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Traditional Korean Music in Contemporary Context:A Performance Guide to Gideon Gee Bum Kim's Kangkangsullae
Gideon Gee Bum Kim is an internationally-acclaimed contemporary Korean-Canadian composer. Kim has utilized traditional Korean music with Western composition techniques in some of his works. Kim created his own style by incorporating traditional Korean musical elements such as the scale, rhythmic diversity, syncopation, variation, ornamentation, and the progression of melody into a body of music that is otherwise contemporary and Western. The purpose of this study is to develop a performance guide for Gideon Gee Bum Kim's Kangkangsullae for string trio. Kangkangsullae trio is based on Korean historical, cultural and musical influences. I give a detailed historical and cultural background for this work and demonstrate how Kim integrated Western compositional techniques with traditional Korean music. My emphasis is on defining specific characteristics of traditional Korean music which will provide several points toward understanding Kim's compositional style.
Contemporary Double Bass Techniques: An Advanced Technical Approach
Diverse practicing methods are evidence of the importance of applying creativity in our practice regimes. Regardless of a player's technique - traditional or modern - it must be regularly practiced and then applied. One of the most common ways to do that is through practicing technical exercises, which generally means the practice of scales, arpeggios and etudes. These exercises generally function as a warm-up regime for all musicians, but this regime doesn't necessarily provide enough reference for the player in the learning process of a new piece. Adapting exercises to address technical difficulties in a newly learned piece can provide the player with a wide range of practice methods to use, to be creative, to be more aware while practicing, and to build a solid technical foundation for the newly learned piece. Two well-known pedagogues who applied this approach are German bassist Ludwig Streicher and Czech violinist Otakar Ševčik. By implementing analytical studies and composing exercises based on the standard repertoire, Ševčik and Streicher became highly influential teachers in the 20th century. Their work serves as a model in achieving the purposes of this dissertation: the assessment of technical difficulties and compilation of a technique booklet based on six unaccompanied contemporary solo pieces written as required works for the solo competition of the International Society of Bassists' biennial convention since 2007.
The Renaissance of the American Symphony for Wind Band as Exemplified by the Recent Symphonies of Donald Grantham, David Dzubay, James Stephenson, and Kevin Walczyk
Since the 18th century, composers have utilized the symphony to communicate thoughts and ideas through the vehicle of a large ensemble composed of a variety of instrumental colors. Though the structure of the symphony has understandably been subject to the varied interpretations of composers over the past 300 years, several characteristics of the traditional symphony do seem to have stood the test of time. In this document, the recent developments of the American symphony for wind band is discussed, focusing on the ways in which recent works both adhere to and divert from the traditional understanding of the classical symphonic form and highlighting the resurgence of the form by wind band composers. For the purposes of this study, David Dzubay's Symphony No. 2: Through a Glass Darkly, James Stephenson's Symphony No. 2: Voices, Donald Grantham's Symphony No. 2: After Hafiz, and Kevin Walczyk's Symphony No. 4: Unforsaken are used to demonstrate how each composer writes in their own unique style using contemporary techniques, while still appearing to maintain traditional aspects of the symphonic form, whether consciously or subconsciously. For each of the four works, a structural analysis is conducted using a rubric of standard symphonic norms. Additionally, interviews were conducted with each composer, providing insight on their compositional process, the commissioning process, and their thoughts on the symphonic form for wind band. The responses each composer gave during their interviews is incorporated into the analysis of each work, allowing the composer's own voice to supplement the findings.
"A Blossoming Tree": A Study and Interpretive Guide to the Songs of Nan-Chang Chien on Selected Poems of Muren Hsi
According to a recent United Nations report, China's population of 1.4 billion represents 19% of the world's entire population of 7.6 billion. As the distance between east and west contracts in business, so too do the arts. This dissertation focuses on six selected contemporary Chinese art songs composed by Nan-Chang Chien. By providing the references of musical facts, synopsis of the poems, word-for-word translation, IPA transcription, poetic translation, and interpretive and performance guides, singers and pianists will have an overall understanding and detailed directions for learning the Chinese language and Chinese art songs. This dissertation also provides the foundation and model for further exploration and research into Chinese art sing literature by scholars in the west.
John Ireland's Piano Sonata (1918-1920) and the Influence of Johannes Brahms
John Ireland is one of the most important British composers of the twentieth century. Many scholars believe the works of his early period were deeply influenced by Brahms. After graduating from the Royal College of Music, Ireland went on to develop a much more individual musical language, with influence from contemporary French composers. However, the young composer found himself confronted with the challenge of finding a new and personal style without turning wholly to impressionism or to chromaticism. In Ireland's Piano Sonata, Ireland adopted several of Brahms' compositional techniques. This piano sonata is an excellent example of one of Ireland's mature works that still demonstrates Brahms' influence.
Ross Lee Finney's 32 Piano Games and Stephen Chatman's Amusements: A Comparison of Two Pedagogical Approaches to Contemporary Musical Elements and Techniques
Piano instructors often have to work as a bridge connecting music from the past and the future. From a pedagogical viewpoint, contemporary works should be considered just as important as those in the standard repertoire. Yet, most piano instructors are skewed towards modern music and their teaching materials are focused on eighteenth and nineteenth century repertoire. It is essential for them to introduce various kinds of music from different periods and cultures in order to fully develop a student's musicianship. The purpose of this study is to compare two modern works that are designed mainly for pedagogical purposes: 32 Piano Games by Ross Lee Finney (1906-1997) and Amusements by Stephen Chatman (b. 1950). These compositions are intended for beginner and intermediate students and incorporate a number of contemporary elements and techniques. This study can help instructors and students understand how these elements are being used and the ways they have evolved over time. Most importantly, this dissertation can provide teachers with a distinct methodology that enables them to present modern pieces to beginning level students in a more approachable fashion, further providing theoretical and technical assets that will allow them to play advanced contemporary music in the future.
Traité de la flûte historique, technique et pedagogique: A Study of René Le Roy's Flute Method
In 1966, René Le Roy (1898-1985) and his student Claude Dorgeuille co-authored Traité de la flûte historique, technique et pedagogique. This treatise presents the culmination of Le Roy's career as a renowned performer and teacher in both Europe and North America. His approach to the study of music, as presented in the method, diverges from traditional French training, instructing teachers to compose exercises specific to the needs of the student and by using repertoire as source material. Claude Dorgeuille writes of the method, "...the Traité gives an outline analysis of the principal elements of technique, thus allowing exercises to be devised as appropriate to the needs of the individual." Using Le Roy's treatise, I demonstrate the application of his teaching to Jacques Ibert's Deux stèles orientées pour voix et flûte (1925), a work dedicated to and premiered by Le Roy, through the creation of individual exercises tailored to preparation of Ibert's work.
A Performance Guide for Young Jo Lee's Dodri for Cello and Janggo (1995): Bulgogi Burger on the Stage
Korean composer Young Jo Lee (b.1943) is considered a precursor of Korean fusion music. In his works, he interlaces elements of traditional Korean music with compositional styles and performances techniques from western musical traditions. This dissertation provides an analysis of Lee's Dodri for Cello and Janggo (1995), one of his most representative works of fusion music. As indicated by the title Dodri (which in Korean means a "movement back and forth"), Lee intended to showcase a friendly interplay of the janggo and the cello, with each instrument playing a leading role that helps bring out the essence of traditional Korean traditional music. In this piece, Lee writes a number of melodies and uses traditional Korean performance techniques for the cello intended to imitate the sound and sentiments of traditional Korean instruments, all while preserving its inherent nature. This kind of fusion, where different musical elements are merged with each other but remain separate enough to maintain their own uniqueness, is significant to Lee's philosophy. This dissertation also describes Lee's efforts to preserve the integrity of traditional Korean music within fusion music and lend new insights regarding traditional Korean musical practice to musicologists, composers, and audiences. Furthermore, this study is intended to serve as a performer's guide for professional cellists new to Lee's music so they may approach Dodri with a greater understanding of the composer's original intentions when first learning the work.
The Use of Orchestral Excerpts in Cello Pedagogy and Daily Exercises
Auditions often require performance of orchestral excerpts as part of the screening process because orchestral literature contains a wealth of technical challenges at different levels of difficulty; however, many cello teachers still only use etudes, sonatas, and concertos for musical development and technical application and do not use orchestral excerpts as pedagogical tools or daily exercises. This dissertation, in an effort to standardize orchestral excerpts as part of common technical exercises, includes the ten most popular major excerpts selected from thirty audition lists from major orchestras in the United States. Analysis of each excerpt highlights different technical elements, provides short exercises to overcome these challenges, and discusses the aspects of cello playing that will benefit most from practicing orchestral excerpts. In this way, these selections can be played in preparation for auditions, as well as incorporated into daily practice routines.
Fence, Flavor, and Phantasm: Balancing Japanese Musical Elements and Western Influence within an Historical and Cultural Context
Given the diversity found in today's Japanese culture and the size of the country's population, it is easy to see why the understanding of Japanese wind band repertoire must be multi-faceted. Alongside Western elements, many Japanese composers have intentionally sought to maintain their cultural identity through the addition of Japanese musical elements or concepts. These added elements provide a historical and cultural context from which to frame a composition or, in some cases, a composer's compositional output. The employment of these elements serve as a means to categorize the Japanese wind band repertoire. In his studies on cultural identities found in Japanese music, Gordon Matthews suggests there are three genres found within Japanese culture. He explains these as "senses of 'Japaneseness' among Japanese musicians." They include Fence, Flavor, and Phantasm. Bringing a new perspective to the idea of Japanese influence, I trace the implementation of these facets of Japanese music through the wind band music of Japanese composers. I demonstrate that Japanese wind band genres are the result of a combination of Japanese musical elements and Western influence and argue that the varying levels of this combination, balanced with historical and cultural context, create three distinct genres within the Japanese wind band repertoire.
Geonyong Lee's Violin Works, Rhapsody for Violin and Piano and Heoten Garak: A Study of Compositional Style and Stylistic Influences
The purpose of this study is to research the music of Geonyong Lee (이건용), one of the most recognized active Korean composers, while determining Lee's intent to compose with influences from both Western and traditional Korean music. This paper analyses Lee's violin works Rhapsody for Piano and Violin and Heoten Garak, and explains the cultural and historical significance surrounding both works in terms of traditional Korean music. Lee asserts that his primary influence Rhapsody for Piano and Violin was Nongac (농악), a traditional form of Korean farming music. Similarly, Heoten Garak displays a distinct influence of traditional Korean music genres, Heoten Garak and Pansori. By analyzing Geonyong Lee's compositional style and approach to the violin, one learns how his musical philosophies combine Western and traditional Korean music practices into a unique compositional approach. The study concludes by summarizing not only Western and traditional Korean style as evident in his music, but also the conceptual approach by which the composer attempts to bring a unique combination of these influences to his audience.
Original Viola Study Literature: Analyzing the Pedagogical Contributions of Marco Frank
Viola pedagogy has historically been closely intertwined with and highly dependent upon violin repertoire. As the viola emerged as an instrument worthy of independent study, many still rely on transcriptions of violin etudes. Fortunately, the efforts of performers, teachers, and scholars have brought forth discoveries of original viola literature and thus shifted toward the perception that viola should begin to embrace its individual pedagogy. Viennese composer and violist Marco Frank contributed three volumes of Viola-Etuden and a method book, Praktische Viola-Schule, which are suitable for the intermediate violist. This document explores and analyzes the usefulness of an original viola series in comparison to the ‘tried and true' violin transcriptions.
A Performance Guide to Se Enkhbayar's Choral Tone Poem Önchin Botog (A Lonely Baby Camel) for SATB Soloists and SATB Chorus (with Divisions) A Cappella
Se Enkhbayar (b. 1956) is one of the most important contemporary Mongolian composers in China. His choral tone poem, Önchin Botog, integrates the traditional Mongolian musical elements Urtiin Duu (long song) and Khöömii (throat singing) with modern choral music and is one of the most representative works in the genre of modern Mongolian choral music. The purpose of this study is to provide a performance guidance for non-Mongolian musicians on Se Enkhbayar's work, Önchin Botog, by presenting his biographical and cultural backgrounds, discussing the use of traditional Mongolian singing styles, special rhythmic patterns (horse-step rhythm) and Chinese pentatonic scales. For conductors, this guide can shorten preparation time by providing musical analysis for artistic interpretation and practical points for sound effect creation. For solo singers, this guide will enable a Bel Canto singer to sing Urtiin Duu in Mongolian singing style. For Khöömii singers, this guide provides supplementary practical suggestions.
Naples and the Emergence of the Tenor as Hero in Italian Serious Opera
The dwindling supply of castrati created a crisis in the opera world in the early 19th century. Castrati had dominated opera seria throughout the 18th century, but by the early 1800s their numbers were in decline. Impresarios and composers explored two voice types as substitutes for the castrato in male leading roles in serious operas: the contralto and the tenor. The study includes data from 242 serious operas that premiered in Italy between 1800 and 1840, noting the casting of the male leading role for each opera. At least 67 roles were created for contraltos as male heroes between 1800 and 1834. More roles were created for tenors in that period (at least 105), but until 1825 there is no clear preference for tenors over contraltos except in Naples. The Neapolitan preference for tenors is most likely due to the influence of Bourbon Kings who sought to bring Enlightenment values to Naples. After the last castrato retired in 1830 and the casting of contraltos as male heroic leads falls out of favor by the mid-1830s, the tenor, aided by a new chest-voice dominant style of singing, becomes the inheritor of the castrato's former role as leading man in serious Italian opera.
Orchestral Excerpts for Conductors
"Orchestral Excerpts for Conductors" is a compilation of sixty-five full score excerpts from the orchestral repertory arranged for string quartet and piano. The purpose of this collection is to provide conducting students with a pedagogical resource for learning how to handle technically challenging excerpts in orchestral music. This dissertation serves as a plan for the final publication of the excerpts book; while it includes the full score excerpts, it does not include the arrangements for string quartet and piano.
First Movement of Robert Schumann's Piano Sonata Op. 14 in F Minor from the Performer's Perspective: An Analytical Study of Four Editions
The objective of this dissertation is to review the discrepancies between Concert Sans Orchestre and Grande Sonate edited by Ernst Herttrich, Grosse Sonate No.3 Op.14 Erste and Zweite Ausgabe edited by Clara Schumann of Robert Schumann's No.3 Op.14, providing assistance for performers by clarifying inconsistencies between the three editions. Information in reference to major aspects such as notes, rhythms, metronome marking and expression signs is presented. Examples of discrepancies found throughout the first movement are discussed in Chapter 3. Suggested solutions are followed by each example.
Conducting from the Piano: A Tradition Worth Reviving?
Is conducting from the piano "real conducting?" Does one need formal orchestral conducting training in order to conduct classical-era piano concertos from the piano? Do Mozart piano concertos need a conductor? These are all questions this paper attempts to answer.
Rediscovering James Robert Gillette's "Vistas"
James Robert Gillette (1886-1963) was an early advocate for original wind band music at a time when marches and band transcriptions of orchestral music contributed heavily to the wind band repertoire. Primarily known as an influential, in-demand organist and composer, Gillette became the director of the Carleton College band program in Northfield, Minnesota in 1924. Taking an innovative approach to building, organizing, and programming, Gillette transformed that group into the Carleton Symphony Band and led a wider push for the symphonic band movement. In promoting his ideals of the symphonic band, he composed and arranged music specifically for the Carleton Symphony Band. One of his original works, Vistas, was widely performed and well-received in the decade just prior to and after its publication in 1934. Despite the popularity of the piece at that time, it has since gone out of print and is a rarely performed piece from Gillette's repertoire. This dissertation focuses on Vistas, Gillette's second published tone poem. This study starts with the examination of the history of Vistas from its origins as a movement in Gillette's transcription of Paul Robert Fauchet's Symphony in B-flat to its subsequent transformation and publication as an original work for band. Next, the performance history and reception of Vistas in the United States is traced and described from the year of publication to the present day. Finally, discrepancies present in the 1934 publication of Vistas are addressed through the creation of a performance edition. This performance edition also provides modifications to make the piece more widely accessible to wind bands today and the full score is presented at the end of the study.
Solo Violin in Gustav Mahler's Symphonic Works as a Musical Sign
Noted for both vocal and symphonic output, Gustav Mahler's musical sophistication constantly puzzled scholars in the past decades. In his symphonic works, the mixed forms and styles in combination with the vocal influence make it abstruse for listeners to detect the meaning of the use of traditional instruments. The solo violin, which has an extensive history of appearing in symphonic compositions since the Baroque era, is an instance of a traditional instrument given an unusual function. For instance, Mahler's violin solos do not tend to showcase the virtuosity of the instrument as they normally do in orchestral music. In order to closely examine the role of the solo violin, I rely on aspects relating to introversive semiosis such as harmonies, rhythms, textures, phrase structures, and forms; then my focus shifts to extroversive semiosis, specifically to topics and contextual factors. By considering the violin as a musical sign, listeners can comprehend the instrument's structure, syntax, and ultimately the complex logic of Mahler's musical discourse.
An Analytical Perspective of the Developing Aesthetic Concepts in Sergey Prokofiev's "Choses en soi," Op. 45
The purpose of this study is to analyze the compositional techniques in Choses en soi op.45, by Sergey Prokofiev, and to explore the new aesthetic concepts he claimed to include in this composition. Through the examination of the compositional elements and discussion of its salient characteristics.
A Study of Selected Compositional Techniques Found in Young Ja Lee's Variations Pour Piano "Umma ya, Nuna ya" (1996)
Young Ja Lee (b. 1931) is regarded as one of the most important living female composers in Korea. She leads and contributes to the Korean classical music society as a gifted composer and a dedicated educator. This study focuses on how she has combined Western compositional techniques with elements of Eastern traditional music in some of her compositions, in particular, her Variations pour piano "Umma ya, Nuna ya." An interpretation of her Variations pour piano "Umma ya, Nuna ya" reveals that the composition features many of the particular and sublime aspects of Western compositional techniques in conjunction with traditional Korean music style. This study is an investigation of the interaction and assimilation of these disparate elements. The results of this study may inspire further research into traditional Korean music and bring recognition to important Korean composers, as well as encourage music educators to teach Korean composers' compositions.
A Pedagogical Analysis of Articulation, Balancing, Voicing, and Interpretation in Giuseppe Concone's "Vingt Études Chantantes," Op. 30, for Upper Intermediate Piano Students
Giuseppe Concone's piano études number over a hundred, and are collected in seven various sets. They consist of pieces for elementary, intermediate, and advanced level pianists. A few of them have been printed in anthologies but most of them remain unknown. The present research consists of two parts: an overview of Concone's complete sets of piano études, and a detailed analysis of Op. 30, with a detailed focus on articulation, balancing, voicing, and interpretation. First is a brief overview of the Études Opp. 37, 46, 24, 25, 31 and 34. Then in the analysis of Op. 30, after explaining the salient features of this set of études, there is an illustration of the method by giving an analysis of each étude. Concone's Vingt Études Chantantes Op. 30 are a fine supplement of teaching repertoire for the intermediate piano students. The Op. 30 incorporates a diversity of technical requirements and musical merits that can help students transition from intermediate level to early-advanced level. They may also contribute to being aware of binary and ternary forms, and prepares students for learning other genres of the 19th century piano literature.
An Assessment of Extant Euphonium Methodologies for Developing and Performing in the Upper Register
This dissertation presents a categorization of existing methodologies of upper register development for euphoniumists with evaluation of effectiveness and current use of these methodologies. The purpose of this study is to provide euphonium musicians as well as educators with essential references and guides to applicable methods for developing the upper register more effectively with greater efficacy. The assessments of current methodologies include three steps: categorization, summarization, and evaluation. To support the significance why it could be more beneficial than the methodology alone, the dissertation will include the examination of the aspect of biomechanics and ergonomics, suggestions, and discussion of particular issues of the upper register.
Motivic and Voice-Leading Coherence in the Improvisations of Saxophonist Chris Cheek
Saxophonist Chris Cheek has been a reference for his work as a sideman with some of the most established jazz artists in the international jazz scene of the last twenty-five years. Despite his importance, there is lack of detail in the available publications about Cheek. The short length and journalistic character of the publications only produce surface descriptions of Cheek's style. There is a need to further describe the melodic elements present in Chris Cheek's style in order to have a better understanding of the implications and importance of these elements across the history of jazz saxophone and jazz pedagogy. In the past, several scholarly works have described the improvisational styles of jazz musicians using a multitude of analytical tools. The design of those studies often fails to provide a comprehensive view of the improviser's style because of the limited scope of the analyzed sources or the specific focus of the analysis. This analytical study presents a comprehensive view of Chris Cheek's style through the motivic and voice-leading analyses of six improvisations by the saxophonist. This design allows the study to discern between motivic development processes, melodic structures, formulaic material, and harmonic structures that belong to the saxophonist's idiom. By presenting the elements in Cheek's style, this study is able to show the importance of motivic and voice-leading coherence in jazz pedagogy as well as the importance of Cheek's style as a reference for lyricism.
John Playford's "The Division Violin": Improvisation and Variation Practice in English Violin Music of the Seventeenth Century
English publisher John Playford (1623-1686/1687) first published his "The Division Violin: Containing a Collection of Divisions Upon Several Grounds for the Treble-Violin" in 1684. The first edition of this violin collection contains 26 written-out examples of improvisation, serving as a living snapshot of the performance practice of the time. This research is based on the second edition, which Playford had expanded into 30 pieces for the violin, published in 1685. The purpose of this study is to investigate the art of improvisation in England during the late 17th century, focusing on Playford's "The Division Violin." The dissertation first surveys the development of English violin music in the 17th century. Then, the dissertation traces eight selected 16th-century Italian diminution manuals. This will help readers understand the progression of the Italian diminution and improvisation practice in the 16th century and how it relates to the English division of the 17th century. Finally, based on a thorough research of the 17th-century improvisatory style and rhetorical approach, the author of this study provides performance suggestions on "Mr. Farinell's Ground," No. 5 from "The Division Violin."
A Comprehensive Performance Guide for the Use of Advanced Technology in Euphonium Repertoire with Electronic Media through Analyses of Works by D. Edward Davis, Neal Corwell, and Lucy Pankhurst
Solos for euphonium with electronic media present the unique challenge of incorporating an active, physical involvement in the live accompaniment through sound-altering technology such as guitar pedals or digital processors. Instructions for this solo genre are often vague and demand a general knowledge of how to use non-traditional devices. Due to the lack of information available on newly-composed pieces for this medium, students and professionals easily overlook the artistic merit of electroacoustic music. This dissertation provides a comprehensive performance guide that aids in the set-up and operation of advanced technology and presents a methodical approach to performing common musical and technical challenges found in modern euphonium repertoire with electronic media. Included in this dissertation are tables of common audio vocabulary and images of connectors, safety precautions, equipment recommendations with performance settings, a list of required connectors, adapters, cables, speakers, and amplifiers, performance set up diagrams, background information, and analyses of both the technical and musical aspects of each piece. In the appendices are signal flow charts, visual illustrations of polar recording patterns, and an updated catalog of published and unpublished original, adapted, and arranged euphonium solos with live electronics and electronic media accompaniment between 1970 and 2017.
Comparison of the "Méthode Pour La Guitare" by Fernando Sor with the "Méthode Complète Pour La Guitare Par Ferdinand Sor, Rédigée Et Augmentée De Nombreux Exemples Et Leçons Suivis D'une Notice Sur La 7e Corde" by Napoléon Coste
The nineteenth century presents a great increase in publications of guitar methods. Most authors of the time published several versions of their works. Fernando Sor, perhaps the most prominent guitar composers of the time—whose Méthode is regarded today as the most important of the period—only published one edition. However, Napoleon Coste took on the task to do a second account. The literature reviewed shows substantial existing information regarding background, type of text, tone, and contents of Sor's work, but comparisons to date are not substantial. Therefore, there is a need to compare these two texts side by side to yield a complete view of their pairing. The existing negative views of Coste's edition hinder the importance of Coste's work as reference to Segovia's publication of Sor studies, and as a clearer pedagogical application of many of Sor's concepts which are sidetracked by his response to criticism and his elaborations in matters beyond his main subject matter. I provide a comprehensive review of Sor's method, an outline and a consideration of his concepts. Then I offer a complete English translation of Coste's method which is inexistent until now. The comparison follows pointing at differences and similarities. Results show that Coste clarifies and complements many of the principles in less text and simpler language. He modifies certain others either to approach Sor's practice or to depart to a newer standard. He offers his own lessons and sections to apply Sor's concepts. Coste's text heads towards a pedagogical synthesis of Sor's method, but it is incomplete because he omits some concepts without leading the readers to consult Sor. Coste's pedagogical and practical relevance is fundamental for modern standard techniques.
Extended String Techniques and Special Effects in Arnold Schoenberg's String Quartet No. 1 and Its Significance in Chamber Music Literature
Arnold Schoenberg's String Quartet No. 1, Op. 7 stands out as being the first chamber music piece to use a vast number and variety of extended string techniques within one composition. This paper examines a brief history of extended string techniques in chamber music, analyses the unique ways in which Schoenberg applied extended string techniques to manipulate motives in his Op. 7 quartet, and ultimately shows that Schoenberg's use of extended string techniques influenced future composers to employ even more extended techniques and special effects in their own twentieth-century chamber music.
The Influence of Chinese Instruments on the Violin: A Practice Guide of Three Violin Techniques
Contemporary professional violinists face constant exposure to multicultural compositions. For best results, they should be able to understand, capture, and express the subtleties of different styles. The violin and its repertoire spread to China through European missionaries during the late seventeenth century and continued to be developed by Chinese scientists and musicians who studied abroad. During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Chinese composers wrote many violin pieces inspired by the unique sounds of Chinese instruments. Additionally, Chinese music scholars wrote numerous essays to discuss the new Chinese style. However, much of this research has been focused on the composers and the structures of the compositions rather than on the details of violin techniques necessary to play the repertoire. The techniques in Chinese violin compositions are unique and are influenced by the traditional instruments including string, wind, and percussion instruments. Furthermore, the style of such compositions is affected by the elements of Chinese culture, such as the language, the elite society and its poetic tradition, and historical legends and events. This dissertation provides examples of Chinese violin repertoire which demonstrate the principles of three main violin techniques in the Chinese style: slides, chords, and pizzicati. In order to help professional violinists better perform Chinese violin compositions, the dissertation also includes a number of exercises covering each technique above.
"Drum Music": A Performance Guide and Discussion of John Mackey's Influential Concerto for the Modern Percussionist
John Mackey is an influential and prolific composer of wind band literature. His focus on and exploration of the percussion section are defining characteristics of his compositional voice. Mackey's concerto for percussion and wind band, "Drum Music," is a perfect example of his exploitation of the myriad timbres available within the percussion family, and also serves to showcase the versatility required of a modern percussionist. This dissertation and accompanying lecture recital provide a comprehensive guide for performers of the work. Major aspects of Mackey's compositional approach are discussed with emphasis placed on his use of percussion throughout his works. Analysis and performance concerns are discussed for each of the concertos three movements, and information is provided on the reduced version of the work prepared as part of this study.
Tone Parallels in Music for Film: The Compositional Works of Terence Blanchard in the Diegetic Universe and a New Work for Studio Orchestra by Brian Horton
This research investigates the culturally programmatic symbolism of jazz music in film. I explore this concept through critical analysis of composer Terence Blanchard's original score for Malcolm X directed by Spike Lee (1992). I view Blanchard's music as representing a non-diegetic tone parallel that musically narrates several authentic characteristics of African-American life, culture, and the human condition as depicted in Lee's film. Blanchard's score embodies a broad spectrum of musical influences that reshape Hollywood's historically limited, and often misappropiated perceptions of jazz music within African-American culture. By combining stylistic traits of jazz and classical idioms, Blanchard reinvents the sonic soundscape in which musical expression and the black experience are represented on the big screen. My new work––Black Magic––is a musical response to the research found within this study. The through-composed piece is written in three movements for a studio orchestra. It is an homage to the musical, cultural, and entertainment contributions of African-Americans in the magical realm of Hollywood cinema.
A Selective Lineage of Mexican Bassoonists
Spanish settlers brought the precursor to the bassoon, el bajón, to Mexico in the late sixteenth century. Documentation of the bassoon was intermittently from the sixteenth century on, the current playing traditions were not established until the second half of the twentieth century. Bassoon education in Mexico flourished in the 1970's because several bassoonists became expatriates, and chose to live and work in Mexico for the entirety of their careers. Two major pedagogues, Lazar Stoychev and Jerzy Lemiszka paved the way for the current Mexican bassoon community. This dissertation presents a selective lineage of bassoonists who have held positions in major Mexican orchestras and universities since the mid-twentieth century. The purpose of this study is to recognize the contributions these players and teachers have given to the bassoon world. In recent years, Mexican bassoonists have commissioned hundreds of works for the bassoon and this significant achievement has placed the Mexican bassoon community in an upward trajectory. To place these players in proper historical context, a brief history of classical music institutions in Mexico since the sixteenth century is given. This dissertation documents the history and pedagogy of recent bassoonists in Mexico via a cohesive family tree.
Selected Works by Female Composers of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries for Advanced Suzuki Violin Students
The intent of this dissertation is to identify and analyze several pieces by female composers that are technically suitable for the specific development of an advanced Suzuki violin student studying in Suzuki books 7 or 8. The selected pieces can then be used by trained Suzuki teachers, in conjunction with the male-composer-dominated Suzuki repertoire, to enhance students' technical development while also increasing their well-rounded musicianship by exposing them to female composers. The development of off-the-string bow strokes, string crossings, shifting, left-hand articulation and musical expression will be traced through the first six volumes of the Suzuki repertoire in order to understand a Suzuki student's expected abilities pertaining to these technical elements when beginning the repertoire in books 7 and 8. Pieces by female composers highlighting and enhancing the referenced techniques will be identified and analyzed in a similar manner. These pieces will be compiled into a document for Suzuki students and teachers to use, along with appropriate editorial markings and biographies of the composers. This document can be an inspirational supplement to Suzuki students' musical development and help develop an awareness of female composers.
A Guide to Suitable Bass Solo Vocal Repertoire by J. S. Bach for Collegiate Baritone
In the Baroque period, the baritone voice was not yet well-defined, but many composers wrote vocal pieces with a range appropriate for the modern baritone voice. Composers used the general categories of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass for solo voice in their compositions. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was no different from other Baroque composers in writing solo works to be performed by one of the four main voice types. The various ranges and tessituras of J. S. Bach's vocal works for bass solo voice are not limited to being sung by low basses, but may also be sung by more medium ranged baritones. The purpose of this research is to guide collegiate voice teachers and their baritone students in selecting appropriate repertoire from the works of Bach on the basis of each students' level of development and to categorize four groups of bass solos by Bach for collegiate baritone students: beginning level for freshmen, intermediate level for sophomores, advanced level for juniors and seniors, and pre-professional level for seniors and graduate students. This research was prepared in conjunction with a DMA lecture-recital of eight bass solos for collegiate baritone voice, selected from the study; two vocal works for each proficiency level.
Understanding the Lirico-Spinto Soprano Voice through the Repertoire of Giovane Scuola Composers
As lirico-spinto soprano commonly indicates a soprano with a heavier voice than lyric soprano and a lighter voice than dramatic soprano, there are many problems in the assessment of the voice type. Lirico-spinto soprano is characterized differently by various scholars and sources offer contrasting and insufficient definitions. It is commonly understood as a pushed voice, as many interpret spingere as ‘to push.' This dissertation shows that the meaning of spingere does not mean pushed in this context, but extended, thus making the voice type a hybrid of lyric soprano voice type that has qualities of extended temperament, timbre, color, and volume. This dissertation indicates that the lack of published anthologies on lirico-spinto soprano arias is a significant reason for the insufficient understanding of the lirico-spinto soprano voice. The post-Verdi Italian group of composers, giovane scuola, composed operas that required lirico-spinto soprano voices. These giovane scuola composers include Alfredo Catalani (1854 –1893), Umberto Giordano (1867 –1948), Pietro Mascagni (1863 –1945), Giacomo Puccini (1858 –1924), and Riccardo Zandonai (1883 –1944). Descriptions of the soprano voices that premiered these roles are included in this document to determine the suitability of the lirico-spinto soprano voice for each role.
A Performer's Guide to Samuil Feinberg's Sonata No. 6: A Window into Russian School Pianism
Samuil Feinberg was an important performing pianist, composer, and one of the protagonists of Russian Piano School. Among his numerous piano compositions, the Sixth Sonata is one of the most complex and illustrative of his deeply personal musical ideas. The following performer's guide offers some ideas on interpreting and performing the sonata from the perspective of Russian school pianism. Having trained in Russia for nearly a decade with two of Feinberg's most eminent disciples and assistants (Tatiana Galitskaya and Liudmila Roschina) makes this author part of living chain back to his pedagogical principles. I will draw upon my knowledge and expertise to illustrate how interpretation of Feinberg's Sonata No. 6 embodies many of the particular and subtle aspects of the Russian piano school technique.
The Orchestral Mentality of Johannes Brahms' Piano Sonata No. 3
Although the current, exhaustive studies of Brahms' works have covered many aspects of the composer's art, it is still surprising that his large-scale, five-movement Piano Sonata No.3 has in many ways been insufficiently studied by scholars who have emphasized the genre of the piano sonata and the aspect of performance practice over the work's more diverse features. Another reason that this early work has been understudied could in fact be that his later compositions in other genres, such as his symphonies, chamber music or choral music, have been perceived by scholars to represent best his most mature, comprehensive style. This dissertation will therefore examine the orchestral underpinnings of this monumental work which owes most often its already mature artistic essence to Brahms' multi-instrumental approach.
The Shrinking Opera Diva: The Impact of Sociocultural Changes upon the Casting of Women in the 20th and 21st Centuries
For most of the twentieth century, opera singers were not beholden to the ideal physical standard of women dictated by popular culture, but rather focused on serving the music and perfecting their artistry. Unprecedented sociocultural changes throughout the twentieth century exposed the shifting ideals of each generation and how they were promoted through mass media and advertising. This thesis surveys the time period of the 1890s to the present day for the purpose of analyzing cultural trends, philosophies and technologies that shaped the century. Societal pressure to make the body a project and the focus of one's own intense attention now reflects back onto the opera stage where audience members expect to see what society has dictated to be an acceptable female form. Artistic and stage directors are influenced by society's decree that only thin is beautiful, imbedding into the mindset of the art form notions that now affect how female professional opera singers are depicted and even employed.
Simplification and Octavation in Double Bass Performance: An Overview of Historical and Contemporary Practices
Two important performance practices in the modern orchestral performance are discussed in this document: simplification and octavation. Due to the differing opinions and common practices which bass players have around these two performance practices, simplification and octavation have become two of the most complex issues faced by orchestral sections. The first part of the document will provide a brief history of simplification and octavation. The second part of the document will offer recommendation for double bass orchestral practice in the 21st century and examine key works of the bass repertoire in which simplification and octavation occur. The research and practice of leading pedagogues and major orchestral players and the solutions they have developed to reduce the discrepancy inherent within section playing will be discussed. This document will propose several empirical solutions to major excerpts in the bass repertoire, demonstrating how it is to achieve the most uniformed playing, and offer applicable and suggestive guidelines for contemporary orchestral double bass performers.
The West Point Band's Wind Commissioning Project in Celebration of the Bicentennial of the United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy Band, also known as the West Point Band is the oldest active band in the United States Army and the oldest unit at the United States Military Academy, and is considered to be one of the finest military musical organizations in the world. The band has also been instrumental in facilitating the creation of new works for wind band.As the commissioning of new music has been essential to the expansion of the wind band's repertoire, several major commissioning projects were undertaken in the mid-twentieth century by various organizations, including the West Point Band, the Goldman Band in conjunction with the League of Composers and later the American Bandmasters Association, Kappa Kappa Psi and Tau Beta Sigma, the American Wind Symphony, and the College Band Directors National Association. These commissioning projects and many others have contributed hosts of new quality works to the repertoire of the wind band. The West Point Band's 1952 commissioning project celebrating the Sesquicentennial of the United States Military Academy was among the first of these mid-twentieth century commissioning projects to seek out prominent composers of the day and have them write works for wind band. The project contributed several seminal pieces to the wind band's repertoire, including Morton Gould's Symphony for Band: West Point. In 1996, as tribute to both the Academy and to the earlier commissioning project, the West Point Band sought to celebrate the Academy's 2002 bicentennial in a similar fashion by commissioning well-known composers to contribute substantial wind works. These pieces would be premiered and recorded by the West Point Band over a number of years, including a gala Bicentennial Celebration concert at Carnegie Hall in March 2002. The purpose of this study is to create a consolidated written record of the wind music composed for the West ...
Spanish Diction in Latin American Art Song: Variant Lyric Pronunciations of (s), (ll), and (y)
Latin American art song is a genre primarily of the first half of the twentieth-century, when popular folklore served as the voice and inspiration of many poets and musicians. The nationalist movement served as a means of expression, each Latin American country with its own identity. There is great benefit for singers to study Spanish diction at an academic level, since it is a language already familiar to most U.S.A residents. There is a significant amount of unknown repertoire that would be very useful in the singing studio because of the language's open vowels. This repertoire can also serve as a confidence-builder to young Spanish-speaking singers at the beginning of their training. I will be focusing on the (s), (ll), and (y) sounds as pronounced in the diverse regions of Latin America; in particular, why they matter when coaching singers, and the articulators involved in each. The purpose of this study is to discuss diction differences in the repertoire, expound on its benefits for voice pedagogy, all while informing about varied options for recital programming.
A Motivic Analysis and Performance Practices of "Akrodha" (1998) by Kevin Volans, including Comparative Analyses of "She Who Sleeps with a Small Blanket" (1985) and "Asanga" (1997)
This dissertation presents an analysis of Akrodha (1998), a multiple percussion solo in two movements, composed by Kevin Volans. The analysis is focused on the motivic content and subsequent iterations written within the tempos that provide the structural form of the piece. The structural tempos are supported by the presence of various motifs that serve as the tempos' characteristic traits, thereby giving the tempos more tangibility. As the work develops, these motifs reappear either as note-for-note reiterations or as variations that still maintain the unique qualities of the motifs. For comparison, similar analyses of Mr. Volans' other multiple percussion solos, She Who Sleeps with a Small Blanket (1985) and Asanga (1997), are also presented to further explore Mr. Volans' use of motifs as they relate to structural tempos. In addition, a comprehensive performance practice of Akrodha is presented based on a synthesis of considerations and methods from individuals involved in the piece's development and early performances. These include Dr. Volans himself, Jonny Axelsson (for whom Akrodha was written), and Robyn Schulkowsky (for whom She Who Sleeps with a Small Blanket and Asanga were written), as well as the author's personal experiences. This dissertation provides a deeper understanding of Akrodha for the scholar and provides performance guidance for the performer to enhance the ability to replicate the musical spirit of Kevin Volans' compositional intentions.
The Use of Multiple Stops in Works for Solo Violin by Johann Paul Von Westhoff and Its Relationship to German Polyphonic Writing for a Single Instrument
Johann Paul von Westhoff's (1656-1705) solo violin works, consisting of Suite pour le violon sans basse continue published in 1683 and Six Suites for Violin Solo in 1696, feature extensive use of multiple stops, which represents a German polyphonic style of the seventeenth-century instrumental music. However, the Six Suites had escaped the public's attention for nearly three hundred years until its rediscovery by the musicologist Peter Várnai in the late twentieth century. This project will focus on polyphonic writing featured in the solo violin works by von Westhoff. In order to fully understand the stylistic traits of this less well-known collection, a brief summary of the composer, Johann Paul Westhoff, and an overview of the historical background of his time will be included in this document. I will analyze these works, including a comparison between the works of Westhoff and those of other composers during his time, to prove that Westhoff's solo works establish multiple stops as a central factor of German violin playing of the time, and, thus, to promote Westhoff's works as a complement to the extant repertoire of unaccompanied violin music written in the Baroque era before Johann Sebastian Bach's solo violin works and Georg Philipp Telemann's twelve fantasias for violin solo. Furthermore, this project will help one to better understand the use and function of multiple stops in the German violin repertoire in the seventeenth century
Selected Orchestral Excerpts for Bass Clarinet with Piano Reduction
The idea of reducing popular and musically satisfying operatic or orchestral works to smaller instrumental forces is not uncommon, but the idea of reducing large scores for the exclusive use of orchestral excerpt pedagogy is. Although there are a multitude of excellent resources detailing how select excerpts from both the clarinet and bass clarinet orchestral repertoire should be performed, no resources for clarinetists or bass clarinetists provide a piano reduction of orchestral scores. Through piano reduction of orchestral scores, bass clarinetists have access to a resource that simulates the experience of playing in an orchestra. Bass clarinetists using a piano reduction will learn the pitch tendencies of the instrument. Consequently, the performer will discover ways to study excerpts in-tune with other instruments that will not compromise for the shortcomings of the bass clarinet. Use of piano transcriptions will also aid with recognition of important moving lines, harmonic textures and rhythmic ostinatos that might otherwise be overlooked by score study and listening alone. Finally, many of the excerpt transcriptions provided are taken from several bars before the primary bass clarinet excerpt, unlike many excerpt books currently available. This provides bass clarinets a more contextual view of an excerpt by facilitating the need to count rests correctly and play solo entrances in the correct style and affect presented by the preceding orchestral material.
Embracing Internationalism: An Examination of Mario Lavista with an Analysis of Cinco Danzas Breves
Mario Lavista (b.1943) is widely acknowledged as one of Mexico's foremost living composers. Having acquired his music education in his native Mexico and in Europe alike, he is similar to numerous other Latin composers who were building a career in the latter half of the twentieth century. During this time, composers were relying on international aspects of avant-garde techniques, and using nationalistic Latin rhythms and melodies less. Lavista embraced internationalism, and aimed to compose works devoid of identifiable elements of nationalism. This document argues that the absence of nationalistic elements in Lavista's music has affected his notoriety outside of Mexico. The role of nationalism is assessed through a brief examination of influential Mexican composers and educators prior to 1950, followed by a discussion of education and composition in the latter half of the twentieth century. These aspects are investigated with regard to Lavista's education and resulting compositional style. A theoretical analysis of Cinco Danzas Breves para quinteto de alientos (1994) serves as a representative example of Lavista's compositional style and influence. This document aims to highlight and increase exposure of Mexican composers outside of Latin America who do not compose nationalistic music.
A Selection of Nineteenth Century Trumpet Literature for Low F Trumpet: A Performance Edition of F. G. A. Dauverné's Variations op. 3 and Amilcare Ponchielli's Concerto per Tromba e Banda op. 123
This dissertation presents a performance guide of two solos for early valved trumpet, as well as an appraisal of their historical significance. The first of these solos is F. G. A. Dauverné's Variations pour trompette à pistons avec accompagnement de Piano-forte, op. 3 (1833). The second solo examined is Amilcare Ponchielli's Concerto per Tromba e Banda, op. 123 (1866). Although Ponchielli's work dates from only the middle of the century, by time of its composition the valved trumpet had already been developed enough to have attained true artistic value. This dissertation provides evidence concerning the evolution of nineteenth solo literature for the Romantic trumpet by means of formal analysis in regard to form, harmony, and historical performance practice.
Practical Learning Strategies for Musicians with Specific Learning Disorder (Dyslexia) and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
This research explores the need for a unique, self-help manual to provide music students with diagnoses of dyslexia under the umbrella of specific learning disorder (SLD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a positive way of coping with their musical tendencies. Dyslexia and ADHD are the most prevalent, comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders with symptoms affecting academic, social, and/or personal life. Musical symptoms could include difficulties in any of the following areas: notation reading; time, pulse, and rhythm; posture; fingering coordination; memorization; sight-reading; organization of thoughts, time, and materials; spatial and directional awareness; focused attention; retention of new concepts; positive attitude; and the ability to process written and/or oral information quickly and accurately. This dissertation includes scientific information related to the conditions; an analysis of musical tendencies; pedagogical approaches; personal anecdotal stories that serve to illustrate scientific concepts; and a self-help manual. The manual, "Music, Dyslexia, and ADHD: A Self-Help Manual for Students with Exceptionalities," is a colorful, accessible resource that begins to fill the self-help gap in the musical instruction literature for students with dyslexia and/or ADHD. It offers useful information, multisensory/multimodal techniques, and coping strategies to empower students with these learning differences to achieve more rewarding, independent success throughout their musical studies.
The Use of Classic Musical Theatre Repertoire for Training Bel Canto Techniques in the Undergraduate Baritone Voice
For applied teachers of the bel canto method of singing, classical musical theatre repertoire provides an abundant resource of material for teaching the undergraduate baritone voice. Select classic musical theatre repertoire, fitting within the parameters of suitable range, tessitura, duration, and thematic material for an undergraduate baritone, will be used to demonstrate the application of bel canto techniques such as: glottal onsets, the connection between the speaking voice and singing voice, suitable vowels in building the upper range, and teaching sostenuto and legato. This dissertation serves as a guide for teaching sound vocalism through classic musical theatre repertoire.
The Mozart Flute: Old and New Transcriptions of KV. 10-15
My lecture serves as a critical examination of the Six Sonatas Op. 3, KV. 10-15 by W.A. Mozart. I will engage the variances between the first edition of Op. 3 and those by Joseph Bopp and Louis Moyse edited specifically for the flute in hopes of providing another perspective for students, performers, and pedagogues alike. This study will (1) provide background information regarding the creation of KV. 10-15, (2) include a brief analysis of each sonata, (3) compare adaptions between the first edition, according to NMA, and two modern flute transcriptions, and (4) produce two new transcriptions. My new transcriptions of Sonatas KV. 10 and 13 represent a closer interpretation to the first edition and alerts students and teachers to the differences between the editions by Joseph Bopp and Louis Moyse to that of the first and NMA editions. The goal is to stimulate performers to reappraise their approach to this particular repertoire and to encourage more authentic performances of these engaging sonatas.
A Selected List of Music for Solo Clarinet and Clarinet with Piano by Taiwanese Female Composers Composed between 1986 and 2015: The Investigation of a Neglected Repertory with an Annotated Bibliography
Clarinet works by Taiwanese female composers are not well researched or catalogued, and to date, and no comprehensive research codifies this subcategory in Taiwan or elsewhere. A comprehensive research and bibliography is necessary to the international community. It is hoped that through this annotated bibliography, readers will gain a deeper understanding of this genre. This study contains a brief history of Taiwan's Western music history, the female composers' history in Taiwan, and literature review. A total of twenty compositions by eighteen different Taiwanese female composers are discussed in the annotated bibliography, including thirteen for unaccompanied clarinet and seven for clarinet and piano. Information includes a brief biography of the composer, the date of composition, duration, premiere, dedication, commission, location of the score, difficulty and commentary on the piece.