UNT Libraries - 42 Matching Results

Search Results

Cross-Cultural Validity of the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which a non-verbal test of intelligence, the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI), may be used for assessing intellectual abilities of children in India. This investigation is considered important since current instruments used in India were developed several years ago and do not adequately reflect present standards of performance. Further, current instruments do not demonstrate adequate validity, as procedures for development and cultural transport were frequently not in adherence to recommended guidelines for such practice. Data were collected from 91 normally achieving and 18 mentally retarded Indian children, currently enrolled in elementary schools. Data from an American comparison group were procured from the authors of the TONI. Subjects were matched on age, grade, and area of residence. Subjects were also from comparative socioeconomic backgrounds. Literature review of the theoretical framework supporting cross-cultural measurement of intellectual ability, a summary of major instruments developed for cross-cultural use, non-verbal measures of intellectual ability in India, and issues in cross-cultural research are discussed, with recommended methodology for test transport. Major findings are: (a) the factor scales derived from the Indian and American normally achieving groups indicate significant differences; (b) items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 22 are biased against the Indian group, though overall item characteristic curves are not significantly different; (c) mean raw scores on the TONI are significantly different between second and third grade Indian subjects; and (d) mean TONI Quotients are significantly different between normally achieving and mentally retarded Indian subjects. It is evident that deletion of biased items and rescaling would be necessary for the TONI to be valid in the Indian context. However, because it does discriminate between subjects at different levels of ability, adaptation for use in India is justified. It may prove to be a more ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Parmar, Rene S. (Rene Sumangala)

Institutionalization of Ethics: a Cross-Cultural Perspective

Description: Business ethics is a much debated issue in contemporary America. As many ethical improprieties gained widespread attention, organizations tried to control the damage by institutionalizing ethics through a variety of structures, policies, and procedures. Although the institutionalization of ethics has become popular in corporate America, there is a lack of research in this area. The relationship between the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity and the perceptions of managers regarding the institutionalization of ethics is investigated in this study. This research also examined whether managers' level of cognitive moral development and locus of control influenced their perceptions. Data collection was performed through a mail survey of managers in the U.S. and India. Out of the 174 managers of American multinationals who responded to the survey, 86 were Americans and 88 were Indians. Results revealed that managers' perceptions were influenced by the four cultural dimensions. Managerial perceptions regarding the effectiveness of codes of ethics and the influence of referent groups varied according to their nationality. But, managers from both countries found implicit forms of institutionalizing ethics, such as organizational systems, culture, and leadership to be more effective in raising the ethical climate of organizations than explicit forms such as codes of ethics, ethics officers, and ethics ombudspeople. The results did not support the influence of moral reasoning level and locus of control type on managerial perceptions. The results suggested that in order for ethics institutionalization efforts to be successful, there must be a fit or compatibility between the implicit and explicit forms of institutionalizing ethics. The significance of this study rests on the fact that it enriched our understanding of how national culture affects managerial perceptions regarding the institutionalization of ethics. This is the first comparative study between U.S. managers and Indian managers that examines the variables, ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Jose, Anita

Impact of the Policies of the National Government on the Organization of Business and Management Styles in India

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to explore the policies of the government of British India and of the independent Republic of India relative to their impact on organizational structure, management practices and styles, and management education in business organizations in India. The British, who were responsible for the growth of some of the organized industries in India, also gave the country, among other things, a modern educational system. They left India, however, with a limited industrial base. There was a serious shortage of professional managers to meet the demands of growing industry. Upon independence, the national government through its policies encouraged the development of business and industries and brought awareness among business managers of the importance of management education.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Khan, Mohamed Afzal

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

Description: The objective of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) under the brand 'Solar India' is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. The scope of these guidelines is to select new projects and provide the necessary policy framework for development of projects under the "bundling scheme" for Phase I of the JNNSM.
Date: October 2010
Creator: India. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Our Planet : Green Economy - The New Big Deal

Description: Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to so called "Green Economy" measures such as large public transportation plans, tree planting programs, and government policies that provide incentives for improving energy efficiency.
Date: February 2009
Creator: Lean, Geoffrey

Our Planet : Sustainable Transport - on the right track

Description: Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to policies meant to reduce the carbon emissions from cars, trucks, and planes by converting fleets to cleaner, renewable fuels, and by moving government subsidies from highway infrastructure to public transportation.
Date: September 2009
Creator: Lean, Geoffrey