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The Effect of Ethanol on Cardiac Activity and Brain Respiration in Chick Embryos

Description: This study concerned the effect of ethanol on cardiac activity and brain respiration in chick embryos. Ethanol dosages tested ranged from 1.0 mg to 4.0 mg/g weight. Each experiment lasted at least 150 minutes. Cardiac activity in terms of total waveform energies was integrated and printed out for plotting and analysis. The embryonic heart rates were simultaneously determined from physical graph tracings. The embryonic brain respiration was measured using a differential microrespirometer. The effect of ethanol on cardiac activity was one of slight (10 to 13), but statistically significant (p<.05) rate depression. The brain slices exhibited a marked, immediate, and irreversible decrease (39 to 89%) in oxygen consumption at both ethanol dosages. The data indicated that chick embryonic brain tissues were more susceptible to alcohol effects than cardiac tissue. Therefore, the mental abnormalities seen in the offspring of alcoholic mothers may be more cerebral in nature than cardiovascular.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Newman, James J.

Primary Productivity and Community Metabolism in a Small North Central Texas Pond Ecosystem

Description: Rates of primary production and community metabolism were monitored over a one year period using the diurnal oxygen method. Certain physico-chemical parameters were also measured, and autotrophic standing crops were estimated. An in-depth study was made of the phytoplankton community and various diversity indicies were calculated. Simple correlations were run between all parameters measured (biotic and abiotic), and their inter-relationships examined. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop equations predictive of production and community metabolism. Bluegreen algae were the dominant phytoplankters with blooms occurring in late summer and fall. Yearly mean production was approximately 21 kcal per meter square per day with a mean photosynthetic efficiency of 1.2 per cent. Of the various parameters measured turbidity and water temperature were most important in determining rates of primary production.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Kelly, Martin H.

The Vertical Stratification of the Macrobenthos in the Brazos River, Texas

Description: Quantification of stream macrobenthos populations has remained a perplexing problem in rivbrine ecology, despite numerous attempts at improvement. This is in part due to well documented variations in chemical and physical parameters locally and geographically, and resultant adapted macrobenthos populations. Southwood (1968) and Hynes (1970a) have reviewed the various sampling techniques developed'for the census of lotic macrobenthos populations. Needham and Usinger (1956), Chutter (1969), and others have pointed out the difficulty in obtaining adequate numbers of samples which will yield population estimates with desired statistical confidence, and still maintain some degree of sampling economy. Needham and Usinger (1956) and Gaufin et al. (1956) mentioned the "patchy" distribution of aquatic insect populations as the primary source of this difficulty. The concept of patchy distribution in insect populations was originally discussed by Andrewartha (1961). Attempts to improve confidence through improved sampling devices and techniques have led to development of numerous types of samplers. Cummins (1962) indicated that there were almost as many samplers as there were researchers.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Poole, Walton Charles

Effects of Aging on ACTH-Stimulated Steroidogenesis in Subcellular Fractions from Rat Adrenal Glands

Description: Young, middle-aged and old rat adrenal gland steroidogenesis was measured in isolated, superfused glands and in their subcellular fractions before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In the latter experiment, five corticosteroids were extracted from six different subcellular fractions. Superfused glands initially produced relatively high glucocorticoid levels; thereafter, production decayed asymptotically. Steroidogenesis by young and middle-aged glands was maintained at least 1.5 to 2.5 hours before it decayed; old glands were 50% less active than younger ones and production decayed within one hour. High cholesterol and progesterone levels in certain old gland fractions were associated with correspondingly reduced 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. It is suggested that synthesis of these glucocorticoids from their accumulating precursors weakens with age.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sawada, Tadao

Population Dynamics of Macrobenthos in a Regulated Stream 1970-71 and 1978

Description: Stability of the macrobenthic community in a regulated section of the Brazos River, Texas, was evaluated. Physicochemical data and information on spatial distribution of macrobenthos were collected. Populations of two invertebrate species, Isonychia sicca and Neoperla clymene, had been greatly reduced since 1970-71 and I. sicca had been practically eliminated from this section of the Brazos. Three other insect populations, Choroterpes mexicanus, Cheumatopsche campyla and Cheumatopsyche lasia, had more than doubled their numbers since the 1970-71 study. A physicochemical gradient existed in this regulated section of the Brazos but it appeared to have changed little in comparison of earlier chemical data. A gradation of the macrobenthic community was evident as distance from the dam increased,
Date: August 1981
Creator: Coulter, James D. (James Duard)

Limitation of Primary Productivity in a Southwestern Reservoir Due to Thermal Pollution

Description: Evidence is presented to support the conclusions that (1) North Lake reservoir is less productive, contains lower standing crops of phytoplankton and total organic carbon than other local reservoirs; (2) that neither the phytoplankton nor their instantaneously-determined primary productivity was detrimentally affected by the power plant entrainment and (3) that the effect of the power plant is to cause nutrient limitation of the phytoplankton primary productivity by long-term, subtle, thermally-linked nutrient precipitation activities.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Stuart, Tom J.
Location Info:

Size Fractionation of Metabolically Active Phytoplankton and Bacteria in Two Diverse Lentic Systems

Description: Simultaneous size fractionation of plankton populations associated with NaH^14CO_3 and ^3H-glucose uptake was employed in eutrophic Lake Texoma (Texas and Oklahoma) and oligotrophic Flathead Lake (Montana). Autoradiography was utilized to determine the role of specific microorganisms in community metabolism. Ultraplankton (0.45-10 μm) dominated plankton numbers and metabolic activity in both aquatic systems. Many of the most abundant species were not the most productive, in terms of inorganic C fixation. Rates of heterotrophic uptake of ^3H-glucose were small in comparison to photolithotrophic uptake in both lakes, Photoheterotrophy was more extensive in Flathead Lake, Autoradiographs indicated that bacteria were responsible for observed photoheterotrophy. Oscillatoria sp. exhibited. mixotrophy in Lake Texoma,
Date: August 1980
Creator: Ellis, Bonnie K.

Neuroregulation and Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Ascaris Suum Obliquely Striated Skeletal Muscle

Description: Extraction and quantitation of myosin light chain two coupled with myograph recordings from Ascaris muscle perfused with calmodulin inhibitors and neurotransmitters in conjunction with their respective agonists and antagonists have been used to establish the regulation of contraction in this muscle. Densitometric tracings of isolectric focusing gels separating the regulatory light chain were used to quantitate phosphorylation in resting, contracted and flaccid muscle. These studies indicated that inhibitory neurostimulation is mediated by a true GABA receptor. Myosin-mediated contraction is responsible for maintaining the level of tension observed in resting actin-mediated muscle. Actin-mediated contraction is responsible for the rapid rise in tension following excitatory stimuli. Both systems function simultaneously and are independant.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Martin, Rex E. (Rex Edward)

The Relation Between Carbon Assimilation and Biomass Dynamics in a Phytoplankton Community

Description: Production dynamics in the phytoplankton community of a mesotrophic Texas reservoir were measured weekly over a four month period using 14C incubation and ATP assay methodologies. Assimilation values of 14C ranged from 0.2 to 45 ug C 1 hr1 - . Significant positive and occasionally negative changes in biomass (i.e. viable organic carbon) were observed in short term (4 hr) in situ incubations juxtapo-sitioned with the 14C experiments; viable organic carbon production, estimated with the ATP assay, ranged from -25 to +50 ug C 1l1hr1. Carbon assimilation and biomass changes did not correlate in either short term (4-5 hr.) or over the study period (6 months). However, weekly biomass trends were predicted by relative positive or negative biomass changes in the short term incubations. Biomass measurements gave a more sensitive insight into production dynamics in the phytoplankton community than did carbon assimilation measurements.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Wilcox, Douglas P.

Food Habits, Dietary Overlap and Electivity of Non-Game Insectivorous Fishes in an Ozark Foothills Stream

Description: Etheostoma spectabile, E. punctulatum, and Cottus carolinae were sampled Mar., 1983, - Feb., 1984, in Flint Creek, Oklahoma. Immature E. spectabile ate primarily microcrustaceans, while mature fishes relied more on mayflies and amphipods. Juvenile E. punctulatum fed upon mayflies, amphipods, and Asellus. Mature E. punctulatum ate primarily mayflies, and other relatively larger prey. Cottus carolinae consumed chironomids almost exclusively in Jan. - Feb., 1984, while mayflies were predominant the remainder of the year. No significant habitat partitioning between the two darters, and seasonal habitat segregation between C. carolinae and the two darters was found. Dietary overlap between the darters was significantly correlated (p<0.0005) to differences in x prey sizes.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Todd, C. Stan (Charles Stan)

Comparative Feeding Ecology of Leaf Pack-Inhabiting Systellognathan Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the Upper Little Missouri River, Arkansas

Description: The feeding ecologies of leaf pack-associated systellognathan stoneflies were examined from 6 June 1980 21 May 1981. Species composition, seasonal abundance, nymphal growth, feeding habits and mouthpart morphology were determined for the eight dominant stonefly species. Prey preferences and predator-prey size relationships were also examined for omnivorous and carnivorous species. Foregut analysis from 2860 individuals indicated opportunistic feeding on the most abundant prey insects, usually in proportion to prey frequency. Feeding preference studies generally indicated random feeding on major prey groups. Prey and predator sizes were usually highly correlated (p<0.01), with predators expanding their prey size thresholds with growth. The potential for competition between sympatric stoneflies for prey is discussed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Feminella, Jack W. (Jack William)

Effects of Water Source, Suspended Solids, and Acclimation on Biotransformation of 2 /4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid in Aquatic Systems

Description: In recent years there has been a great deal of scientific interest in processes that affect the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. one main reason for this increased interest is due to greater environmental concern over accidental or purposeful release of these chemicals into the environment by man. A major environmental concern is the increased use of pesticides over the last few years. In the thirty years prior to 1978 the use of pesticides has increased by a factor of forty (Ridgeway et al., 1978). Recently the use of herbicides has been increasing, but that of insecticides has stabilized (Willis, 1983). Detectable amounts of organic pesticides can be found in many areas of the biosphere. For toxic organic chemicals to be used safely, researchers must have a clear understanding of the fate and persistence of these chemicals when they are released into the environment. This understanding will also allow the development of new products that, when properly used, will not produce adverse effects to man or the environment (Weber, 1972). According to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) any new or expanded-use chemical that might be released into the environment must be tested for environmental hazard.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Moses, Christopher K. (Christopher Karam)

Dielectric Properties of Azotobacter vinelandii in a Microwave Field

Description: A resonant frequency cavity was used to determine the dielectric properties of various preparations of Azotobacter vinelandii ATTC 12837. It was found that the bacteria investigated did interact with microwave radiation in the absence of free water. The data presented here indicate that bacteria demonstrate frequency specific dielectric properties. The techniques employed in these experiments may also be used to determine microwave spectra of other species of bacteria in different physiological stages.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Hargett, John M.

The Life History of the Mayfly Isonychia sicca (Walsh) (Ephemeroptera--Siphlonuridae) in an Intermittent Stream in North Central Texas

Description: The life history of Isonychia sicca (Walsh) was elucidated from samples collected at Clear Creek from Oct. 1976-Jun. 1978, and Elm Fork of the Trinity River from Sept. 1977-Jun. 1978, Denton County, Texas. Adaptations for existence in an intermittent stream were of primary concern. Eggs are capable of diapausing through hot, dry summers and cold, wet or dry winters. Diapause is broken in the fall after rehydration and/or in the spring. I. sicca is usually bivoltine during a Sept.-Jul. wet period. Observations from Elm Fork indicate that emergence continues to Oct. if the stream remains permanent. Considerable overlap occurs between overwintering, spring, and summer populations.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Grant, Peter M., fl. 1978-

Effect of Calcium Channel Antagonists and Other Agents on Olfactory Reception

Description: The role of Ca++ in olfactory responses was investigated with inorganic and organic calcium channel antagonists. Electrophysiological responses to odorants were recorded from frog olfactory mucosa before and after aerosol application of different agents. Electroolfactogram responses were blocked by certain inorganic ions with the order of effectiveness Zn++ >Ln+++>Cd++>Ca++>Co++>Sr++>Mg++. Ba++ potentiated olfactory responses, and is known to potentiate calcium channel-mediated responses in other tissues. Certain local anesthetics which are thought to act through calcium channel blockade were inhibitory to olfactory responses, with the order of effectiveness being dibucaine>tetracaine>procaine. These data support the idea that Ca++ is involved in olfaction, perhaps acting as a current carrier and/or a second messenger. Preliminary experiments on channel localization were performed using a silicon-labeled amine. Attempts to localize the silicon label were inconclusive, although silicon was detected in the olfactory tissue.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Rosick, Edward R. (Edward Rudolph)

Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Stream Primary Productivity in the Lower Sulphur River, Texas

Description: Responses of periphyton and phytoplankton productivity in the lower Sulphur River (Texas-Arkansas) to bleach-kraft mill effluent (BKME) were monitored using in situ ¹⁴C incubation. Carbon assimilation rates measured downstream of mill discharge were substantially reduced from upstream levels. Periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations remained relatively unchanged by the presence of BKME. Periphyton ash-free dry weight increased near the mill outfall, but decreased further downstream. Calculated productivity efficiencies (productivity:biomass) varied with variations in ¹⁴C rates. A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the effect of BKME light-attenuation on photosynthetic rates of upstream Sulphur River periphyton and Selenastrum capricornutum Prinz. Pooled results of bioassay runs indicated a 20 per cent BKME concentration effectively reduced control ¹⁴C-assimilation levels by 50 per cent. The downstream reduction observed for in situ productivity was 5 per cent lower than that predicted by the color bioassay.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Davis, Terrence Marvin

Emergence, Growth, Drift and Microdistribution of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in an Ozark Foothills Stream, Delaware County

Description: Adult stonefly emergence, nymphal growth, drift and microdistribution were examined in Battle Branch, a secondorder, spring-fed stream, from November, 1982 to May, 1984. Adults of 22 species emerged successionally, with specific adults present every month. Searching emergent objects and the stream margin was best for collection of winter and early spring emerging species. Sweeping the streamside and light trapping were most efficient for late spring and summer emerging species. Nymphal growth for nine abundant species generally fit double log or semilog models. Drift was low, but did show a post-sunset pulse. Generally, leaf material was found to be significantly related (p<O.001) to density, diversity and biomass of stoneflies in Battle Branch.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Ernst, Mark R. (Mark Richard)

Serological Relationships of Azotobacter Species

Description: In order to clarify the taxonomic problems which exist among the group azotobacter by serological method, 24 cultures of Azotobacter including 9 species were tested as antigens in Ouchterlony plates against 3 different antisera obtained from rabbits immunized with A. chroococcum ACl6, A. macrocytogenes St.M. and A. vinelandii 12837, respectively. The results showed more cross reactivity in intraspecies reactions than in interspecies ones and indicated the presence of a common immunogenic determinant. This work presents the results which suggest the effecient classification of Azotobacter by Ouchterlony comparisons of corresponding antigens in different species.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Chang, Chyan-chuu

Characterization of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas putida Using Mutant and Wild Type Strains

Description: The biosynthesis of pyrimidines in Pseudomonas putida was investigated. In this study, pyrimidine requiring mutants were isolated by conventional mutagenesis and enrichment. The strains required exogenously supplied pyrimidines for growth and were found by enzyme assays to be deficient for the product of the pyrB gene encoding the enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase. None of the intermediates of the pathway could supply the auxotrophic requirement of the strain; only preformed pyrimidines, metabolized via salvage pathways could suffice. Pyrimidine limitation in the mutant caused a slight but significant fifty per cent increase in expression of all the de novo biosynthetic enzymes. Pyrimidine starvation's effect on nucleotide pool levels was examined in the mutant and caused a marked swelling of the purine nucleotide pools.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Chang, Mingren

Quantitation of Endogenous Nucleotide Pools in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Description: Nucleotide pools were extracted and quantified from Pyr^+ and Pyr^- strains of P. aerucjinosa. Strains were grown in succinate minimal medium with and without pyrimidines, and nucleotides were extracted using trichloracetic acid (TCA; 6% w/v). The pyrimidine requirement was satisfied by uracil, uridine, cytosine or cytidine. Pyr^- mutants were starved for pyrimidines for two hours before nucleotide levels were measured. This starvation depleted the nucleotide pools which were restored to wild type levels by the addition of pyrimidines to the medium. When the pyrimidine analogue, 6-azauracil, known to inhibit OMP decarboxylase, was added to cultures of the wild type strain, the uridine and cytidine nucleotides were depleted to near zero. Thus, the nucleotide pool levels of Pseudomonas strains can be manipulated.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Entezampour, Mohammad

The Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicides on Chick Embryo Development

Description: Glyphosate based herbicides are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine developmental toxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the common herbicide Roundup, on developing chicken embryos. Few studies have examined toxic effects of glyphosate alone versus the full compound formulations of Roundup, which include adjuvants and surfactants. Adjutants and surfactants are added to aid in solubility and absorption of glyphosate. In this study chicken embryos were exposed at the air cell on embryonic day 6 to 19.8 or 9.9 mg / Kg egg mass of glyphosate in Roundup or glyphosate only. Chickens treated with 19.8 and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reduction in survivability compared to glyphosate alone treatments and controls. On embryonic day 18, embryos were sacrificed for evaluation of developmental toxicity using wet embryo mass, dry embryo mass, and yolk mass as indicators. Morphology measurements were taken on liver mass, heart mass, tibiotarsus length and beak length. Embryos treated with 19.8 mg / Kg glyphosate and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reductions in wet and dry embryo mass and yolk mass. Tibiotarsus length in 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments were significantly reduced compared to 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate treatments. Beak length was significantly reduced in 9.9 mg /Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments compared to all other groups.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Winnick, Blake Edward

In Vitro Cortical Networks for Disease Modeling and Drug Evaluation

Description: In translational research, disease models in preclinical studies are used as media for discovery of drugs or novel therapeutics. Development of in vitro models for various neurological diseases that enable efficient pharmacological or toxicological screening has been ongoing but challenging. Recognizing the potential benefit of in vitro disease models, dysfunctions in the cortical neuronal networks were induced to mimic the functional pathology of neurological symptoms using microelectrode arrays. Two different disease states – tinnitusand excitotoxicity – were investigated and discussed. In this model, pentylenetetrazol-induced increase in spontaneous firing rate and synchrony in the auditory cortical networks was used as correlate of tinnitus. Potential tinnitus treatment drugs from several different classes – including the novel class of potassium channel openers – were screened and quantified. The potentialtherapeutic values of these drugs were also discussed as the basis for drug repurposing. Functional excitotoxicity was induced by cisplatin (a cancer drug that causes neurological sideeffects) and glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter). As proof-of-principle that the model may contribute to expediting the development of therapeutics, cisplatin excitotoxicity wasprevented by the antioxidant D-methionine, while glutamate excitotoxicity was prevented by ceftriaxone (a modulator of a glutamate reuptake transporter). In the latter part of the study, with results linking two of the screened drugs L-carnitine and D-methionine to GABAA receptor activation, it was demonstrated that this model not only served as an efficient drug-screening platform, but can be utilized to functionally investigate the underlying mechanism of drugs. Inaddition, several practical or conceptual directions for future studies to improve on this in vitro disease model are suggested.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Wu, Calvin

Investigation of the Pharmacokinetics of Diazepam in Juvenile Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)

Description: The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is becoming an increasing regulatory and scientific concern. Thus, the metabolic profile and bioconcentration potential of diazepam, a model benzodiazepine, were examined, as well as effects on the endocrine system in channel catfish. Through the use of specific and non-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitors, it was determined that CYP3A-like enzymes may play a role in the biotransformation of diazepam into temazepam; however, the isoform(s) required for the formation of other metabolites is still unknown. Overall, only around 7-8% of diazepam is biotransformed into two known metabolites. Due to the lack of inherent metabolism of diazepam in channel catfish, further analysis was conducted to determine the tissue-specific bioconcentration potential of diazepam in catfish. Various tissues were analyzed for the presence of diazepam as well as metabolites and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were calculated, which were all well below regulatory threshold values (> 2000). Additionally, modulation of the endocrine system by diazepam was examined by measuring steroid hormone concentrations and analyzing mRNA expression of selected steroidogenic enzymes and receptors. Two steroidogenic enzymes were modulated following diazepam exposure, indicating potential endocrine disrupting properties of diazepam. Together, these data suggest that diazepam exhibits low metabolic transformation rates in channel catfish, which may lead to accumulation of benzodiazepine compounds that may negatively affect the endocrine system. However, further studies should be aimed at identifying other steroidogenic enzymes and/or receptors that may be modulated following diazepam exposure.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Overturf, Carmen L.

Comparative Ecology of Benthic Communities in Natural and Regulated Areas of the Flathead and Kootenai Rivers, Montana

Description: A comparative study was made of environmental variables and the density, biomass, diversity, and species composition of macroinvertebrates in areas downstream from a dam with a hypolimnetic release (Hungry Horse Dam on the Flathead River) and a dam with a selective withdrawal system (Libby Dam on the Kootenai River). A major objective of this study was to examine the response of macroinvertebrate communities to defined environmental gradients in temperature, flow, substrate, and food-related variables (periphyton, particulate organic carbon in the seston). In addition, the effects of experimental manipulations in discharge on macroinvertebrate drift and stranding were assessed, and the effects of temperature on the growth rates and emergence of five species of insects were measured.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Perry, Sue A.