ill Patients: an Exploratory Study

Description: The purpose of the present study was to discern a symptom pattern for environmentally ill patients and provide evidence of the uniqueness of the resultant pattern to this population. Patients' environmental exposure was confirmed by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. All patients were administered psychological and physical symptom checklists, the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and a standardized intermediate neuropsychological examination. Results indicate a response pattern of symptoms including fatigue, low energy, weakness, poor concentration, poor memory, poor comprehension, headaches, aches and pains, clumsiness, sinus discomfort, mucus, eye problems, restlessness, and present performance inferior to prior level of functioning. Presence of these symptoms, as well as the uniqueness of this symptom pattern was supported by comparisons of the patient and standardization groups on the two standardized tests.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Flanagan, William Joseph, 1963-

Factor Analysis of Health Concerns in the Chronic Back Pain Patient-MMPI2

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factor structure of items pertaining to health on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) for chronic back pain patients in comparison to a control group. The results may be used as groundwork for developing an MMPI2 subscale to describe this population. The groups differed in the sequence of the resulting factors and the percentage of variance accounted for by each factor. The factors extracted when evaluating the control group were titled in order: Poor Physical Health, Digestive Difficulties, Equilibrium, Depression/Malaise, and Multiple Somatic Complaints. Resulting factors for the pain group were: Depression/Malaise, Digestive Difficulties, Multiple Somatic Complaints, Headaches/Dizziness, and Neurological Reaction/Poor Physical Health.
Date: August 1991
Creator: McGee-Hall, Joanne M. (Joanne Moore)

Test Order Effects on Children's Rorschachs

Description: Thirty-three children from a community sample, ages 5 to 13, were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test, along with projective Draw-an-Animal and Draw-a-Person tasks and other psychological measures. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three test order conditions: Draw-an-Animal followed by the Rorschach, Draw-a-Person followed by the Rorschach, and Rorschach before any other projective test. The number of Human and Animal contents in the test records was examined. Analysis showed no significant differences among the three groups for production of the content variables, suggesting that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is relatively robust with respect to test order effects.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Coyle, Edward L. (Edward Louis), 1965-

The Angoff Method and Rater Analysis: Enhancing Cutoff Score Reliability and Accuracy

Description: At times called a philosophy and other times called a process, cutting score methodology is an issue routinely encountered by Industrial/Organizational (I/0) psychologists. Published literature on cutting score methodology appears much more frequently in academic settings than it does in personnel settings where the potential for lawsuits typically occurs more often. With the passage of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, it is no longer legal to use within-group scoring. It has now become necessary for personnel psychologists to develop more acceptable selection methods that fall within established guidelines. Designating cutoff scores with the Angoff method appears to suit many requirements of personnel departments. Several procedures have evolved that suggest enhancing the accuracy and reliability of the Angoff method is possible. The current experiment investigated several such procedures, and found that rater accuracy methods significantly enhance cutoff score reliability and accuracy.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Baker, Charles E., 1957-

A Concurrent Validation Study of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for a Sales Position

Description: Participating in this study were 251 decorator consultants. The decorator consultant position is a direct sales position. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate that a relationship existed between decorators' selection test scores and their job performance. The SRA Verbal Form, the EAS Numerical Ability Test, the EAS Space Visualization Test, and the Sales Attitude Checklist were evaluated as potential selection tests. Behavioral criteria and managerial ratings were used to assess job performance. Correlational analyses revealed that all the tests but the SRA Verbal Form were significantly correlated with two or more criteria.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Irons, Deedra Kim

Comparability of the WPPSI-R and the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of children on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) with their performance on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB:FE). One hundred and four children between 3 and 7 years of age were administered both tests. A moderate correlation was found between the WPPSI-R Full Scale IQ and the SB:FE Composite Score with a Pearson product-moment correlation of .46. This correlation suggests that the two tests are not interchangeable measures of children's intelligence. They may measure different, equally important aspects of intelligence. As both tests used are relatively new, the current findings should be considered one step in the accumulation of knowledge about the usefulness of the WPPSI-R.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Bass, Catherine

A Prototypical Analysis of Antisocial Personality Disorder: Important Considerations for the DSM-IV

Description: Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) represents a controversial diagnoses which has gone through many revisions over the past 25 years and is scheduled to be revised again for the DSM IV. A comprehensive survey was composed of APD criteria from the DSM II, DSM III, DSM III-R, PCL-R, Psychopathic Personality Disorder, and Dyssocial Personality Disorder. The survey was completed by 321 forensic psychiatrists based on which criteria they believed to be the most prototypical of antisocial personality. The results identified four factors: irresponsibility, unstable self image, and unstable relationships; manipulation and lack of guilt; aggressive behavior; and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. A diagnostic set composed of the most prototypical criteria was proposed for the DSM IV diagnosis of APD.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Duncan, Julianne Christine

Assessing the Object Relations of Sexually Abused Females

Description: The TAT stories of 38 sexually abused females between the ages of 5 and 18 years and a clinical group of 26 females with no recorded history of abuse were analyzed using the Object Relations and Social Cognitions TAT Scoring System (Westen et al., 1985). Subjects in the sexual abuse group showed significantly lower mean scores on a scale measuring affect-tone of relationship paradigms and on a scale measuring complexity of representations of people. In addition, pathological responses were given significantly more often by sexual abuse victims on the complexity of representations of people scale. Thus, sexually abused children showed more primitive and simple characterizations of people and more negative, punitive affect in their representations. Moreover, these results were independent of age, race, and intelligence. Group differences are discussed in terms of object relations development.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Freedenfeld, Robert N.