The purposes of this descriptive survey research study were (a) to describe novice band directors' perceptions of the importance of skills/knowledge used n effective music teaching, (b) to describe novice band directors' perception of the difficulty of acquiring each skill or knowledge component, (c) to compare novice band directors' perceptions of the importance and difficulty of the skills/knowledge used in their classrooms, (d) to describe ways that novice band directors perceived university coursework as helpful in acquiring teaching skills/knowledge, and (e) to describe improvements to university coursework that novice band directors perceived could help future band directors. The personal skills/knowledge category (M = 4.64) was rated highest for importance, followed by the teaching (M = 4.60) and musical (M = 4.29) categories. Additionally, participants rated the personal skills/knowledge category (M = 3.57) as the easiest to acquire, followed by musical (M = 3.14), and teaching (M = 3.09) categories. There was a statistically significant difference between teaching importance ratings and teaching acquisition ratings, with the teaching importance category rated higher by participants. Participants perceived secondary instrument instruction, teaching experiences, core music curriculum, and practical skills/knowledge as positive aspects of university coursework. Finally, secondary instrument instruction, field experiences, non-instructional aspects of teaching, and musical pedagogy were reported by participants as areas for possible improvement.
Music performance anxiety is an issue that affects musicians at all levels but can begin in early adolescence. The researcher investigated three variables and their ability to predict music performance anxiety: catastrophization, self-regulation, and goal-setting style. Catastrophization is a negative thought that amplifies perceived criticism. Self-regulation is a metacognitive skill that allows students to plan strategies and evaluate learning. Goal-setting style refers to a student's framework when establishing learning objectives – whether they are focused on mastering the subject matter, or only trying to avoid being the worst in the class. A sample of adolescent wind musicians (n = 68) were administered four self-reporting measures for the predictor variables and music performance anxiety. Catastrophization, self-regulation, and goal-setting style were all statistically significant in predictor music performance anxiety, with catastrophization alone explaining 69% of the variance in the predictor variable. Overall, the whole model was able to explain 46% of the variance in music performance anxiety.
In music education, aesthetic education and praxial music education serve as two major, guiding philosophical frameworks, yet supporters of each often conflict with one another. Furthermore, both are slightly problematic with respect to the specific context of the public school. Each framework is primarily music-based, however, music education has existed in the wider context of general education since the 1830s. Given the recent core-status designation for music education, as part of all fine arts, in the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, a framework from general education that supported music education could offer benefits for the domain. However, the wider context of general education is messy as well. Two groups occupy most of the space there, and remain locked in a fundamental disagreement over the purpose of a formal education. The progressive educators, historically framed by Dewey and Thorndike, contend that education functions as societal improvement. In contrast, the essentialists contend that education functions as cultural transmission. Therefore, a more specific need for music education involves selecting a framework from general education that resolves this conflict. The writings of William Chandler Bagley indicate that he balanced both considerations of a formal education while also advancing his notion of essentialism. Bagley differed from the progressive educators predominately associated with Dewey over definitions and ideas surrounding a democratic education. Emergent points of contrast with Thorndike include distinctions between social efficiency and Bagley's alternative idea of social progress. Bagley also diverged from other essentialists over definitions concerning liberal and cultural education. To make these viewpoints of Bagley explicit, I describe characteristics of a progressive education, and an essentialist education separately, before introducing Bagley. Finally, I apply Bagley's ideas into the domain of music education. Ultimately, I contend that through common outcomes of creativity, competition, and literacy, the domain of music education ...
This study examines the phenomenon of contemporary a cappella music making found in high school settings as curricular and extra-curricular offerings. Past music and music education literature has focused exclusively on contemporary a cappella at the collegiate level. Through application of a descriptive phenomenological method and incorporation an educational-sociological lens, this study advances an understanding of the educational benefit and social value of membership in contemporary a cappella at the high school level. Six recent members from three regions of the United States provided data through individual open-form interviews in which questions were derived from the participants’ own speech. I incorporated phenomenological reductions and processes to negate researcher bias during data collection, analysis, and the formation of a general structure and constituent meanings of membership in high school contemporary a cappella. Participants utilized traditional music skills, individual talents, conceptions of popular culture and music, and in-group socialization to facilitate music making and reify membership. Expressing the value of group membership, individuals acted to benefit the group by cultivating social bonds, developing and fostering personal/shared connections to songs, identifying and purposing individual talents and skills, and gaining an understanding of each members’ unique contribution to membership. Discussion includes implications for music education and suggestions for future research.
The purpose of the meta-analysis was to address the varied and somewhat stratified study results within the area of singing ability and instruction by statistically summarizing the data of related studies. An analysis yielded a small overall mean effect size for instruction across 34 studies, 433 unique effects, and 5,497 participants ranging in age from 5- to 11-years old (g = 0.43). The largest overall study effect size across categorical variables included the effects of same and different discrimination techniques on mean score gains. The largest overall effect size across categorical moderator variables included research design: Pretest-posttest 1 group design. Overall mean effects by primary moderator variable ranged from trivial to moderate. Feedback yielded the largest effect regarding teaching condition, 8-year-old children yielded the largest effect regarding age, girls yielded the largest effect regarding gender, the Boardman assessment measure yielded the largest effect regarding measurement instrument, and song accuracy yielded the largest effect regarding measured task. Conclusions address implications for teaching, research pedagogy, and research practice within the field of music education.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to discover Texas middle school choir directors’ perceptions and applications of multicultural education in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this investigation: (1) What were middle school choir director’s perceptions about multicultural music education?; (2) How did middle school choir directors apply multicultural music pedagogy in their classrooms?; and (3) How did middle school choir directors perceive professional development opportunities in multicultural music education? Texas middle school choir directors perceived that the purpose of multicultural music was to expose students to different cultures and diverse worldviews through music. Teachers listed several social and musical benefits of studying multicultural music including broadening musical horizons, cultural appreciation, and expansion of student worldviews. Teachers consciously programmed multicultural music for most of their concerts, and some chose literature based on their students’ cultural backgrounds. Although most teachers tried to make multicultural music experiences genuine for students, authenticity was the foremost pedagogical concern regarding multicultural music pedagogy. Teachers tended to utilize a combination of music concept and sociocultural approaches when teaching multicultural music by comparing multicultural music to Western music and using classroom discussions to discuss social issues that lend context to the music. Professional development opportunities in multicultural music education were available through the state music organization (TMEA), but rarely at the district or the campus level. Teachers also reported opportunities at the national level for professional development.
A large segment of society is either preparing to enter the work force, or is already engaged in some chosen line of work. Preparing to enter the work force takes a considerable amount of time and effort. The decision to follow one career path over countless others may, on the surface, appear to be discretely individual. But when viewed from a sociological perspective, occupational choices are implicitly and explicitly reached through a consensus of contributing factors. Consequently, an occupational identity is not how an individual describes a personal work-related self, but is rather dialectic. It is the merging, albeit, negotiation of viewpoints which causes persons to view themselves in relationship with how others think of them. It is expected that students newly enrolled in music education degree programs will, with time, replace erroneous lay conceptions of music teaching with those presented in curricula and espoused by significant role models. However, the professional socialization process, characteristic of music education degree programs, has not always been successful in transforming students’ personal perspectives of music teaching. This transformation process is critical toward the development of occupational identities that are congruent with school music teaching positions. There has been an established line of research in music education that examines who school music teachers are from a sociological perspective. When pursuing this literature, however, it became evident that, over time, the term identity had been used under many different guises, incorporating mixed perspectives from among the social sciences. The studies that have dealt with occupational identity have done so for different purposes, employing different theories and methodologies. While any of these previous research protocols may be useful for particular purposes, the reality is that the terms identity and occupational identity have become interchangeable. The term identity is sometimes used to denote self-concept or role concept ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate constructions of choir identity among high school choir students in the United States public school classroom setting. The research questions were (a) what are the processes involved in construction of choir identity and (b) how are the processes related to the group identity of the choir. The data were collected through participant observations in one selected choir classroom and semi-structured interviews with students from the choir class. The results included six processes of identity construction as well as identification of the ways in which each process was related to the choir group’s identity. The processes and their links to the overall choir group identity provided further insight into the ways in which high school choir students construct their identities, and they also supported methods of teaching commonly used in high school choir settings.
The problem was to investigate current thoughts concerning the beginning piano class at the college level, Data were collected from published and unpublished materials from 1964 to 1976. It was found that class piano instruction usually occurs in a three- to four-semester sequence, with classes meeting from two to five periods per week, containing from four to twenty-five students. Classification of students is by interview, placement test, and/or audition. Varying room arrangements are used with either conventional or electronic pianos, plus a variety of audio-visual equipment, Course content, with varying emphases, includes sight-reading, functional skills, technique, and repertoire. Teaching techniques used are numerous and varying. Recommendations were submitted for administrators, teachers, and researchers.
The purpose of this study was to prepare music theory textbook-workbooks for students of elementary school grades four through eight who are taking private music lessons in voice, piano, or other instruments. The study was prompted by the action taken first by Texas Music Teachers Association and later by Music Teachers National Association which made the passing of comprehensive music theory examinations a prerequisite for entering all student performance and contest events sponsored by these associations.
Although much has been written on the subject of conducting, it is generally recognized that a great deal can be learned through discussion with and observation of successful conductors. Direct contact with master conductors is an excellent learning tool, but seldom do high school or college choral conductors have the opportunity for direct individual study of the experts in their normal situations. This study provided the opportunity for one practitioner to work with two expert choral conductors. The report was written with the hope that other practitioners might also benefit from the results of the investigation. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare preparations and experiences, philosophies of music, and observable choral concepts which may have contributed to the superior choral achievements of B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch.
The purpose of this study was to identify certain aspects related to sight singing which tend to cause difficulty in teaching junior high school students and to suggest exercises that might be used to aid in overcoming these difficulties, Data included a questionnaire to junior high school teachers in three states. Subjects researched and discussed were the physical, intellectual, and emotional development of the adolescent; the changing voice and the range and vocal limitations of junior high singers; and rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and other aspects of sight singing. Included were vocal procedures to be used with young voices, suggestions for choosing and/or arranging appropriate music, and original compositions designed to meet the needs and interests of junior high school students.
The purpose of this study is to develop a fourteen-week program for teaching beginning music reading through rhythmic and pitch notation to pre-school children in piano classes. The historical background for the study discusses man's learning abilities in the group process in music education with the particular reference to class piano and its development and publications by leading authorities concerning class piano and rhythmic training in the classroom. The second chapter contains analyses and summaries of five selected texts pertinent to the study. The findings of research of the five selected texts serve as the groundwork for the development of the program which is contained in the third chapter.
The purpose of this study was to compare major theories of laryngeal vibration. The basic hypothesis of the study was that the differences and similarities between the major theories of laryngeal vibration could be made evident and clear through a comparative study. It was assumed that there are two or more theories of laryngeal vibration and that all the major theories of laryngeal vibration from 1945 to the present have been described in written form in English.
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the convictions about choral conducting is held and applied by Caro Carapetyan which may have contributed to his superior choral work. The primary source of information was a series of personal interviews with Carapetyan. The report was organized into five sections. The first part supplied background material. Subjects covered in the report include philosophy, the relationship between conductor and singers the conductor's knowledge of music history and literature, rehearsal planning, conducting technique the selection of singers, choral tone, blend and balance, diction, intonation, rhythm, and dynamics. Each of the chapters in Parts II, III and IV includes a summary and some comparisons with other choral music sources. The fifth part is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Recommendations for choral conductors and future researchers are included.
The problem was to survey and collect ideas on the use of improvisation as a teaching and learning tool in elementary piano instruction and to prescribe activities and exercises for second through fourth grade piano classes. These areas were examined: philosophies and theories influencing traditional instruction, effects of creative keyboard activities on children's musical development, specific teaching strategies using improvisation, evaluative procedures, and suitability of materials for young children. Data collected from published and unpublished materials were classified, and presented concerning the feasibility of using keyboard improvisation with early elementary children. It was found that suitable improvisational exercises allow the child to organize his perceptions into the basic concepts of music. Recommendations for teachers and researchers were made.
The study described through content analysis the general music course in the secondary school as perceived in selected curricular sources from the 1960's and 1970's. As various writers of curricular sources developed their own content and methodologies, a vast amount of data became available which seemed unmanageable because of the particular philosophical goals chosen for the course. The study organized in a systematic manner the content and methodologies of the.course by means of eighteen categories. Categories of high frequency inclusion in the general music sources were shown to be the elements of music, music vocabulary as a specific area for learning, the predominant choice of classical Western/art music, the use of listening and creative activities and the discussion of psychological learning principles.
The present study explored whether musicians could (1) differentiate among the timbres of bass tubas of a single design, but constructed of different materials, (2) determine differences within certain ranges and articulations, and (3) possess different perceptual abilities depending on previous experience in low brass performance. Findings indicated that (1) tubas made to the same specifications and constructed of the same material differed as much as those of made to the same specifications, constructed of different materials; 2) significant differences in perceptibility which occurred among tubas were inconsistent across ranges and articulations, and differed due to phrase type and the specific tuba on which the phrase was played; 3) low brass players did not differ from other auditors in their perception of timbral differences.
This investigation sought to identify sound levels potentially harmful to directors' hearing, and examine the effects of band size, instrumentation, bandroom and playing ability on sound levels. The subjects were 2 elementary, 2 middle, and 4 high school bands, in 7 rooms, 10 to 66 members, and 26 students, beginning and advanced. A sound level meter was used. Sounds were measured in flat and A-weighted decibels. Sounds measured were steady state (>.5 sec.) and impulse (<.5 sec.). Results were compared with safety limits of OSHA, EPA and Baughn's study of safety limits (1966). Results show exceedences of limits used for comparison. Small rehearsal areas and younger players seemed to cause high levels in the tests. Further testing may prove potential hazards.
This study investigated whether fifth-grade students would sing more accurately when responding to pitch stimuli presented to the right ear as compared to left and both ears. Students were also classified as either strongly right-handed or other (left-handed or mixed) to see if ear treatment responses would differ with handedness. Sixty-six students were tested on their attempts to match 12 model pitches. Identical tests were given to each subject on 3 different days, with a different ear treatment each day. Vocal response scores were significantly better for both-ear presentation than for left-ear. No significant difference was found between right and both ears, right and left ears, or between handedness groups.
Mental imagery is a common theme in research that clarifies how musical thought relates to musical performance. Unfortunately, minimal information exists regarding mental imagery and singers. The purpose of this study was to probe the role, if any, mental imagery plays in the conceptualization of pitch and vowel. By interviewing singers at differing levels of expertise, basic information was obtained about the mental processes used by singers. Through evaluations of the singers' mental processes, it was concluded that 95% of the singers in the study employed mental imagery. All singers described using kinesthetic imagery, while the majority implemented sensory and auditory imagery. Viso-spatial imagery was implemented among the more experienced singers. The majority of singers also reported: imaging pitch and vowel interactively; imaging from an internal perspective; and utilizing mental rehearsal. Less than half of the singers described using methods other than mental imagery to conceptualize pitch and vowel.
The reasons given by thirty-three junior high school band directors for success and failure at the University Interscholastic League Concert/Sightreading Contest were studied using the methodology of Attribution Theory. All of the subjects attended the same contest and were members of a region which included urban and suburban schools. The subjects responded to a questionnaire which evaluated their attitudes towards the contest, allowed them to make judgments about other directors in hypothetical contest situations, and finally asked them to list the five most important reasons for their success or failure at the contest in an open-response format.
The purpose was to measure any statistically significant differences in pitch-matching skills among three classes of third grade students when using either adult male voice, piano, or resonator bells as melodic models for rote instruction of classroom singing. Each class was randomly assigned one of the three melodic models for a ten week treatment phase. Results indicated no significant differences in pitch matching skills between any of the three groups. No significant differences in pitch matching skills were found according to gender of subjects or among class piano students and non-piano students. Findings indicated overall improvement in pitch matching skills of subjects from pre-test to post-test phase.
The present study explored whether (a) positive or negative reinforcement would produce higher percentages of on-task student behavior at set timed intervals, (b) positive, negative, or total reinforcement would increase student attentiveness after reinforcement, and (c) if natural fluctuations in teacher approval/disapproval would have any bearing on percentages of student attentiveness. Findings of the 15-day study concluded that (a) positive reinforcement maintained significantly higher levels of student attentiveness over negative reinforcement, (b) negative reinforcement did not significantly lower percentages of student attentiveness, and (c) natural fluctuations in rates of teacher approval/disapproval had no apparent effect on the amount of on-task behavior in the beginning strings class.
The increasing cultural diversity in the United States has brought not only richness, but also complex challenges, to various segments of American society, particularly with regard to public schools. As the student population continues to diversify while teacher population remains predominately White, female, and middle class, teacher awareness in the classroom might be an integral piece to assist students marginalized by stereotypes in feeling more empowered in the school community. Through qualitative data collection and analysis, and framed by Basil Bernstein’s language code theory, this study explored teachers’ perceptions of how classroom interactions, in light of differences in communication, might impact students of different socio-economic backgrounds from the teacher. The findings of this study indicated that the participants expressed a desire to connect with all of their students, regardless of their background. They also discussed challenges that made relationships difficult, such as feelings of disconnect from their Title I students and their families based on differences in home life and background. This dissonance was often difficult for the participants to reconcile due to pressures and difficulties in their teaching situations, such as the large number of students and the scheduling of classes, curricular pressures, and other district expectations such as after-school ensembles. Implications for practicing music teachers and teacher education include ways to understand students’ communities and rethinking ways of approaching relevant terminology in education.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the needs for music-related content in the Bible college pastoral curriculum as perceived by a selected group of pastors. The research problems were (1) to assess the extent of musical preparation of recent pastoral graduates from selected accredited Bible colleges in the United States, (2) to assess the music-related duties of those graduates in paid pastoral positions, (3) to assess the pastors' perceived needs for instructional preparation for the fulfillment of their musical duties, and (4) to determine the effect of selected factors on the perceived needs of those pastors.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between personality traits and job satisfaction among music teachers. The research problems were 1. to investigate the areas of job satisfaction of music teachers; 2. to investigate the patterns of personality traits that were common among music teachers; 3. to determine whether relationships existed between the areas in which the music teachers showed job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and their personality profiles.
The purpose of this study was to investigate aspects of pitch perception of auditors when presented with musical tones whose frequencies were modulated. Research problems were: estimation of the effect of musical training upon pitch perception; estimation of the effect of stimuli of differing tonal qualities and frequency ranges upon perception; and estimation of the effect of solo and ensemble performances upon pitch perception. Subjects for the study were thirty musicians and thirty nonmusicians. Subjects were students at North Texas State University and Paris Junior College who had volunteered for the study. A test containing thirty-six items was developed which required subjects to match a tone created by a sawtooth wave generator to a simultaneously presented musical tone performed with vibrato. Each subject was tested individually, and allowed three attempts to match each test item. After the third playing of each item, a reading was taken of the frequency selected by the subject, Using the split half method, reliability for the test was found to be .86 for nonmusicians and .88 for musicians. ANOVA evaluation of responses of subjects indicated that there was a significant difference.in the location of pitch among musicians and nonmusicians, with musicians locating the pitch somewhat higher in the frequency spectrum than nonmusicians. Neither group located the pitch of modulated musical tones at the geometric mean of the modulation. Differences located in responses of the groups were consistant with regard to stimuli of varying frequency levels and timbres, and were unaffected by either solo or ensemble performance of the stimulus. Subsidiary findings indicated that among musicians no significant differences in pitch perception may be traced to the major performing instrument of the subject; differences in these subgroups and nonmusicians were consistant with the findings comparing musicians as "a whole and nonmusicians. Suggestions were made concerning application ...
The purpose of the study was to investigate independent piano teachers' view of themselves in the light of selected attributes found in sociological writings on the professions. The research problems were: (a) to determine the attitudes which independent piano teachers held toward selected professional attributes; (b) to determine the relationship between the attitudes toward the professional attributes and selected background variables; and (c) to determine the degree of association between these attributes. The problems were addressed by a questionnaire directed to independent piano teachers active in the area of Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas. Thirty teachers were also interviewed to determine consistency of response and to explore issues which the questionnaire had raised. Reliability and validity were established at acceptable levels. Techniques of statistical analysis included Pearson's product-moment correlation, multiple regression, chi-square in conjunction with Cramer's V_, and factor analysis. The strongest attitudes expressed by the teachers in the study concerned professional self-image, altruism, client orientation, commitment to work, and independence. The most important background variables were age, years of experience, number of students, certification by a professional association, and college degree in music. A multiple regression analysis tested each variable against the dependent variable professional self-image; recognition by others, commitment to work, client orientation, and qualification were found to account for 25% of the common variance. A factor analysis was also conducted to seek out patterns of attitudes among the attributes being studied; seven factors were identified among the subjects' belief systems as Professional Actions, Satisfaction, Quality Control, Professionalism, Compliance, Autonomy, and Focus on Student. These factors accounted for almost half of the total variance in the data. The study concluded that: (a) independent piano teaching was a female-dominated, subsidized occupation, and (b) the piano teachers' professional self-image seemed to be an evaluation of themselves and their work, rather than the ...
Good vocal health is a vital concern for those people who use the voice in a professional capacity, such as teachers, singers, actors, clergymen, and lawyers. Research in the area of vocal health reveals the need to determine if specific exercises are beneficial to the voice and if exercises used to train the singing voice might be beneficial to alleviate pathological and/or dysfunctional voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the response of a variety of pathological voices to a selected set of singing exercises. Subjects were selected from the private practice of cooperating physicians who felt that the vocal instruction and exercise program might be helpful to the teachers, students, professional "pop" singers, and housewife-singers who were diagnosed to have muscle tension dysphonia, nodules, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, or iatrogenic dysphonia. Instrumentation for assessing conditions before, during, and after exercise included a brief case history, subject interviews, attending physicians' medical charts, flexible fiberoptic video nasolaryngoscopy, video cassette recorder and video tape segments, three physician/observers, and a specific diagnostic procedure which provided a method of assessing organic, functional, and perceptual variables. For the exercise program the researcher chose seven vocalises from the routine designed by Allan R. Lindquest, whose techniques combined those of the Italian school with those of Swedish studios which produced such singers as Flagstad and Bjoerling. The seven vocalises included a warm up "massage" and exercises for separation and blending of the registers, vowel clarity and modification, tone focus, vocal attack, and flexibility. Since all the subjects showed improvement after exercise in the vocal conditions observed in this study, these vocalises and technique may be helpful to alleviate pathological conditions and/or dysfunctional behavior in other subjects. The researcher further suggests that the voice profession investigate the efficiency of other techniques, exercises, and musical vocalises ...
While a limited body of research pertaining to vocal sound quality exists, technological advances in sound analyses have facilitated a reexamination of vocal timbre. The sound quality of sung vowels ([ a], [e ], C i ]) produced by ten baritone/bass singers at the University of North Texas was analyzed by the use of Fourier analysis and electronic digital equipment. This procedure and equipment produced results over a wider frequency range with greater accuracy than prior studies on vocal timbre. The study sought to answer the following questions: (1) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [e], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers? (2) Using formant regions between 0-20 kHz for comparison, what similarities and differences can be observed among spectra produced from [a], [ e ], and [ i ] vowels sung by baritone/bass singers with regard to individual singers? (3) Approximately what vocal-tract tube lengths were used by baritone/bass singers when performing [a], [e ], and [ i ] vowels? (4) What similarities in vocal-tract tube lengths can be generalized as to [ a], L e ], and [ i ] vowels sung by individual baritone/bass singers? The results of the study suggested that: (1) Below approximately 4 kHz formant frequency location can be generalized by a specific vowel between subjects. (2) Above 4 kHz the generalization of formant frequency location is difficult between subjects singing the same vowels, but general frequency location for formants can be identified between samples produced by the same singer performing different vowels. (3) Subjects did alter their vocal-tract lengths as different vowel sounds were performed, but no overall pattern of tube length with reference to specific vowels was indicated. (4) Each singer did use a unique ...
The purpose of the study was to investigate conflicts in the perceptions of band directors, band parents, band students, and selected school personnel regarding the role and scope of their respective band programs. The problems were to examine the relationships among these four groups in terms of selective perception, perceptual constancy, and polarization. Questionnaires were developed in order to survey the senior public high schools in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaires included perceptions about public performances, marching, concert, and jazz bands; contests and festivals; and other band related activities which might be desirable in a band program. The questionnaires concluded with opportunities for open-ended comments and suggestions about the survey instrument and the band program. Statistical computations included one-way analysis of variance, chi-square test, frequency counts, and cross-tabulations. Qualitative analyses and reports of interviews helped to clarify and interpret all statistical findings.
The purpose of the study was to determine judgments of trained musicians regarding the intonation of complex tones in the context of synthesized woodwind ensemble performances. Problems included in the study were (1) estimation of the point in pitch deviation which would result in out-of-tune judgments, (2) investigation of timbral effects on judged intonation, and (3) investigation of effects of mistuning within differential voices.
This study attempted to explore the strength and nature of relationships between specific intellectual information processing skills included in a multi-dimensional model conceived by Guilford, and measured by Meeker's Structure of Intellect - Learning Abilities Test, and specific musical aural discrimination skills as measured by Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile. Three research questions were posed, which involved determining the strength and the nature of the relationship between MAP melodic, rhythmic, and aesthetic discrimination abilities and the intellectual information processing skills comprising the SOI - LA. Both instruments were administered to 387 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders from schools in the Dallas area. After a pilot study established the feasibility of the study and reliability estimates of the test instruments, multiple regression analysis determined that 10% to 15% of the variance between intellectual information-processing skills and the individual musical aural discrimination abilities was in common (r = +.32 to r = +.39). It was further determined that only six specific SOI intellectual dimensions, all involving the skills of "Cognition" and "Evaluation", were significantly related to the musical aural discrimination abilities. Through the use of the Coefficient of Partial Correlation, the strength of each individual information-processing skill's unique contribution to that covariance was determined. The study indicated that "Semantic" mental information processing skills, involving the ability to recall an abstract meaning or procedure given an external stimulus, play an extremely important part within this relationship. Skills of a "Figural" nature, which involve comprehending either a physical object or an non-physical idea and separating it from other impinging stimuli also enter into the relationship, although not to so high an extent. Finally, it was observed that the dimensions involving an understanding of "Systems", those mental skills which deal with groupings of figures, symbols, or semantic relationships, also was important to the relationship.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the curricular content of elementary music in China between 1912 and 1982. The questions addressed were: (1) What changes in elementary music resulted from China's becoming a republic in 1912? (2) What changes in elementary music resulted from China's becoming a socialist country in 1949? (3) What changes in elementary music in the People's Republic of China resulted from the Anti—Rightist Struggle Movement in 1957? (4) What changes in elementary music in the People's Republic of China resulted from the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)? (5) Have changes occurred in elementary music in the People's Republic of China since the beginning of the reform movement in 1978? (6) Did any of the changes affect curricular goals, contents, methods, required materials, and instruction time allotted in a like manner, or did some of these components remain the same while others changed? (7) Were the changes important enough to attribute them to a changed political ideology? After translating all pertinent documents, the goals, contents, methods, materials, and time allotted for the elementary music curricula between 1912 and 1982 were listed and identified. Subsequently, the areas of focus within those categories as well as changes in focus were identified and their importance determined. The findings were: (1) all important curricular changes occurred after 1950; and (2) changed goals resulted in changed teaching techniques; however, changed teaching techniques did not result in the changing of goals.
Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments incorporates four theoretical constructs (congruence, consistency, differentiation and identity) which attempt to explain sources in variability of achievement and satisfaction among employed adults and college students. This study sought to: (1) investigate the relationship of Holland's constructs to academic achievement and educational satisfaction of undergraduate music majors; (2) investigate differences in all variables according to gender and degree major. Data were collected from undergraduate music majors (N = 100) enrolled at the University of North Texas using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Mv Vocational Situation. and the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire. Reliability for the Music Major Satisfaction Questionnaire was estimated at .92 using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients indicated that: (1) congruence was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (2) identity was significantly related to academic achievement and educational satisfaction; (3) consistency was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction; (4) differentiation was significantly related to academic achievement, but not to educational satisfaction. Multiple regression using a stepwise entry method indicated that: (1) the identity construct was the best predictor of educational satisfaction scores; (2) identity was the best predictor of academic achievement scores. The results of the study suggested: (1) it is unlikely that any single theory accounts for all dimensions of variability in achievement among college music majors. To arrive at a comprehensive model of achievement, it will be necessary to utilize constructs of several theories. Such a model should include Holland's constructs of identity, congruence, and possibly differentiation. (2) similarly, a comprehensive model of satisfaction should include Holland's constructs of identity and congruence. (3) Holland's classification system may distinguish among two traditionally held divisions of college music majors, performance majors and education majors. (4) music education majors and music performance majors differ on ...
Justifications for music education have been studied only by examining historical trends in statements of aesthetic versus utilitarian values, and not from the perspective of evaluating the justifications' usefulness. A number of prominent writers in the music education field, while supporting aesthetic values as important for music education, have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of aesthetic justifications when used for convincing outsiders of the importance of music in the public school curriculum. These doubts, along with a preponderance of aesthetic justifications in the recent music education literature, led to the present study, which conducted a theoretical examination of the usefulness of aesthetic justifications for music education. The study addressed three research problems, namely: (1) the attitudes of the clientele groups of the public schools in terms of their values toward music as a subject in the schools; (2) the attitudes of the groups within the music education profession in terms of their values for music in the public schools and for the profession itself; and 3) the likelihood that justifications based upon "aesthetics" as a system of values would be accepted by the groups both inside arid outside the music education profession. A philosophical-sociological perspective was chosen for the theoretical analysis because the problems of the study concern the manner in which values are accepted or rejected by groups of people. The particular sociological theory chosen combined the symbolic interaction theory of George Herbert Mead and the sociology of knowledge as described by Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann. Conclusions: Problems arise in justifying music education using aesthetic theory because (1) the symbolic universe of aesthetic theory is complex and is not well-understood by music educators or the clientele of the public schools; and (2) aesthetic theory represents gestures of a reference group with norms and values not usually found in ...
The study's purpose was to describe selected laryngeal activity of brass-wind players during the performance of selected musical exercises. Research problems included the observation and description of three internal areas of activity of ten trumpeters as they performed each exercise. Specific areas of observation were 1) movement of the epiglottis during the performance of each exercise, 2) movement of the vocal folds/arytenoid cartilage which includes changes in the size of the glottis during the performance of each prescribed exercise, and 3) movement of the thyroid cartilage during the performance of each prescribed exercise. Musical exercises performed by each of the subjects included a sound volume change, use of vibrato, single-tonguing, step-wise descending and ascending slurs, descending and ascending lip slurs, register change, and a descending chromatic scale. In addition, each subject performed an excerpt from the second movement of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto. Data were collected through direct observation of subject performances and then described using three different means. Data analyses revealed a prominent amount of highly individual, non-patterned laryngeal activity which played an integral role in the performance of each subject. Individuals including Law (1960), Cramer (1955), Jacobs (Stewart, 1987), and Noble (1964) have advocated an unrestricted airway during brass performance. Contrary to this advice, findings in the present study indicate that a great deal of varying, involuntary restriction is present in the laryngeal area during performance. Further, such activity appears necessary to brass performance. Others, including Farkas (1962), Schuller (1962), and Wick (1971) , have endorsed conscious use of the glottis during brass performance. While findings in the present study imply that there is a presence of voluntary or reflexive glottal activity during brass performance, evidence does not support any theory which suggests conscious use of the laryngeal mechanism.
The research problems of this dissertation were: 1) A description of the perceived value of music in light of political undercurrents in Boston prior to and during the years under investigation, and 2) the profile of the constituency of the Boston School Committee and Committee on Music in 1837 and 1845. Questions addressed the effect of religious and moral concerns of the day on the decision by the School Committee in 1837 to try music in the curriculum, and the possible effect of religious politics on Lowell Mason's dismissal from the schools in 1845. In the minds of mid-nineteenth century Bostonians, religious and moral values were intrinsic to the very nature of music. Key members on the School Committee portrayed music as being spiritual yet nonsectarian in its influence. Therefore, the findings suggest that music was believed to provide common ground between opposing and diverse religious sects. Reasons given for Mason's dismissal by John Sargent, a member of the Committee on Music, showed parallels to H. W. Day's accusations in the press a year earlier that Mason had managed his position in a sectarian manner. Sargent's background supports the theory that religious politics were at work in Mason's dismissal. Although members of the School Committee of 1845 were religious, only isolated cases support the proposition that any of them would have opposed Mason strictly on the basis of religious issues. Evidence suggests that their passivity to the action by the Committee on Music was probably due to concurrent public criticism of attempts at school reform within the Committee. While under such scrutiny, Committee members' inaction regarding Mason's dismissal may have reflected a desire not to jeopardize their own positions as a political body.
The purpose of this study was to investigate selected landmark events in the historical development of the Texas Music Educators Association, 1938-1980, and the decisions which influenced their outcomes. A polling of twenty former presidents of TMEA selected the following landmark events that helped to shape the history of TMEA: (1) the change from a band organization to a music educators organization in 1938, (2) the University Interscholastic League takeover of contests in 1947, and (3) TMEA's separation from the Music Educators National Conference in 1976. In addition to developing a historical chronology from documentary sources, in-depth interviews were conducted with actual participants in these landmark events. The interviews utilized comparable questions, in order to identify decision-making patterns, while also capturing the atmosphere and visceral context of TMEA history. Literature from the social science disciplines on organizational decision—making was explored for help in understanding what happened, how, and why. In all three events the final decision was strongly influenced by factors external to the TMEA. The strong power position held by school administrators was evident in both the first and second events, while reinforcement from actively lobbying choral directors was also a factor in the first event only. The strong ultimatum from MENC, backed by their unchallenged charter authority, was a key factor in the third event. Still, TMEA continued to grow, and avoided debilitating organizational trauma. TMEA leaders often demonstrated a capacity to react quickly to sudden changes in the organizational environment, turning potential liabilities into assets. The TMEA was found to be an organization greatly dependent on the decisions of others, but strongly independent and self-sufficient in spirit. This independence has both negative and positive potential. It can become an unnatural barrier between Texas music educators and the MENC, or it can fuel the drive for professional excellence ...
The purpose of the study was concerned with specific elements of the portion of the female voice commonly referred to as whistle or flute register. Three elements of vocal production were chosen for which past research has demonstrated relationships to source function. These elements included spectral characteristics, airflow rates, and perceptual identification. The research compared what the singer-subjects perceived as being whistle register phonations with that which they perceived as being head register phonations. A comparative technique was utilized where pitch, intensity and phonemic category were held relatively constant, register, therefore, being the only variable. Spectral characteristics and airflow rates of the two subject-determined registers were compared. In addition, an attempt was made to determine if the whistle register could be perceptually differentiated on the basis of voice quality,
The purpose of this study was to compare the speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, singing voice quality, and self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice between two groups of girls ages 11 through 15 years, who were pre-menarcheal by 6 months and post-menarcheal by 10 months or more. Subjects were volunteers who attended a North Texas public school system. Each subject was examined by an otolaryngologist. Age, height, weight, a hearing screening, and information on music classes and/or private music lessons were obtained. The speaking fundamental frequency measure was obtained by having each subject speak for 30 seconds on a subject of choice and read a passage of approximately 100 syllables. The vocal range measure was obtained by having each subject begin at an arbitrary pitch and sing mah and moo up the scale as high as possible and mah and moo down the scale as low as possible. These four measures were repeated with the researcher giving visual gestures. For singing-voice quality, each subject sang "America" in the key of her choice and again in the key of F major. Each subjects singing voice was rated according to breathiness. Data regarding self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice were obtained through a rating assessment of 10 questions and a conversation with each subject. There were no significant differences between the means of the pre-meanarcheal and post-menarcheal girls on speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, and singing-voice quality. But, more of the post-menarcheal girls exhibited lower speaking pitches, lower singing ranges, and increased breathiness in their singing voices than did the pre-menarcheal girls. Two questions of the perceptions rating assessment were significant, with the post-menarcheal girls citing higher incidences of vocal inconsistencies than the pre-menarcheal girls. The findings of the qualitative data analysis indicated that more post-menarcheal girls had ...
The present study sought to confirm melodic expectancy patterns discovered in a previous investigation and to determine whether data would be affected by altering the rhythmic condition of the stimuli. The three problems of this investigation were to study expectancies generated by two-note stimulus intervals of equal duration; the expectancies generated by stimulus intervals presented with a long-short rhythm; and the expectancies generated by stimulus intervals presented with a short-long rhythm. Fifty subjects were asked to sing what they believed would be the natural continuation of the melody begun by a two-note stimulus interval. The stimulus intervals were grouped in rhythmic sets, one set of neutral-rhythm stimuli, one set of long-short stimuli, and one set of short-long stimuli. The interval from the second note of the stimulus interval to the first sung note was transcribed as the generated expectancy response interval. The data were examined in two basic ways, using response data as a whole and examining data for each stimulus interval separately. A third method of data evaluation concerned harmonic triads occurring in the response data. Both when considering response frequency as a whole, and when considering response data separately for each melodic beginning, no significant difference associated with rhythmic condition could be found. Smaller response intervals were generated much more often than large intervals. Some stimulus intervals, notably the major second ascending, were observed to be much more powerful generators than others. It was concluded from these results that in response to two-note stimulus intervals melodic expectancy can clearly be shown to operate, confirming the results of an earlier study, but that no effect of rhythm on melodic expectancy can be shown to operate.
The purpose was to investigate the career realities and occupational concerns of successful full-time performing instrumentalists. Four research problems were formulated; (1) the establishment of a demographic profile of musicians who perceived themselves successful; (2) the determination of the musicians' career realities; (3) the determination of the musicians' occupational concerns; and (4) a comparison of the relationship of the demographic profile to the career realities and occupational concerns. A pilot study was used to develop a questionnaire and an interview schedule. The sample for the main study was chosen by the questionnaire and consisted of twenty musicians, five each in the musical categories of jazz, classical, commercial and pop. To resolve research problem one, the questionnaire also collected general demographic data. Research problems two and three were fulfilled by an interview schedule based upon career realities and occupational concerns cited in previous sociological studies. The realities and concerns were either confirmed or refuted by each interviewee. The career realities were role conflict, career contingencies, musical labels, life style, hierarchies, audience relationships and environment. The occupational concerns were mobility, status, entrapment, personal contacts, dependency, security, competition, economic issues, working conditions, travel requirements, appearance, management control, auditions, maintenance of skills and training relevancy. The interviews were taped and transcribed by a court reporter and included in the text. An analysis of the interviews in relation to the demographic data fulfilled research problem four. Results showed that career contingencies, mobility and life style were positive influences for the sampled musicians. Also, a "hierarchy of expertise" appeared as the ultimate occupational hierarchy for the sampled musicians. Furthermore, a "hierarchy of dependency," based upon instrument played, affected the sampled musicians' attitudes toward their careers. It was concluded that performers who were devoting their full time to performance were more tolerant of imperfect career conditions than ...
The purpose of this study was to create and gain consensus of an essential curriculum for teaching score study in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class. Questions to be answered by this study were what methods, materials, and evaluations should be used to teach score study to undergraduate instrumental conducting students? Resolving the questions required the collection of information on the methods, materials, and evaluations used in teaching score preparation in the undergraduate instrumental conducting class and the opinions of conductors and teachers of conducting about those methods, materials, and evaluations.
The purpose of this study was to develop and test systematically a theoretical model that delineated the constructs and subsumed variables of jazz improvisation performance. The specific research questions were; what specific performance variables are related to single line jazz solo improvisation performance? and; what is the most cogent groupings of variables into underlying constructs which characterize single line jazz solo improvisation performances for all performers, student performers, and professional performers?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic structures or reinforcement schedules of metric temporal patterns (metric combination of note values within a measure) in five best-selling beginning piano method series. Based upon a survey mailed to 98 music dealers, the five best-selling beginning piano method series in 1992 and 1993 were identified as: the Alfred Basic Piano Library, Bastien Piano Basics, David Carr Glover Piano Library, John. W. Schaum Piano Course, and John Thompson Modern Course for Piano. A coding system was developed for identifying the numerical appearances and occurrences of various metric temporal patterns per learning piece within each method series. Several computer programs were written to compute the kinetic structures, scope, and pacing of metric temporal patterns for each method series. The derived data were then compared to delineate relationships between the three analytical variables.
The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of Schön's concept of reflective conversation as a defining component in the applied studio music lesson. The research problems were (1) to determine the presence of complete and incomplete reflective conversations; (2) to determine the verbally exhibited knowledge base within complete conversations in relationship to conversation length; and (3) to establish an instructional profile of stable behaviors based on reflective conversation as a distinguishing characteristic among selected teachers. Videotapes of twenty-six applied studio music lessons of thirteen university teachers were analyzed according to problem solving, on-the-spot experimentation, and evaluation. An observation form was developed and was a reliable tool to collect information concerning number and type of reflective conversations, conversation length, and the teachers' verbally demonstrated knowledge base. Knowledge base was obtained by using the procedural model of Flanagan's critical incident technique. Reflective conversations existed and were a distinguishing characteristic of the teachers. With the exception of two teachers, a stable use of both number and length of reflective conversations, and knowledge base areas, was found. A discernible difference in the teachers' knowledge base within conversation length existed, and thus established instructional profiles for the teachers. Complete reflective conversations ranged from one-sixth to over half of total lesson time. Within instrument categories, teachers generally revealed a dissimilar knowledge usage. Some teachers exhibited fast-paced problem solving, in one minute or less, and named one or two knowledge areas. Others had longer conversations, up to five minutes, with more deliberate problem solving, and as many as twelve knowledge areas named. Results indicated that a practically significant situation can be examined by establishing teacher instructional profiles based upon reflective conversation. Methods employed in this study could be used to document teacher problem-solving and teacher knowledge in a variety of settings.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
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