Since the 1980s, British-style brass bands - community ensembles modeled after the all-brass and percussion bands of Great Britain - have enjoyed a modest regeneration in the United States. During this same period, as many as 23 colleges and universities in the U.S. have founded their own curricular or extra-curricular brass band. The purpose of this research study was: to discover which schools sponsor a brass band currently; to discover which schools formerly sponsored a brass band but have since discontinued it; to describe the operational practices of collegiate brass bands in the U.S.; and to determine what collegiate brass band conductors perceive to be the challenges and benefits of brass band in the curriculum. Data for the study were collected between February, 2015 and February, 2016 using four custom survey instruments distributed to conductors of college and university brass bands. The results showed that 11 American collegiate institutions were sponsoring a brass band during the period of data collection. Additional findings included descriptions of the operations of collegiate brass bands, such as availability of credit, rehearsal time, and instrumentation. Results also included the conductors' reported perceptions that both challenges and benefits are inherent in student brass band participation, and that brass band is a positive experience for students. An additional 3 community-based brass bands, not sponsored by but located near a college or university, were found to include collegiate students among their player personnel. A total of 9 schools formerly sponsoring brass bands were found to have discontinued their program. A repertoire analysis of 733 titles of compositions performed by both active and formerly active brass bands revealed that bands performed original works for brass band nearly as often as transcribed or arranged works.
The purpose of this project is to conduct and analysis of the role and symbolism of the trumpet in two early eighteenth century Spanish music dramas: La Guerra de los Gigantes by Sebastian Duron and Los Desagravios de Troya by Joaquin Martinez de la Roca.
Recognizing the challenges small groups have to program a major work, in 2010, Joachim Linckelmann created a chamber ensemble arrangement of Johannes Brahms's "Ein deutsches Requiem." In 1869, J.M. Reiter-Biedermann published Brahms's four-hand piano arrangement of "Ein deutsches Requiem." Brahms's arrangement serves as an excellent comparison to the chamber ensemble version by Linckelmann, since it can be assumed that Brahms chose to highlight and focus on the parts he deemed the most important. This study was a comparative analysis of the two arrangements and was completed in three stages. The first stage documented every significant change in Joachim Linckelmann's recent chamber arrangement. The second stage classified each change as either a reduction, reorganization, or elimination. The final stage of the analysis was to compare the choices made by Linckelmann to those made by Brahms. The results show that Linckelmann's choices for reduction, reorganization, and elimination closely align with those of Brahms. The only differences between the arrangements can be attributed to Linckelmann's focus on retaining the original orchestral timbre and Brahms's focus on providing the original vocal parts.
The repertoire for trombone and percussion has grown in popularity since the later 1980s. There are currently more than 110 pieces written for the ensemble. This project follows the commissioning and collaboration of Dr. Blake Tyson, Professor of Percussion at the University of Central Arkansas and well known percussion composer, in the creation of a new piece for trombone and percussion. The project also created a survey of works for trombone and percussion duet that includes 32 works. The survey includes details such as specific percussion instrumentation range, tessitura, grade level, publisher, and a description of each piece.
Polymetric writing is an integral technique in contemporary compositional practice. Dan Welcher and Yo Goto are principal employers of this practice in the wind band medium. Their methods endure even the results of modern scholarship showing limited human perception of polyrhythmic events. This dissertation provides a comprehensive metric analysis of excerpts from the music of Welcher and Goto. Five examples are explored from major band works of each of the two composers. The analytical process in the study utilizes the metrical concept set forth by Maury Yeston, so that a comparison can be made between the rhythmic components of the competing meters. The results of the study show that both Welcher and Goto, in all ten excerpts, create polymetric sections containing elements that surpass the aural limits proposed by modern scholarship. Additionally, through identification of the misaligned metric layers causing each polymeter, pedagogical considerations are offered to aid performance of each identified excerpt.
Strategies for Developing Individual Education Programs for Public School Music Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyslexia explores the need for curriculum modifications, accommodations, and remediation techniques for beginner band students with specific learning disorders (SLDs) under the umbrella of Individual Education Programs (IEPs) or 504 plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or dyslexia. ADHD and dyslexia are the most common of the neurodevelopmental disorders, often affecting a student's ability to stay focused and attentive; remain quiet and well behaved; comprehend written, visual and/or oral instruction; organize thoughts and materials; exhibit good time management; execute fine and gross motor skills; retain and recall information; decode symbols; process information quickly and correctly; maintain healthy, interpersonal relationships; and overcome anxiety. In order to provide inclusive instruction, music educators should understand how to identify these (often comorbid) conditions and the musical challenges these students might encounter, including time/pulse, notation, rhythm, posture, fingerings, and sight-reading. A guide for instrumental directors and private instrumental teachers, "How to Accommodate or Modify Musical Instruction for a Student with ADHD and/or Dyslexia" is included in this dissertation to provide useful information, multisensory techniques, and suggestions to help students with these learning disabilities achieve better success in the music classroom.
The objectives of this research were to (1) characterize the demographics and vocal health history of collegiate-level singers, particularly those with a voice disorder and (2) describe and compare self-reported symptoms of singers across diagnostic categories of vocal fold disorders. Clinical reports of 56 collegiate-level singers (15 male and 41 female) who visited the Voice Diagnostic Clinic at the University of North Texas for voice evaluations between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information was extracted from clinical records including demographic data, vocal health history, self-reported voice-related symptoms, and voice diagnosis confirmed by strobolaryngoscopic examinations and phonatory function testing. Diagnoses of voice disorders were grouped under three categories: normal (i.e., no perceptible pathology), benign lesions and irritation/inflammation. Seven singers were diagnosed as normal, 27 (51.8%) with benign lesions, and 22 (39.3%) with irritation/inflammation. All singers diagnosed as normal were females. Female singers have twice as many benign lesions as irritation/inflammation whereas males presented the opposite pattern. Nodules, polyps, cysts and irritation/inflammation were the most common voice disorders. Singers with allergies and a past history of voice problems demonstrated a higher incidence of voice disorders. The top five self-reported vocal symptoms were worse voice in the morning (50%), pain in throat (46.4%), voice worse with prolonged use (44.6%), vocal fatigue (42.9%), and breathiness (41.1%). Self-reported symptoms are not a reliable screening tool to determine presence or absence of vocal pathology. Voice teachers must be familiar with the singing and speaking voice of each student, so as to perceive early onset of vocal attrition symptoms and encourage the student in seeking medical attention.
Among the existing solo instrumental concertos of Joseph Haydn's oeuvre are two concertos for brass instruments. These are the Horn Concerto in D Major (Hob. VIId: 3) and Trumpet Concerto in E-flat Major (Hob. VIIe: 1). In addition to their standing as the only two concertos for solo brass instruments written by Haydn in existence, the two concertos provide a unique opportunity for insight into the history of the concerto genre and Haydn's change in compositional style. This is because of their chronological position within Haydn's oeuvre; the Horn Concerto was composed in 1762 during the early years of Haydn's employment with the Esterházy family and the Trumpet Concerto in 1796 as the last known concerto written by Haydn. Significant changes had occurred during that thirty four year time-span, not only in Haydn's life, but also within the field of music. This dissertation examines some of these changes and provides a comparative analysis of these two pieces. More specifically, it employs Schenkerian analysis of the voice-leading and structure of both concertos to examine the transformation in Haydn's compositional style and show the evolution of concerto form. This evolution in style between the Horn Concerto and Trumpet Concerto is most prominently marked by a loosening of compositional constraints, including freer formal procedures, instrumentation, harmonic structures, and an increase in chromaticism (aided by the new chromatic abilities of the trumpet). This document provides an in-depth comparative analysis within an often overlooked genre of music and gives insight into changes in Haydn's compositional style and the concerto genre.
Un-Yung La was one of the first Korean composers of Western style choral music who used Korean folk elements in his composers. According to Un-Yung La's musical theory, which he demonstrated in Easter Cantata. Korean-style melody and rhythm were created based on Korean traditional scales and he also used Western-style harmonization. He attempted a new Korean style of expression through Sikimsae technique in Korean traditional vocal music genres: Pansori and Sijo. The purpose of this paepr is to discuss traditional Korean performance elements related to melody, harmony, and rhythm as employed in La's Easter Cantata. The study will increase the knowledge of western conductors who wish to understand Korean folk music in preparation for performance of choral works such as La's Easter Cantata.
Self-handicapping is a psychological behavior people engage in to protect their self-image, project a desired image to others, and to augment feelings of success and achievement. Self-handicapping occurs when individuals have a positive but uncertain self-image about their competence in an arena of life fundamental to their self-identity. Musicians have been underrepresented in self-handicapping studies; yet the very competitive nature of their education and craft, the strong identification musicians have as musicians, and the frequent challenges during all phases of development to their abilities would suggest they are extremely vulnerable to developing self-handicaps. This dissertation discusses the theoretical components of self-handicapping, the personality traits typically exhibited by high self-handicappers, causes, types, and possible motivations for self-handicapping, short and long term effects of the behavior, and the implications these concepts have to the musician community. In addition, it contains the results of an extensive survey of musicians which examines self-handicapping tendencies, depression, imposter phenomenon, and self-esteem ratings to determine 1) if musicians self-handicap, 2) how the four constructs are related to each other within the musician population, 3) if other factors concerning musicians and self-handicapping are related, 4) areas for future research. Several significant relationships involving the four constructs tested, as well as a significant difference between the self-handicapping behaviors of professional and amateur players were found.
Craig Hella Johnson (b. 1963) has emerged as a leader in choral music over the last 20 years. As the conductor of the Austin, TX based chorus Conspirare Johnson implemented the European model of bringing singers together from all over the country to assemble for concerts and recordings over a short period of time. He is known for his collage programs which bring together many styles of music bound by a central theme. Through these programs he has written and arranged many pieces which are now published and being performed by choirs across the globe. Johnson's most significant work to date is a 90 minute passion oratorio which details the story of Matthew Shepard, a college student murdered in a hate crime in 1998. Considering Matthew Shepard (2016) is a wonderful example of Johnson's composition and programming style. Though not a traditional passion story, it is part of the evolution of the genre in the 20th and 21st centuries. The passion oratorio has seen a resurgence in the past 50 years and has undergone a transformation in that time. These new works pay homage to the history of the genre but have begun to stretch it in terms of form and content. This study will highlight the evolution of the passion oratorio focusing on Johnson's Considering Matthew Shepard and offer some insight into the composers style and how this work represents a modern treatment of the passion oratorio.
Too be successful and be effective teaching, one must be familiar with a variety of methods in instruction and teaching strategies. This also includes becoming aware of any challenges that student and teachers might confront at all levels. Advanced-level piano students, such as those who are at the collegiate level, study the masterpieces of the great composers. However, they may still be in need of developing certain technical and musical skills which should have been covered at the late intermediate level. This study focuses both on exercises and on late intermediate-level repertoire. This study examined the methodical approaches of Russian technical school primarily through the exercises of Theodor Leschetizky, Isabelle Vengerova, and Heinrich Neuhaus and compared these exercises with passages from appropriate great literature suitable for late intermediate-level students. This may not only in preparing for more advanced piano repertoire but also broadening general piano techniques. All together, this may further promote in prevention of musical problems that might occur at a more advanced-level of piano study.
Artie Shaw's Interlude in B-flat is unknown to many in the classical clarinet world and remains unperformed by clarinetists, despite its historical importance as one of the earliest Third Stream compositions, the earliest composition of its type in the clarinet repertoire. This prompts the question, why? This document explores four possible reasons for the marginalization of Interlude in B-flat. First, Shaw's historical narrative typically places him within the jazz world and not the classical world. Classical clarinetists may assume a Shaw composition will require a jazz background and experience beyond their abilities, namely improvisation. Second, the instrumentation, string quartet plus jazz combo, is atypical, making it difficult to program. Third, jazz and classical educational worlds do not necessarily overlap or interact, and neither has taken ownership of this Third Stream composition. Lastly, manuscripts, recordings, and other materials for Interlude in B-flat are limited and not readily available. Because Artie Shaw is not only a significant American clarinetist but also an important composer within the Third Stream narrative, Interlude in B-flat should be known and performed. This project aimed to promote the understanding and accessibility of this important and unknown composition to the classical clarinet world by providing an accessible arrangement of the work for clarinet and piano.
Edwin Fissinger (1920-1990) was a conductor and prolific choral composer. His compositional techniques, settings of text, jazz-influenced harmonies, and melodic propulsion fulfill an important role in each of his compositions. In the eight choral cycles he composed, Fissinger unified each cycle through thematic and textual elements. Although this resulted in a logical progression of poetry and music, Fissinger's final choral cycle, Prairie Scenes, was not published as he intended. Rather, individual selections from the cycle were published by two different publishing houses, out of sequence, and sixteen years apart. Consequently, the eight pieces are not currently performed together. Today's choral conductors, singers, and audience do not fully appreciate the value of this choral cycle and cannot understand its intended context. It is necessary to provide an in-depth investigation of the original eight-piece work Prairie Scenes: A Choral Cycle to place the appropriate organizational set together. This study illustrates the importance of the unification of Fissinger's Prairie Scenes: A Choral Cycle through a study of the poetry, the thematic material as it relates to the natural elements of the prairies, the manuscripts, and interviews with Fissinger's publishers and colleagues. An examination of Fissinger's compositional technique to convey the meaning of the text reveals a clear link between Prairie Scenes and the North Dakota prairies and its seasons. A description of the development of the choral cycle throughout music history and a biography of Edwin Fissinger and his compositional style are also included.
Marilyn Shrude is a champion for contemporary concert music. Throughout her career, she has written multiple works including the saxophone that utilize its unique timbre. Atonality is a chief characteristic of her compositional style. Her contributions to the saxophone repertoire include solos, duos with piano, chamber works, quartets and larger works with band. This study surveys five chamber pieces that include saxophone with diverse instruments written by Marilyn Shrude. The pieces includes are Splintered Visions (1985), Notturno: In Memorium Toru Takemitsu (1996), Transparent Eyes (2000), Face of the Moon (2000) and Within Silence (2012). The analysis of each work includes information pertaining to the creation of cohesion and atonality throughout the piece.
Beginning with his High Mass written in 1994, popular Swedish composer Sven-David Sandström modeled multiple compositions after famous canonical works using the same texts and/or instrumentation. Sandström wants to be compared tot he greatest, specifically in how a twenty-first century composer responds to a text set , in the case of J.S. Bach's , over 250 years ago. His setting of Matthäuspassion (MP), which uses the same libretto as J.S. Bach, is his most extensive non-operatic work, one he considers his most significant, and likely his last work based on a preexisting model. This study 1) examines the influence of J.S. Bach's MP on Sandström's setting in the use of characters and chorales, 2) illustrates Sandström's compositional language in MP based on recent studies on his choral music, 3) describes his use of musical symbolism, and 4) discusses his religious and spiritual motivations behind the work, as well as his preferred uses in performance.
By considering sixteenth-century English chorister training, modern singers of Renaissance vocal music are informed of the practical and academic demands unique to Elizabethan musicians and audiences. Clauses in relevant choirmaster contracts provide an insight into pedagogical expectations of teachers and their choristers. Studies included plainchant, grammar, Latin, rhetoric, improvisation, poetry, morality, instrumental instruction on organ and viols, and composition. For those not associated with cathedrals and collegiate chapels, Thomas Morley outlined the educational sequence of his teacher's generation in his 1597 publication, "A plaine and easie introduction to practicall musicke." Morley presented education as discourse between students and teacher, and covered the fundamentals of singing, improvisation, and composition. With the digitization of and online access to Renaissance performing sources, present-day performers can readily examine the design of sixteenth-century manuscript and printed partbooks. Performance practice recommendations can be gleaned from the physical nature of the music that once equipped the Renaissance chorister with the visual means necessary for expression. Combined with principles of chorister training, this project suggests learned choices in pronunciation, tone, intonation, phrasing, pitch, text underlay, musica ficta, rhetoric, and expression for the prima pars of William Byrd's middle period motet, "Tristitia et anxietas."
As opportunities to perform as a soloist diminish, more pianists consider chamber and orchestral playing as an alternative solution. By so doing, ample performance opportunities are introduced. Although most university music programs offer ensemble courses for pianists and have begun to offer degrees with an emphasis in accompaniment, their curriculum lacks instructions specifically designed to train and prepare pianists for playing in large ensembles, especially wind bands. This dissertation addresses the difficulties, which one might encounter in large ensemble collaboration, and recommends useful suggestions for acquiring functional skills to solve these difficulties. Pianists can attain professional status by acquiring the functional skills presented in each chapter. The goal of this study is to provide pedagogical support and direction for novice pianists in the larger ensemble collaboration.
Younghi Pagh-Paan is an internationally renowned contemporary Korean-German composer. While her music has been strongly influenced by German contemporary musical aesthetics, her compositions also possess Korean musical and cultural influences. In her works, Pagh-Paan employs Western instruments and musical languages that incorporate contemporary techniques such as vibratos, flatter tonguing, pitch bends, and legato glissandi. These effects are thought to imitate the sounds created by traditional Korean instruments. Man-Nam I, for clarinet and string trio, was the second work that Pagh-Paan composed following her move from Korea to Germany. The piece includes many sounds representative of traditional Korean instruments, along with significant symbolism of the sociological background, culture and history of Korean people. The study of Man-Nam I focuses on unraveling hidden elements of Korean traditional music and culture, and addresses the need for the performers to understand its rich Korean influences in order to reach a deeper interpretation of Pagh-Paan's work.
There is a puacity of original works from the Baroque Era for the guitar. Transcriptions, especially music originally for harpsichord, complement the guitarist's repertoire. Dominating the priviledged space in the guitar canon, represented by Baroque transcriptions, are the composers Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel and Domenico Scarlatti. Underrepresented in the Baroque guitar canon is the music of Spanish composers, most noteworthy, the harpsichordist Padre Antonio Soler, who composed more than 120 sonatas for his instrument. Music is culturally defined and it is clear, through an analysis of the keyboard works of Soler, that his music was imbued with the salient features of his place and time. There is an implicit connection between the guitar and the non-guitar music produced in Spain as guitar gestures are part of the national emblem; this study makes an explicit connection between the harpsichord music of Soler and the modern guitar. The Spanish Baroque style, epitomized by the works of Soler, provide a clear objective for transcription. The current study produces a transcription of Padre Antonio Soler's Sonata No. R.27 and Sonata No. R.100, as well as an analysis of the sonatas to facilitate interpretation for performance and an explanation of the transcription process. The lacunae of Spanish Baroque guitar transcriptions that exists in the repertoire will be partially filled by adding Soler to the distinguished list of composers that currently inhabit the guitarists's library.
In the case of Concerto for Orchestra, Béla Bartók transcribed one of his most emblematic orchestral compositions to his own solo instrument, the piano. This transcription's primary function was to suffice for ballet rehearsal accompaniment for the choreography to be introduced alongside a performance of the orchestral work. György Sándor, Bartók's pupil and pianist, prepared the original manuscript for publication. Logan Skelton, pianist-composer, used this published edition as a point of departure for his own piano arrangement of the same work. György Sándor took an editorial approach to the score and followed the manuscript as literally as possible. On the other hand, Logan Skelton treated the same musical material daringly, striving for technical simplicity and a richer orchestral sound. The purpose of this study is to examine and identify the contrasting treatments pertaining to playability, text, and texture in the Bartók-Sándor edition and Skelton arrangement of the two movements, Elegia and Finale, of the Concerto for Orchestra piano arrangement.
Paul Robert Fauchet's Symphonie pour Musique d'Harmonie, known in the United States as Symphony in B-flat, is a four-movement composition spanning nearly thirty minutes in length and written in the style of the late romantic composers. Despite its place as one of the first symphonies for wind band, a performance of the piece that represents the composer's 1926 orchestration is difficult due to the inclusion of instruments that are no longer in common practice, including bugles, alto horns, and saxhorns. Later American editions of the work by James Robert Gillette (1933) and Frank Campbell-Watson (1948/1949) replaced these instruments, but also took several other liberties with orchestration and voicing. The primary purpose of this study was the creation of a performance edition of the Symphony for modern wind band that is accessible to a larger audience of performers and listeners. The method involved in creating the modern edition eliminates errors of extant editions and clarifies a number of the discrepancies surrounding the symphony's multiple publications. This edition attempts to retain the composer's voicing and orchestration choices. To accomplish this, the present project considered where modern instrumentation differed from the original sources and attempted to balance timbral similarities between those instruments, while also considering ease of comprehension for a modern ensemble to perform the work. Sources used to create this edition included all published editions of scores and parts, as well as a newly created full score of the 1926 printed parts. The study concludes with the inclusion of the full score of the new performance edition.
For woodwind and brass performers, intraoral pressure is the measure of force exerted on the surface area of the oral cavity by the air transmitted from the lungs. This pressure is the combined effect of the volume of air forced into the oral cavity by the breathing apparatus and the resistance of the embouchure, reed opening, and instrument’s back pressure. Recent research by Michael Adduci shows that intraoral pressures during oboe performance can exceed capabilities for corresponding increases in sound output, suggesting a potentially hazardous situation for the development of soft tissue disorders in the throat and velopharyngeal insufficiencies. However, considering that oboe back pressure is perhaps the highest among the woodwind instruments, this problem may or may not occur in other woodwinds. There has been no research of this type for the other woodwind instruments. My study was completed to expand the current research by comparing intraoral pressure (IOP) and sound pressure when performing with a characteristic tone on oboe, clarinet, flute, bassoon, and saxophone. The expected results should show that, as sound pressure levels increase, intraoral pressure will also increase. The subjects, undergraduate and graduate music majors at the University of North Texas, performed a series of musical tasks on bassoon, clarinet, flute, oboe, and alto saxophone. The musical tasks cover the standard ranges of each instrument, differences between vibrato and straight-tone, and a variety of musical dynamics. The data was collected and examined for trends. The specific aims of this study are to (1) determine whether there is a correlation between IOP and sound pressure, (2) shed light on how well each instrument responds to rapid fluctuation, and (3) determine which instruments are most efficient when converting air pressure into sound output. Results of this study raised concerns shared by previous studies – that woodwind players are ...
The purpose of this research is to document how Claude Debussy’s compositional style was used in Louis Vierne’s organ music in the early twentieth century. In addition, this research seeks standard nineteenth-century practices in Vierne’s music. Vierne lived at the same time as Debussy, who largely influenced his music. Nevertheless, his practices were varied on the basis of Vierne’s own musical ideas and development, which were influenced by established nineteenth-century practices. This research focuses on the music of Louis Vierne’s Pièces de fantaisie, Opp. 51, 53, 54, and 55 (1926-1927). In order to examine Debussy’s practices and standard nineteenth-century practices, this project will concentrate on a stylistic analysis that demonstrates innovations in melody, harmony, and mode compared to the existing musical styles.
Factual evidence concerning the ancestry of the clarinet has been a perpetual topic of debate among musicologists and organologists. Scholars have widely agreed that the clarinet, first documented in 1710, emerged from the baroque invention of the chalumeau (invented circa 1690), which in itself was an improvement upon the recorder. Considering the chalumeau’s short lifespan as the predominant single reed instrument in the early eighteenth century, the chalumeau inspired a monumental amount of literature that includes vocal and instrumental genres written by distinguished composers. Vivaldi is considered to be the most significant composer that wrote for both clarinet and chalumeau; he wrote for both instruments simultaneously throughout his life whereas his contemporaries seemingly replaced the chalumeau with the clarinet. This project will discuss Vivaldi’s proximity to the chalumeau and the clarinet and will provide an in-depth analysis of relevant works by the composer to determine how he, unlike his contemporaries, treated the chalumeau and the clarinet as separate and equally viable instruments. Following a brief history of the chalumeau and clarinet in Italy and a relevant biography of Vivaldi (Ch. 2), this document will discuss the integral Vivaldi compositions that include clarinet and chalumeau and the role of the clarinet or chalumeau in each work (Ch. 3). Chapter 4 solves the mystery of why Vivaldi continued to compose for the chalumeau while his contemporaries replaced the chalumeau with the clarinet.
As the bassoon has evolved over time, the music written for the instrument has evolved around it, and was many times the catalyst for its evolution. Bassoon music of the seventeenth through early twentieth centuries has defined much of the curricula for bassoon studies, and has established how we consider and experience the bassoon. We experience, write, and consume music in vastly different ways than just a generation ago. Humans use technology for the most basic of tasks. Composers are using the technology of our generation to compose music that is a reflection of our time. This is a significant aspect of art music today, and bassoonists are barely participating in the creation of this new repertoire. Performance practice often considers only the musical score; interactive electronic music regularly goes beyond that. The combination of technological challenges and inexperience can make approaching electroacoustic music a daunting and inaccessible type of music for bassoonists. These issues require a different language to the performance practice: one that addresses music, amplification, computer software, hardware, the collaboration between performer and technology, and often the performer and composer. The author discusses problems that performers face when rehearsing and performing interactive electroacoustic works for bassoon, and offers some solutions.
Etudes have been composed to address the primary challenges found in ten selected euphonium wind band pieces. Each work was chosen based on its frequency of occurrence in military band auditions as well as its appearance in excerpt books and journal articles. Practice drills, practice variations, and overtraining studies are the primary concepts used for composing each etude. List of selected works: (1) Roman Carnival Overture Op. 9, Hector Berlioz; (2) First Suite in E-flat for Military Band Op. 28 No. 1, Gustav Holst; (3) Barnum and Bailey's Favorite, Karl King; (4) The Melody Shop, Karl King; (5) Aegean Festival Overture, Andreas Makris arr. Albert Bader; (6) Theme and Variations Op. 43 A, Arnold Schoenberg; (7) Festive Overture Op. 96, Dmitri Shostakovich arr. Donald Hunsberger; (8) Festival Variations, Claude T. Smith; (9) The Stars and Stripes Forever, John Philip Sousa; and (10) Suite from the Ballet: Pineapple Poll, Arthur Sullivan arr. Charles Mackerras.
The ability to sight-read well is held as a highly regarded and important skill in music performance and education. Over the past 90 years, researchers have investigated several aspects of music sight-reading, especially those attributes possessed by skilled sight-readers. A significant and recurrent finding from this body of research is the relationship between sight-reading and rhythm recognition. Though these studies have found positive effects and correlations between rhythm recognition and sight-reading, they have been limited and indirect. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the effects of (a) practicing rhythms on a single pitch and (b) practicing rhythms with full-range scales and their direct effects on sight-reading ability in saxophonists at the college level. The primary objective in this research was to determine if one method was more effective than another in developing sight-reading skills. The participants (N = 74) consisted of college students who were enrolled in saxophone lessons at a university in the southwestern United States. Participants were administered a sight-reading pre-test at the beginning of an 8-week treatment period. After pre-testing, students were blocked into two groups. The first treatment group was assigned to practice rhythms on a single pitch and the second treatment group was assigned to practice rhythms combined with full-range major scales. After the treatment period, participants were administered a sight-reading post-test. A 2-way mixed ANOVA was used to determine if there were differences between treatment groups, differences from pre-test to post-test, and if there was a significant interaction between treatment and time. There was no significant difference between treatment groups, F (1, 72) = .035, p = .852, partial η2 = .000028. There was a significant effect for time, indicating that both treatment groups improved from pre-to post test, F (1, 72) = 83.499, p < .001, partial η2 = .537. There ...
This dissertation presents evidence for the influence which tenor Enrico Caruso had on the Italian Vocal Tradition. This impact was clearly boosted by the revolution realized in the fledgling recording industry, and the recordable disc. In the years of 1902-1920 gramophones became commonplace, and collecting recordings became an interest for many. This new technology required specialized skills, and was especially suited to certain qualities of voice. Caruso enjoyed immense success in this medium, in recording over 250 records. Italian vocal style at the turn of the century was changing, and Caruso employed a new "modern" style in his singing. His interpretive decisions, vocal method, and repertoire which he championed had an impact on the vocal tradition of future generations. Comparison of his recordings with tenors Fernando de Lucia, Giuseppe Anselmi, and Alessandro Bonci shows a marked contrast in styles of "the old school" and Caruso's "more straightforward" approach. A collection of historical documents for those who succeeded him include many biographies, reviews, and quotes to demonstrate the extent of his influence. Recordings also show a movement toward "the Caruso Sound." Jussi Bjoerling, Franco Corelli, Richard Tucker, Mario Lanza, and Luciano Pavarotti were all influenced by the great Caruso. Almost 100 years have passed since he sang his last performance. He continues to inspire singers to this day, through his recordings and legacy passed on by many generations. He is the ideal, the measuring stick for all tenors to follow, and continues even to today.
Music travels across the past in the form of composers borrowing from each other. Such musical borrowings and quotations involve not only the use of melodic materials but also musical structures, texts, symbolism and other types of inspiration. The pre-existing musical idea being used is linked to a specific memory of a particular composer and time. The artistic allusions of composers connect the present and the past. Music also travels across the present and into the future. The outcome of contemporary composers borrowing from each other influences the present period and affects later composers' musical inspiration, i.e., it affects future composers, and therefore, the future. Composers frequently refer to melodies or musical idea from contemporaries and reinterpret them in their own compositions. This is largely because composers do not write in isolation and have been inspired and influenced by contemporary musicians and cultural contexts. However, these musical borrowings sometimes raise questions about the composers' creativity and authenticity. This is largely due to the nature of inspiration and imagination, which determines who or what is original. With this in mind, why do composers still borrow musical ideas despite the risks involved? In what ways do they overcome criticism and demonstrate the excellence of their own compositions while referring to the work of others? In what ways do artistic allusions influence new compositions? In this dissertation, I attempt to examine these questions and address the reasons for and the effects of musical quotations and allusions.
This dissertation explores the themes of collaboration and creativity in the relationship between arranger Nelson Riddle and vocalists Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald. It examines the balance between structure and freedom as well as the specific musical results that emerge from collaboration between an arranger and vocalists who are considered among the greatest in their fields. An examination of their interactions, musical scores, and performances, reveals that the constraints that are present in a collaborative effort can lead the artists to find a shared process to make a creative, unified product.
Franz Schreker (1878-1934) was a Jewish-Austrian composer of great success during the first decades of the twentieth century. Schreker’s reputation diminished after 1933 when Hitler came to power and, in 1938, his compositions were labeled Entartete Musik (“degenerate music”) by the Nazis in a public display in Düsseldorf. The Third Reich and post-war Germany saw Schreker as a decadent outcast, misunderstanding his unique style that combined elements of romanticism, expressionism, impressionism, symbolism, and atonality. This study of Schreker’s Lieder will pursue two goals. First, it will analyze the Mutterlieder (before 1898), the Fünf Gesänge (1909), and the first piece from Vom ewigen Leben (1923) stylistically. Schreker composed nearly four dozen Lieder, incorporating a wide range of styles and ideas. By studying and performing these songs written at various points in his career (including early songs, songs written after he met Schoenberg, and his last songs during the height of his fame), I hope to develop a clearer understanding of how Schreker synthesized the many cultural forces and artistic movements that seem to have influenced his compositional style. Second, this study will consider the sociopolitical circumstances that fueled the disintegration of his reputation. This disintegration occurred not just during the Third Reich, but also afterwards, notably in an often discussed essay by Theodor Adorno. Only in the last thirty years have scholarly voices critical of such rejections of Schreker emerged. My ultimate goal, then, is to join this reevaluation, studying and contextualizing this repertory to develop a new understanding of an oft-neglected chapter in the history of the German Lied.
Bulgaria, though a fairly small Eastern European country, boasts an ancient history of folk traditions and music; however, very few notated works exist due to the people's primitive lifestyle throughout Bulgaria's history. Singing and dancing as well as creating instruments from wood and animal skin were considered an integral part of everyday life, equal to cooking, sewing, herding, or farming; in fact, one almost always accompanied the other. Thus, more than 1500 years of folklore was orally passed on and preserved generation after generation; however, nothing was notated until only very recently when Bulgarians realized the cultural and national value of their history. After the liberation from Ottoman Rule (1453-1877) a nationalist movement spread throughout the Balkan countries, which resulted in the emergence of Bulgarian composers. Music and songs from the local folk traditions evolved, developed, and - with notation - became the foundation for the vocal and instrumental music of the so-called first generation of Bulgarian composers. Around the turn of the century, many Bulgarian artists and musicians traveled to Western Europe (mostly Austria, Germany, and Russia) and upon their return, their artistic output created an original mixture of Bulgarian national folk with influences from Western classical music. After World War II, Bulgaria became one of the countries governed by the Communist regime, which restricted all travel to and contact with the West, including cultural influences from the West. Gradually, as the Communist regime became less controlling until it dissolved completely in 1989, restrictions on music and culture started to lift. Petar Christoskov (1917-2006), considered part of the second generation of Bulgarian composers, began his compositional career immediately after returning from Germany to a communist-ruled Bulgaria. His first opus was the set of 12 Caprices for Solo Violin (1953, formerly known as Concert Etudes in Folk Style); they have ...
David Baker (b. 1931) is an educator, composer, and jazz legend. He has composed at least fifteen works that include the clarinet. Baker’s Clarinet Sonata (1989) has become a standard of clarinet repertoire and a popular recital inclusion. His chamber work Heritage: A Tribute to Great Clarinetists (1996) interweaves solo transcriptions of five jazz clarinetists. The compositional style of Baker’s clarinet works frequently links jazz and classical idioms. The two works discussed in this document are excellent examples for classically trained musicians who would like to increase their ability and experience in interpreting jazz styles. The purpose of this document is: (1) to provide background, style, and performance considerations for Baker’s Clarinet Sonata and Heritage: A Tribute for Great Clarinetists, for Clarinet, Violin, Piano and Double Bass; (2) based on these style elements, to provide suggestions for interpreting jazz-style works for classically trained clarinetists; and (3) to archive Baker’s published and unpublished clarinet compositions. Appendices include transcripts of interviews with David Baker and other experts in this field (James Campbell, Rosana Eckert, Mike Steinel and Steven Harlos).
The Concerto for Bassoon by Andrzej Panufnik is a valuable addition to bassoon literature. It provides a rare opportunity for the bassoon soloist to perform a piece which is strongly programmatic. The purpose of this document is to examine the historical and theoretical context of the Concerto for Bassoon with special emphasis drawn to Panufnik's understanding of religion in connection with Polish national identity and the national struggle for democratic independence galvanized by the murder of Father Jerzy Popieluszko in 1984. Panufnik's relationship with the Polish communist regime, both prior to and after his 1954 defection to England, is explored at length. Each of these aspects informed Panufnik's compositional approach and the expressive qualities inherent in the Concerto for Bassoon. The Concerto for Bassoon was commissioned by the Polanki Society of Milwaukee, Wisconsin and was premiered by the Milwaukee Chamber Players, with Robert Thompson as the soloist. While Panufnik intended the piece to serve as a protest against the repression of the Soviet government in Poland, the U. S. context of the commission and premiere is also examined. Additionally, the original manuscript and subsequent piano reduction are compared. Although the Concerto for Bassoon has been subject to formal analysis by several scholars, discussion of the piece is generally contained within a larger discussion of several other compositions, and a comprehensive analysis of the piece has not yet been presented. This document contains a thorough formal analysis of all movements, as well as analysis of Panufnik's compositional style within the context of serialism, postmodernism, and the new Polish school of composition. The Concerto fro Bassoon features several devices common to Panufnik's larger opus, including the se of a common three-note cell, strong contrasts between section and movements, and symmetrical patterns of transposition, metric alteration, dynamic alteration, and registral expansion.
British composer Brian Lock merges the composition styles of Alexander Goehr, Henryk Górecki and Witold Lutoslawski in his innovative works for instrumental sounds and electronics. His most recent work for flute, Sonic Archaeologies No.1, was premiered at the University of North Texas by Mary Karen Clardy, flute; Brian Lock, piano/electric keyboard; and Daniel Pardo, laptop/live mixing. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide flutists with artistic and technical guidance in preparing this work for flute, prerecorded orchestra, interactive electronics and improvisatory accompaniment. Sonic Archaeologies No. 1, a piece in five movements (Black Rain, Psychomania, Kodo, Susperia, and Deep in the Machine), incorporates contemporary techniques to create sounds other than the Western concert flute, with the use of live reinforcement devices such as microphones and time-based audio effects within a D.A.W. (Digital Audio Workstation.) Reggae, Hip-Hop and cinematic styles are juxtaposed within the work, fusing current genres with traditional rhythmic forms like the ones found in a bourrée. As the solo instrument, flute provides more textural than melodic elements, and the performer is required to interact with an unpredictable sonic soundscape as a result of the improvisatory element of the keyboards and computer. The notation of Sonic Archaeologies No.1 invites interpretation blending and altering traditional sounds through microphones and a processed signal flow. The performance guide will address acoustical considerations when the flute sound is being manipulated by dynamic and time-based processors in live performance; the interaction between the flute, electronics and acoustic spaces; the elements of sound production that provide interpretation of contemporary popular styles; and the opportunities for the performer to find, explore and develop artistry beyond the limitations of music notation.
This dissertation considers the use of orchestra bells as a solo instrument. I use three examples taken from chamber literature (Drumming by Steve Reich, Why Patterns? by Morton Feldman, and Ave by Franco Donatoni) to demonstrate uses of the instrument in an ensemble setting. I use six solo, unaccompanied orchestra bell pieces (Twelve Bell Canons by Robert Morris, Katarynka by Marta Ptaszyńska, Over by Stuart Saunders Smith, A Little Suite and an Encore Tango by Will Ogdon, Breaks Through by Lafayette Gilchrist, and Bells for New Orleans by Roscoe Mitchell) to illustrate the instrument’s expressive, communicative ability. In the discussion of each piece, I include brief background information, the composer’s musical language in the piece and performance considerations. I interviewed composers of these solo works to complete the research for this document to discuss their musical language and their thoughts on writing for solo orchestra bells.
The purpose of this study is to explore neoclassical elements present in Krenek’s George Washington Variations. By identifying the stylistic features associated with the eighteenth and twentieth centuries, the study will examine Krenek’s application of his neoclassical tendencies. Key neoclassical elements include musical form and structure, key relationships, melody and harmony, and chromaticism. Since at this time there is little research on Krenek’s piano works, and none on the George Washington Variations, the result of this examination provides pianists and instructors with historically constructive information about Krenek’s musical style, as well as a deeper understanding of Krenek’s Neoclassicism in his George Washington Variations.
Most Korean students study very little French music during their pre-college years. A survey of ten Korean piano professors as well as an investigation into the annual set repertoire from universities, music high schools, middle schools and national competitions in Korea show that French repertoire appears very seldom on the list of required repertoire. Therefore, it is easy for Korean students to neglect French piano music. By the time students reach undergraduate or graduate school and are required to play the music of Debussy and Ravel for the first time, they find themselves at a serious disadvantage. The purpose of this paper is to provide a pedagogical guide for Korean teachers who wish to offer their beginning, middle school and high school students a good foundation in the style of French piano music. This syllabus will introduce a series of French piano pieces, from Couperin and Rameau as well as Chaminade and Fauré to the easier pieces of Debussy and Ravel, which will lead to the ultimate goal of interpreting aspects of French tone, style, technique, and cultural context involved in the eventual successful performance of the more advanced pieces of Debussy and Ravel, which are the bedrock of French piano music. One of the most significant advantages of this syllabus is that it does not skip any steps in the repertoire.
This dissertation verifies Professor Han, Xianguang as the most significant Chinese horn player and teacher in the twentieth century. He was the first Chinese horn player to win in an international horn competition and the first president of the China Horn Association. He was the premier performer of the only known Chinese horn concerto: Fantasy-Concerto <In Memory>, composed by Professor Shi Yongkang in 1962. Professor Han also served as a judge for many international horn solo and chamber music competitions, and was president of the first (2012), second (2013), and third (2014) CCOM (Central College of Music) International Horn Festivals in Beijing. This dissertation explores Professor Han’s professional and pedagogical contributions to the horn world. These contributions will, in turn, provide an overview of the evolution of the horn and horn playing in China. The horn, historically and musically an instrument of Western Europe, was transported to Asia by many horn players and teachers, with Professor Han the most significant figure in its evolution in China. During Professor Han’s 60-year teaching career, he developed a special pedagogical system. A number of his outstanding horn students, including two sons, eventually became principal hornists in orchestras throughout China, with a few hired by European orchestras, and some have won international competitions. A secondary purpose of this dissertation is to offer historical and pedagogical information to young horn players, especially those of Asian descent, to give them a more thorough musical and aesthetical understanding of their instrument in the Asian history and culture. As part of his DMA Lecture Recital on September 6, 2015, the author presented the US premiere of Fantasy-Concerto <In Memory> in its piano reduction.
Ferdinand Ries is credited as the composer of the Concerto for Two Horns, WoO. 19 preserved in the Berlin State Library. Dated 1811, ostensibly Ries wrote it in the same year as his Horn Sonata, Op. 34, yet the writing for the horns in the Concerto is significantly more demanding. Furthermore, Ries added to the mystery by not claiming the Concerto in his personal catalog of works or mentioning it in any surviving correspondence. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the authorship of the Concerto for Two Horns and offer possible explanations for the variance in horn writing. Biographical information of Ries is given followed by a stylistic analysis of Ries’s known works. A stylistic analysis of the Concerto for Two Horns, WoO. 19 is offered, including a handwriting comparison between the Concerto for Two Horns and Ries’s Horn Sonata. Finally, possible explanations are proposed that rationalize the variance in horn writing between the Concerto for Two Horns, WoO. 19 and Ries’s other compositions that include the horn.
One of the most important ways to understand Olivier Messiaen’s musical language is through the lens of the theological ideas that many of his works convey. He considers expressing his Christian faith to be the primary purpose in his music. Through his idiosyncratic technique, Messiaen gives power and life to his religious music that he combines with his interest in literature, musical analysis, poetic imagery and symbolism, his love for theatre, and his compositional and organ abilities. The abundant studies of Messiaen’s works deal with the intricacies of his musical language, yet most of these studies barely discuss his theological ideas. Nevertheless, technical analysis of his music poses immense challenges, especially in the domains of melody and harmony. Although my approach is unconventional and do not follow any existing system, I base my technical and theological analyses mainly from Messiaen's technique, his commentaries and his references to the Scriptures. The “Combat de la mort et de la vie” is the heart of Les Corps glorieux in both technical and theological aspects. It is an intricate musical artwork where Messiaen demonstrates his melodic and harmonic developments using his idiosyncratic language, and through symbolism portrays the most complex of all drama according to Christian theology—the story of Jesus Christ's Passion and Resurrection. My research can relate directly to a more informed and convincing performance of the work, and can contribute a different perspective to the study, understanding, and appreciation of Messiaen's theologically inspired works.
Sir William Herschel (1738–1822) was a prominent musician and composer in the 18th century England. He worked as a concert director in several cities. In addition, he was a master of various instruments, and an active solo performer. Herschel composed numerous orchestral and solo works. His music, however, is hardly known today. Many of his compositions remained unpublished, among them the Twenty-Four Caprices for Solo Violin. These caprices are one of the earliest technical studies for the instrument, which must be brought to the intermediate violin students’ and violin teachers’ attentions. The purpose of this study is to create a practical edition of the Twenty-Four Caprices for Solo Violin, and to make it available for violinists by publishing them. The dissertation will look into the performance practice of Hershel’s caprices. Based on a thorough research of the violin methods, the edition will provide fingerings, bowings, and practicing suggestions which are useful for students who wish to improve violin technique. The author of this study strongly believes that these neglected technical studies are extremely beneficial works for violinists, and they deserve to be made public.
Eugène Bozza is a three-time winner of the Premier Prix from the Paris Conservatory, in violin, conducting, and composition divisions. He earned his reputation as a master composer of wind music, and contributed a great amount of repertoire to the woodwind family. This document contains a short biography of Eugène Bozza’s life, including his student years and his career as a composer. The purpose of this study is to provide information of how Bozza transferred, adopted and remade his own music among his wind compositions. This document shows that Bozza’s methods of musical adoption warrant a close examination in order to offer greater insight into the mind of a masterful composer. Discussion of Bozza’s compositions includes Aria (1936), Fantasie Italienne (1939), Pulcinella (1944), Concerto (1952), Idylle (1959), Caprice-Improvisation (1963), Épithalame (1971), Suite (1974), Trois Mouvements for Flute and Clarinet (1974), Graphismes for Clarinet Solo (1975), 14 Études de Mécanisme (1948), 12 Études (1953), 11 Études sur des Modes Karnatiques (1972), and Contrastes III for Clarinet and Bassoon (1977).
The choral music of Abbie Betinis is being widely performed and commissioned by prominent high school, university, and civic choruses. This study examines From Behind the Caravan: Songs of Hâfez, a five-movement work by Betinis for women’s chorus, vielle, oud, and Persian percussion. Four ghazals by Hâfez of Shiraz, a fourteenth century Sufi poet, are used as the text for Betinis’s Caravan. When considering a performance of this work, a conductor must understand proper treatment of the text, available translation options, Hâfez’s vast world of imagery, vocal demands inherent to the work, alternate instrumentations available and the benefits of each, how to approach improvisatory passages, how to engage heterophonic elements, and how to prepare a Western choir and audience with very little to no understanding of the philosophies of Sufism that heavily influence the work. This study addresses the body of practical knowledge gained after a year of examining, researching, teaching, and performing this work.
“The Art of Phrasing” is a chapter from Arban’s Complete Celebrated Method for the Cornet (published in 1864) that contains a selection of 150 melodies from Classical and early Romantic works. This section of Arban’s method was necessary for a new generation of cornet and trumpet players to learn melodic phrasing and style. A larger part of the trumpet solo repertoire was written for the clarino register or composed in fanfares due to the limitation of the valveless trumpet. The newly chromatic cornet grew to be a prominent solo instrument in symphonies and wind bands by the mid 19th century, and Arban's “Art of Phrasing” instructed players in musical style. Due to today’s vast number of musical genres, it is unlikely that present day students will be exposed to the melodies of “The Art of Phrasing.” With advancements in music streaming technology and with increased accessibility to countless recordings via the internet, trumpet players are able to access recordings of the melodies. However, there are errors and omissions in the chapter that prevents students from finding recordings with ease. This dissertation presents a new compilation of melodies organized by musical period from medieval to modern day, complete with proper title, composer name, chronological information, genre, and location within the selected work. In order to help students distinguish between musical styles, a brief description of characteristics from each musical period is provided, including information on the function of music in society, performance practice, and compositional trends in rhythm, melody, harmony, and expression.
This dissertation and accompanying lecture recital explores the musical elements present in Áskell Másson’s three solos for snare drum, PRÍM (1984), KÍM (2001) and B2B: Back to Basics (2010). Two of the primary challenges for the performer when playing solo literature on a non-pitch oriented instrument are identifying thematic structures and understanding how to interpret all innovative sound production techniques employed within the music. A thematic and compositional analysis, as well as an investigation into the experimentation of timbre found in Másson’s three pieces for solo snare drum will help to clarify the musical complexities that are present throughout.
American composer Andrew Rindfleisch (b. 1963) has contributed twenty-one pieces to the repertoire of contemporary choral literature to date. His works have been commissioned, premiered, and recorded by notable choral ensembles and performed in significant venues around the country. Influenced by his own early choral singing experience in his native Wisconsin, much of Rindfleisch’s choral music is infused with influences of the music of earlier composers and choral idioms. With these works, Rindfleisch participates in a long-standing trend in choral composition of looking to the musical past for inspiration and procedure while writing in a contemporary harmonic vocabulary, and his efforts can be evaluated through the lens of a study of musical borrowing. Through a case study of five of Rindfleisch’s choral works – “In manus tuas,” “Mille regretz,” “Psalm,” “Anthem,” and “Graue Liebesschlangen” – this document identifies common characteristics of Rindfleisch’s choral music and demonstrates his uses of musical borrowing and allusion. The influence of Renaissance polyphony, Debussy, Brahms, and German expressionism is revealed.
The English diction texts by Madeleine Marshall and Kathryn LaBouff are two ofthe most acclaimed manuals on singing in this language. Differences in style between the two have separated proponents to be primarily devoted to one or the other. An in-depth study, comparing the precepts of both authors, and applying their principles, has resulted in an understanding of their common ground, as well as the need for the more comprehensive information, included by LaBouff, on singing in the dialect of American Standard, and changes in current Received Pronunciation, for British works, and Mid-Atlantic dialect, for English language works not specifically North American or British. Chapter 1 introduces Marshall and The Singer’s Manual of English Diction, and LaBouff and Singing and Communicating in English. An overview of selected works from Opera America’s resources exemplifies the need for three dialects in standardized English training. Chapter 2 reviews notational and diction resources, and use of the International Phonetic Association’s alphabet (IPA). Chapter 3 directly compares Marshall and LaBouff’s views of the importance of the unstressed syllable, often schwa [ә] or open I [ɪ], as vital to allowing the audience to understand the flow of the sung text, and contrasts their differences regarding < r >. Chapter 4 discusses observations in applying the tenets with singers, focusing on three arias coached for this dissertation. Chapter 5 states conclusions and opportunities for further research. Figures include materials from the Juilliard School Archives. Appendices include interviews.
The Sonata in B minor occupies a hallowed position in Liszt’s oeuvre, according to scholarly assessment. Despite the plethora of literature on this consummate work, the vast majority of writings on the sonata have focused almost exclusively on formal innovation, thematic transformation, and programmatic speculation, and there is a dearth of interpretative analysis of the sonata based on its fascinating autograph manuscript, even though it has been publicly accessible and widely available in facsimile for some four decades now. In view of the fact that the autograph manuscript has never been examined for the express purpose of improving performance of the sonata, this dissertation proposes to approach this problem with the direct examination of the autograph and its numerous additions and deletions, and the analysis of the many interpretive implications stemming from the surprising insights offered by the autograph itself, which is on deposit at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City. The goal of the dissertation is to make readily accessible a comprehensive performance-oriented study of this summit of pianism, offering solutions to the many discrepancies among its various published editions, from the first Breitkopf & Härtel in 1854 to the most recent Peters Urtext in 2011, and including photographic reproductions of the unpublished material obscured behind and beneath the collettes (idiosyncratic terminology for additional pieces of paper pasted over the manuscript) together with the author’s engraved transcriptions thereof. In sum, the dissertation provides guidance and solutions for the various forms of virtuosic and interpretive problems that earn the sonata its reputation for being one of the most difficult works in the repertoire to understand and perform.
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