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The Influence of Population on Wrongful Convictions
With criminal cases continuing to be exonerated across the United States, research must be done on the subject to advance current practices to reduce its occurrence in the future. This study combines county population data with the National Registry of Exonerations to analyze the contributing factors to wrongful convictions and the possible effect of population on their frequency. The objective of this study was to identify specific policy changes based on the five contributing factors to wrongful convictions that could be applied to population specific areas. The results yielded multiple patterns that are discussed thoroughly. These findings allowed the introduction of policy changes and proposals for future research.
Racial Disparity in Traffic Stops: An Analysis of Racial Profiling Data in Texas
The primary goal of this study was to analyze existing racial profiling data collected and reported by law enforcement agencies in Texas. The internet-based data used was obtained through TCOLE, as it is the state mandated repository in which all law enforcement agencies must submit their annual racial profiling reports to. In analyzing a collection requirement of these reports, this study sought to determine how frequently law enforcement officers know the race or ethnicity of drivers prior to traffic stops. Furthermore, the study sought to determine if there are differences in the rates of race or ethnicity known prior to stops across Texas geographical regions, county population sizes, agency types, as well as between counties with and without interstate thoroughfares. This analysis consisted of 3,250,984 traffic stops conducted by 1,186 law enforcement agencies in 2014. Findings revealed that law enforcement officers rarely know the race or ethnicity of drivers prior to traffic stops, as was consistently found across all measures. Findings and implications are discussed.
Online Pornography and Its Effects on the Behavior of College Students
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the habits of college students who use pornography. The study was designed to collect data on the use of online pornography by college students. Through the use of an online survey, the study collected general demographic data and data on the frequency with which students used online pornography. The study also collected data on the general attitudes of college students towards online pornography. Participants consisted of students enrolled at the University of North Texas during the Spring 2016 semester. The participants of the study were contacted by an email requesting the student to respond to an online anonymous survey regarding their use of online pornography. The survey consisted of thirty questions and statements, primarily utilizing a five point Likert scale. Analysis of the data collected as well as a discussion of the findings are included.
Let the Punishment Fit the Crime: an Overview of the Historical Approach to Probation in the State of Texas
Adult probation evolved in the United States as a result of the suspended sentence concept. As a result of a lack of follow through when an individual obtained a suspended sentence, there was no “checks and balances” to monitor whether an individual completed the guidelines set forth. As time progressed, it became apparent a more cohesive and monitored system was needed. Thus, an energetic and motivated individual, John Augustus, started the concept of probation by taking it upon himself to assist in the rehabilitative process of individuals charged with criminal behavior. Subsequent to his death, the concept of probation was embraced by his advocates who lobbied legislatively in order to enact probation laws that would oversee the success of probationers. It wasn’t until the 1950’s that the counties in the state of Texas took it upon themselves to enact their own system of monitoring of probationers. Over time the states have guided their probation concepts from evidence based research. Juvenile probation in the United States didn’t gain a solid foundation until the end of the 19th century with the development of the first juvenile court in Illinois. It took this country time to understand that juveniles were different than adults mentally; therefore, there would need to be a separation of juveniles from adults from being subjected to the same punishments as adults. The approach in dealing with juveniles was more grounded in treatment rather than in punishment. In the state of Texas, the focus for juvenile probation was based on different approaches based on the areas within the state. The juvenile system has gone through the due process era to its current state of the evidence based research. This thesis will provide the reader an overview of the history of the development of probation in the United States and in ...
Evaluation of Program Effectiveness: a Look at the Bedford Police Department’s Strategy Towards Repeat Victimization in Domestic Violence and Mental Health
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a program being run by the Bedford Police Department’s Repeat Victimization Unit on domestic violence and mental health and mental retardation. The study sought to determine whether the program was effective in reducing instances of repeat victimization in domestic violence and MHMR victims. Additionally the program investigated whether or not the program was effective at reducing victimization severity, and which demographic could be identified as the most victimized. Participants consisted of 157 domestic violence and MHMR victims in the city of Bedford, Tx between November 11, 2012 to July 30, 2013. Findings indicate that levels of repeat victimization for domestic violence and MHMR are relatively low regardless of whether the victim received services through the repeat victimization program or not. Additionally the severity of these repeat victimizations remains relatively constant regardless of whether services were received through the program or not. Implications and findings are discussed.
Island Empire: the Influence of the Maceo Family in Galveston
From the 1920s until the 1950s, brothers, Sam and Rosario Maceo, ran an influential crime family in Galveston, Texas. The brothers’ success was largely due to Galveston’s transient population, the turbulent history of the island, and the resulting economic decline experienced at the turn of the 20th century. Their success began during Prohibition, when they opened their first club. The establishment offered bootlegged liquor, fine dining, and first class entertainment. After Prohibition, the brothers continued to build an empire on the island through similar clubs, without much opposition from the locals. However, after being suspected of involvement in a drug smuggling ring, the Maceos were placed under scrutiny from outside law enforcement agencies. Through persistent investigations, the Texas Rangers finally shut down the rackets in Galveston in 1957. Despite their influence through the first half of the 20th century, on the island and off the island, their story is largely missing from the current literature.
The Academic Steroid: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants at a North Texas University
The goal of this study was to determine the extent, motivations, and justifications of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among the population at a large public university in the North Texas region. Participants consisted of 526 undergraduate students enrolled at the studied university during the spring and summer 2014 semesters. The findings of the study suggest that the nonmedical use by students was higher than the findings in much of the current literature, but was within the parameters established in the literature. The primary motivation for nonmedical use was academic in nature and was justified by moderation of nonmedical use to strategic academic times.
Recidivism Among Determinately Sentenced Youth in Texas
In Texas, determinate sentencing allows extremely serious and violent delinquents one more chance to change their ways by releasing them to the streets instead of being transferred to prison. This research study examined the recidivism outcomes of 416 serious and violent juvenile offenders previously exposed to rehabilitative treatment in the renowned Capital and Serious Violent Offender Treatment Program provided by the Texas Youth Commission. Further, this research study looked to a group of 1,261 determinately sentenced offenders who did not participate in Capital and Serious Violent Offender Treatment Program but were released from Texas Youth Commission as well. Both groups of juveniles were followed for three years following their release from institutionalization. This analysis revealed that 50% of both groups were rearrested at least once during the follow-up period for any offense. Of the Capital and Serious Violent Offender Program participants, 81% were rearrested for at least one new felony offense. Of those non-participants, 78% were rearrested for at least one new felony offense. The factors that served to distinguish both groups included African-American race and a number of delinquent history measures. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and suggestions for future research.
Ten Years After 9/11: the Structure and Use of Intelligence Units in Local Policing
The events of September 11, 2001 marked a paradigm shift in the strategy within all levels of law enforcement in the United States. Intelligence became the watchword of the day and with it, the movement to incorporate strategic and tactical information in daily policing. Yet while the philosophy was clear, the method and manner to which agencies were left to achieve these goals was much less designed. The federal government allocated funds to assist help agencies incorporate an intelligence function in their daily operations but which agencies and to what degree remains unclear even today. This study seeks to determine the current state of use of intelligence in municipal law enforcement agencies in the State of Texas ten years after 9/11. Through use of a survey, it assesses the frequency of use of intelligence units in local police departments in the State of Texas, identifies commonalities in their structure, and determines the state of their effectiveness.
Is There Justice in Mercy? the Retributive Philosophies of Executive Clemency
Executive clemency is assumed to be a mechanism to correct miscarriages of justice brought about by the criminal justice system, yet little empirical research exists to confirm this assumption. This research study examined the types of rationales cited in 799 cases of executive clemency from six states from 2005 to 2012. Rationales based upon retributive philosophies, in which a miscarriage of justice was cited, were further analyzed. This analysis revealed that only seven percent of all clemency decisions from the examined states cited retributive rationales. Of the fifty-six grants of clemency that cited retributive rationales, most were granted in the forms of pardons. The analysis indicated that executive clemency is utilized as a mechanism to correct injustices, specifically in cases of innocence. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and the reliance on executive clemency as a fail-safe to the criminal justice system.
Recidivism Among Juvenile Sex Offenders in Texas
Juvenile sex offenders represent a serious and violent group of delinquents. Despite the severity of their crimes, the literature focusing on risk factors that influence recidivism and the types of re-arrest after incarceration is lacking. This research study examined 499 determinately sentenced juvenile sex offenders that were released from the Texas Juvenile Justice Department. This sample was then followed for three years upon their release. This analysis revealed that 51.5 percent were re-arrested for any offense while 45.91 percent were re-arrested for a felony offense. This study identified a number of risk factors relative to JSO recidivism. These factors include having a history of emotional abuse, race being African American, being gang affiliated, having a larger number of previous adjudications, and having higher counts of institutional misconduct infractions. Those JSOs older at intake and release, and those who were incarcerated for longer periods of time were less likely to re-offend upon release. Lastly, this study ends with suggestions for future research as well as policy implications geared toward juvenile sex offenders.
The Sex Offender Registry in Collin County, Texas: a Descriptive Analysis of Sex Offenders
The primary goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics of current registered sex offenders in Collin County, Texas, as well as to compare age and gender of the victims of these offenders in order to know who sex offenders primarily target in these crimes. The study also sought to discover geographic patterns of where the registered sex offenders reside for the purpose of keeping communities aware. Participants consisted of 175 registered sex offenders (N = 175) in Collin County, Texas, found on Collin County's and the Texas Department of Public Safety's online public registries. The findings demonstrate that there were significant trends among the sex offenders, their victims, location of residence, and housing complications as a result of progressing sex offender laws. Treatment programs and the reintegration of offenders in the community were also addressed. The meaning of the results in this study can aid in the development of safety and prevention strategies, provide an understanding about the utilization of sex offender registries, and can benefit law enforcement to predict the movement of current sex offenders, along with knowing where to find other potential offenders.
Homeland Security Roles and Responsibilities: an Examination of Texas Police Chiefs’ Perceptions
Research has shown that the police industry has entered into an era of homeland security. However, whether the core functions of policing have significantly changed since September 11, 2001, has been the topic of considerable debate. Using secondary data, the research identifies variables that are most influential in predicting whether Texas police chiefs understand their departments’ homeland security roles and responsibilities. The data was originally obtained in 2007 through self-administered surveys of police chiefs attending the Texas Chief Leadership Series (TPCLS) and the New Chief Development Program (NCDP).
Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: Exploring the Case Files of Children Under the Age of 6 Admitted to a Children’s Advocacy Center for Evaluation
Research suggests that roughly 25% of women and 10% of men within the United States were sexually abused at some point during childhood. With such high rates of victimization affecting society, the current study explores a population of children under the age of 6 who were suspected of being sexually victimized and thus admitted to a children’s advocacy center (CAC) for evaluation. This investigation contributes to the literature concerning child sexual abuse (CSA) by exploring the characteristics of these alleged victims, the characteristics of their suspected offenders, the alleged victim’s familial demographics characteristics, and by looking at the data pertaining to the incarceration rates of the suspected offenders identified within the sample.
Synthetic Cannabinoid Usage among College Students: The Example of K2 and Spice
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the awareness and prevalence of Spice and K2 usage among a population of college students, as well as the demographics of such users. The study also sought to determine whether or not students prefer these products over natural cannabis, in addition to examining the most popular methods of obtainment and the most commonly reported side effects of K2 and Spice usage. Participants consisted of 643 undergraduate students enrolled at the University of North Texas during the fall 2011 semester. Findings indicate that while students exhibit a relatively high awareness of K2 and Spice, usage of these products is not a prevalent occurrence. Implications of the findings are discussed.
"It's Technical": Exploring the Determinents to Technical Probation Revocations Among Felony Probationers
Within the United States, probation has customarily been used as a way to divert offenders away from prison. Over the past two decades the number of offenders who are sentenced to probation has increased tremendously. While there have been more offenders sentenced to probation, there has also been an increase in the number of probationers having that sentence revoked. The most prevalent type of revocation is a technical revocation. Probationers receive technical violations culminating in a revocation when they fail to satisfy the conditions of their probation sentence such as attending rehabilitative programming. The present study adds to the literature on technical revocations by examining characteristics of felony probationers from a large Southern state who were revoked between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Findings revealed that female probationers, older probationers, white probationers, and those probationers who had not completed high school were significantly more likely to be revoked for a technical revocation. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research based on these findings are discussed.
Life without Parole for Juvenile Offenders: Questions of Legality and Adolescent Culpability
Life without parole for juvenile offenders is a controversial issue across the globe. Recently, the United States stands alone as the only country in the world that allows juvenile offenders to be sentenced to life time confinement without the possibility of parole. Furthermore, the U.S. has seen an increase in juvenile waivers and blended sentences, which has resulted in harsher penalties for juvenile offenders who have committed serious and violent crimes. This analysis examines scientific evidence that shows juveniles are different from adults in terms of brain development, rational decision making abilities, and maturity levels. These findings have questioned the reasoning behind imposing adult punishment on adolescent behavior. This analysis also presents the legal arguments suggesting that juvenile life without parole is unconstitutional and violates the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Arguments for and against life sentences were also presented. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications, whether the U.S. Supreme Court should abolish juvenile life without parole sentencing practices and explores the possible future direction of juvenile sentencing in the United States.
Violent Female Offending: Examining the Role of Psychopathy and Comorbidity with DSM-IV Personality Disorders
This thesis examines the role of psychopathy in violent female offending, and explores DSM-IV personality disorders that may also be a factor. Past research on female offenders and psychopathy suggest that this is a valid construct when looking at female offenders. This study was driven by two questions: which personality disorders are most common in adult female offenders who are psychopathic, and are adult female offenders who are psychopathic more likely to have been convicted of a violent offense than those who are not psychopathic, but have at least one personality disorder. The results indicate that Cluster B personality disorders were the most common, and Cluster C the least common. The results also showed that those women who were psychopathic were no more likely to have been convicted of a violent crime than those who had at least one personality disorder, but were not psychopathic. Treatment implications and the direction of future research are discussed.
Factors Contributing to the Three-Year Graduation Rate of Students in Technical Programs at an Urban Community College
With an increasingly technological and competitive world economy, more jobs require employees to have achieved the advanced skills and knowledge gained only through postsecondary education. The data regarding the supply and demand between the workforce and higher education present a challenge for community college technical programs. These are the programs charged training the new workforce. An effort to increase the persistence and three-year graduation rate for technical students is one of Tarrant County College District's initiatives to prepare students for the workforce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine factors that contribute to the three-year graduation rates of students enrolled in technical programs at the Northwest Campus of the Tarrant County College District. A quantitative survey approach was selected for this study targeting 191 technical students. The results of this study showed that females, who had established a degree plan and declared a major during the first two semesters at the urban community college campus under study, graduated in three years. The graduation rates for males in this study were lower than for females. Also, technical students who were 18 to 35 years old were more likely to graduate. Students who did not complete a degree plan in the first two semesters did not graduate in the three-year time frame. For the 77 respondents, students were more likely to graduate if they declared a major and established a degree plan. Implications for practice and recommendations for further study are provided.
Killing the one you love: Examining cases of intimate partner homicide occurring in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997.
Research has consistently shown that intimate partner homicide (IPH) rates have been on a steady downward decline over the past two decades. A relatively recent movement in IPH research, however, has emphasized the need for further dissecting the aggregate trends by factors such as gender, race, and victim-offender relationship. In response to these issues, this study looks at the relationship between IPHs and factors such as gender, race, and age. The present study explores officially reported IPH cases in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997. Specific attention will be paid to the victim's and suspect's age, race, and gender. The findings of the study will assist in identifying significant characteristics of these IPH incidents which may lead to a greater understanding of the types of relationships in which IPH is more likely to occur. Studying the relationship between IPHs and these factors, as this research aims to do, is important to understanding what IPH incident characteristics need more attention to help prevent future incidents from occurring. As a result of this research, a better understanding of whether IPH may occur in certain types of relationships will be reached and then can be further utilized to educate.
FISA and warrantless wire-tapping: Does FISA conform to Fourth Amendment standards?
Electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes was largely unregulated prior to 1978. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (hereinafter "FISA") was enacted to implement a judicial authorization process for foreign intelligence electronic surveillance that would effectively balance competing needs for national security and civil liberty under the Fourth Amendment. This study examines the evolution of FISA and its effectiveness under the Fourth Amendment, as assessed by federal reviewing courts and scholars since the statute's enactment. The study concludes that the FISA electronic surveillance authorization process has been effective in providing a constitutional mechanism to obtain foreign intelligence information.
Recidivism Outcomes among a Cohort of Violent Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders
Serious and violent juvenile offenders cause a disproportionate amount of harm to society, yet this population receives very little attention within the realm of empirical research. This research study examined the recidivism outcomes of 296 serious and violent offenders previously exposed to rehabilitative treatment in the Capital and Serious Violent Offender Program provided by the Texas Youth Commission. This group of juveniles was followed for three years following their release from institutionalization. This analysis revealed that 52% of those released were rearrested at least once during the follow-up period for any offense, while 48% of those released desisted from crime altogether. Of those 296 released, 34% were rearrested for at least one new felony offense. The analyses indicate that those involved in various forms of institutional misconduct during institutionalization were significantly more likely to recidivate. African-American race and institutional misconduct in the form of rule infractions emerged as the most consistent predictors of recidivism for this sample. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and risk assessment related to the decisions that are made to release this population of violent juvenile offenders.
A Matter of Due Process: An Examination of How State Mandated Accreditation has Impacted Texas Crime Laboratories
Mandated accreditation of crime laboratories is a fairly new phenomenon. The state of Texas was the first to require that crime laboratories be accredited in order to be able to present evidence in a criminal proceeding. The laws that govern this are Texas House Bill 2703 and Texas House Bill 1068. The goal of this study is see how the enactment of these laws impacted crime laboratories. There are 42 crime laboratories that are accredited in the state of Texas. This study was conducted by the use of telephone survey interviews. Results indicated that mandated accreditation is a step in the right direction to ensure that objectivity is maintained during the processing and evaluation of physical evidence.
Taking Steps toward Recidivism Prevention: Examining the Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Juvenile Delinquency
Researchers within the criminal justice field have examined recidivism to discover effective methods to deter criminals from re-offending. Typically, incarceration provided specific deterrence for offenders but recidivism after release proved problematic. Using secondary data analysis, the present study evaluates a cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] program, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, which the state of Colorado implemented in 1995 among juveniles on intensive probation. The original research team collected the data through pre- and post-questionnaires and interviews with probation officers. The pre- and post-test data are utilized to specifically analyze certain variables including self-control, empathy and problemsolving abilities. The focus of the present study is to determine the level of change in these particular variables as an outcome of completing the CBT program. This analysis also explores the value of CBT programs and examines how the programs alter an offender's level of selfcontrol, empathy and problem-solving abilities thus reducing recidivism after completion.
Exploring job related stress and job satisfaction in a modern law enforcement communications division.
One of the most neglected areas of criminological and social science research is the police communications or dispatch center. While research projects dealing with stress and job satisfaction are found in abundance for other occupations, studies specific to the police dispatcher are uncommon. The role of the dispatcher has changed significantly in the last few decades. Improvements in technology and changes in public expectations of emergency services have forever altered the communications professional. Dispatchers work in an environment reliant on information. There is tremendous pressure to process the information coming into a communications center quickly and correctly. A mistake could prove fatal. Work pressures, burnout, high employee turnover, low pay, and a lack of respect from police coworkers can easily result in negative emotional and psychological consequences for the dispatcher. An effective manager could reduce the feelings of stress and low job satisfaction this environment can facilitate. The current study utilizes survey data from a sample of police dispatchers and their managers in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas area. The purpose of the survey is to identify the level of stress and job satisfaction reported by the dispatchers and their managers. The effects of differing types of stress will be investigated. Other relationships such as length of service, education, gender, ethnicity, and agency size will also be addressed.
Accuracy Variations in Human Facial Identification Based on Time of Exposure.
This study examined the relationship between time of exposure to the human face and accurate subsequent photo line-up identification. A volunteer group of 124 undergraduate students was divided into three approximately equal sized subgroups. The three groups were then exposed to a video or a portion of a video depicting a theft. Exposure times ranged from two minutes to 30 seconds. The subjects were then given a questionnaire and shown a photo line-up of the mock perpetrator and five foils. Subjects were asked to identify the perpetrator and mark that identification on the questionnaire. Results of the experiment indicated that the longer a subject was exposed the greater the possibility of an accurate identification.
Institutional Misconduct Among Gang Related and Non-Gang Related Institutionalized Delinquents
The problems that gang members create within adult correctional facilities continue to receive attention in the literature. Gang members within juvenile institutions have received far less attention from researchers, and misconduct of these juveniles, both serious and non-serious, is relatively unexplored. This study explored the institutional misconduct of 4,309 male delinquents released from the Texas Youth Commission. Youths younger at commitment, those with a higher TYC risk score, and those youths with emotional problems were found more likely to commit both serious and non-serious institutional misconduct, regardless of gang membership. This thesis concludes with suggestions for additional research on gang members within juvenile institutions and the relationship of gang membership to institutional misconduct.
Foot and/or Bicycle Patrols in Major Texas Metropolitan Police Departments
During the last 25 years in law enforcement in the United States, there has been a universal practice of foot and/or bicycle patrols used to accomplish the goal of police patrol enforcement and the philosophy of community policing in metropolitan areas. These tactics of patrol have also been used in police departments in and around the State of Texas. This report is a research project on six major metropolitan police departments in the State of Texas, analyzing their allocation of foot and/or bicycle patrol units within their urban cities. The study assesses their early history in using these two police tactics to address criminal activity and their progression from foot patrol to bicycle patrol. The findings of this research support the proposition that major Texas police departments have adopted the practices and philosophies of other major urban police departments around the US, by using foot and/or bicycle patrols in their cities. There is evidence that major Texas police departments were using foot patrol during the early 1980s in support of community policing and gradually phased out this practice in the early 1990s to adopt the new enforcement tactic of policing on a bicycle.
A Longitudinal Study of Juvenile Facility Directors' Job Satisfaction Levels in the United States
This national study, focusing on job satisfaction within juvenile facility directors, was conducted by the means of a survey. The study is longitudinal in nature; the survey was conducted in 1995 and 2000. Other past studies have focused on line level employees, guards, and the juveniles, but few have concentrated on juvenile facility directors. Literature on directors is currently lacking, this continuous study will give a better ongoing perspective of their attitudes and beliefs. Findings from this particular study will help to address current concerns inside of the system, starting at the apex. The survey's goal is to correlate factors that have a direct impact on their job satisfaction. Results indicate that staff issues have a dramatic impact on a director's job satisfaction.
Getting sober while incarcerated: An exploratory analysis of correctional substance abuse treatment programs
Substance abuse is an expensive problem facing the American public and the criminal justice field. Using secondary data analysis this study examined 1,921 participants across five substance abuse programs within California and New York jail systems. Specifically this study explored the impact of location, demographic characteristics, offense committed, and previous drug treatment on successful completion of the treatment program. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the demographic characteristics of the sample and the types of drugs used by participants in the thirty days prior to jail admission. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that location, demographic characteristics, and previous drug treatment were all significantly related to successful completion. Implications for current correctional treatment programs and future research on this topic are discussed
An Analysis of Location and Offender Characteristics for Motor Vehicle Theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005
Motor vehicle theft is the costliest property crime in the United States equaling billions of dollars in losses each year. Despite law enforcement success in decreasing the rate of motor vehicle theft in recent years, the actual number of thefts has increased. It is vital for law enforcement agencies to know who is committing motor vehicle theft and where vehicles are being stolen. This study answers these questions by examining offender demographic characteristics and the location types most targeted for motor vehicle theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005. The state of Texas was chosen because Texas has continually been ranked second in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report for the number of reported incidents of motor vehicle theft in the United States.
A Historical Analysis of the Failures of Camp David 2000 Summit
This research seeks to understand the reasons for failures of Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat, and Ehud Barak's Camp David Summit that was held in July, 2000. The Summit was arranged to complete the last phase of Oslo Peace Process. Numerous researches have attempted to reveal the facts of the summit but, so far, they have failed to present the complete details of what happened before, during, and after the summit. This research explores all aspects of the problem including the various variables that would have had effected the breakdown of the Middle East peace process. Finally, the researcher determines the parameters needed to maintain a substantial peace in the Middle East and what proposed strategies might be followed in order to avoid the previous mistakes in future peace negotiations.
Risk Assessment of Aviation Security and Evaluation of Aviation Security Policies
Comprising many airplanes, airports, aircrew, and employees, aviation industry is a large sector that is very vulnerable to attacks, whether it is from terrorists or criminals. Aviation history is fraught with examples of airport bombings, hijackings, and sabotage terrorist attacks. The most destructive of which is the tragedy of September 11, 2001, the cornerstone of today's aviation security policies. This study uses risk assessment tools to determine the dimensions of danger and threats against the aviation industry and addresses how vulnerable the aviation sector is. After vulnerabilities and threats are examined, possible impacts of attacks against the aviation security are discussed. This study also explores the pre and post September 11 policies that governments and policy makers develop to reduce risks in aviation sector. In addition, it discusses weaknesses and strengths of these policies which surfaced during the implementations. Finally, this study proposes some recommendations based on vulnerabilities and threats of aviation security.
Toward Successful Negotiation Strategies in Hostage-Ttaking Situations: Case Study Approach and Future Recommendations
In the last four decades, hostage situations have rapidly increased in the world due to the threat of terrorism and other social problems. The goals of hostage takers are to achieve certain political, criminal, and/or social benefits through hostage situations. It is not only a police problem but also a governmental problem. Police apply either negotiation or tactical intervention in hostage situations to recover hostages without bloodshed or loss of life. Success in this endeavor is based on effective negotiation. The purposes of this study are to analyze the major actors and their roles in hostage situations, to identify effective negotiation strategies and tools, and to provide some future recommendations for governments, police agencies, and researchers for peaceful resolutions in hostage situations.
An Assessment on the Impact of Family Dynamics on the Runaway Problem Among Teenagers
Although Turkey is a country with strong social cohesion, figures of runaway children in Turkey are increasing dramatically. This research focused on the factors that cause children to run away and on interaction programs to intervene and/or prevent this problem. Until recently, Turkish family life was able to avoid such problems, but with the effect of westernization and social mobility in Turkey, the basic family structure has become more like the family structure in the western countries. Studies reveal that runaway episodes happen in all families regardless of such factors as economic, race, or geographic situations. Teenagers run away for several reasons; however, early intervention is highly suggested by studies to mitigate the problem. Although, parent-child conflict plays a significant role as a reason for youth leaving home, on the other hand family interaction still remains the best alternative to the problem.
Truancy Intervention: A Study of Dallas Independent School District Participants in the Dallas Challenge Truancy and Class C Enforcement Center
This research examines agency data for participants in a truancy intervention program. Previous literature provides mostly descriptive information and fails to examine the effects of truancy intervention efforts. The analysis provides a profile of truant participants referred to the program and factors that correlate to successful completion of the program requirements. The results will be applicable to the study program as evaluation research and will be generalized for application to other truancy programs. Directions for future truancy research will be suggested based on the need to continue to evaluate truancy reduction efforts.
International police cooperation as a response to transnational organized crime in Europe: Improvements in extradition.
International criminality has been a challenging phenomenon for national police forces for years. States have developed international police cooperation relations and extradition instruments in order to fight international criminal activity. This treatise explores the reasons for the rise in transnational organized crime activities in Europe and presents an in-depth explanation concerning the emergence, mandates, and structures of multilateral police collaboration systems such as Interpol, Trevi, Schengen, and Europol. Since the extradition has become an inseparable part of international policing, this study examines the improvements in extradition procedure and emphasizes the importance of extradition. Finally this study compares traditional (European Convention on Extradition of 1957) and new (European Arrest Warrant) extradition systems.
Challenges Encountered During Law Enforcement Investigations of Terrorist Use of Information Technology.
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have seen a phenomenal growth in society's use of information technology. Criminals, including terrorists and terrorist organizations, have also adopted information technologies. Information technologies are used to enhance the efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness of terrorist activities and offenses. Investigating terrorist use of information technologies creates a number of challenges for law enforcement officials. While some of the challenges are encountered during conventional criminal investigations, terrorist investigations also present unique challenges. Through content and typological analysis, this study examined open source information to identify, categorize and propose a model of these challenges. Four primary categories were identified: technology, methodology, legal, and administration and human resources challenges.
Police Officer Burnout: An Examination of Officer Stress, the Policing Subculture and the Advantages of Family Counseling
The work of a police officer is stressful and could potentially lead to burnout. As a result, a variety of reactions may occur which include, cynicism, abuse of authority, and in extreme cases suicide. One method which has been proven to be effective in treating officer stress is counseling; however, because of the policing subculture the opportunity to seek counseling has been ignored. In order to successfully manage officer stress, the subculture must be dealt with. Additionally, the officers' family must also be acknowledged as being affected by officer burnout. Counseling services must be made available to the officer's family and through training they can become a source of support instead of an added source of stress to the officer.
An Analysis of Terrorist Recruitment by Observing DHKP/C (Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front) Terrorist Organization in Turkey
Terrorism has been claimed to be a major problem by hundreds of thousands of people in the international arena for years. Either it has been very difficult to determine and understand the reasons for terrorism, or those reasons have never been studied because of the immediate threat of terrorism. This research analyzed the recruitment process of terrorists by studying the DHKP/C terrorist organization and by answering the following questions. The first is "What factors are correlated with joining a terrorist organization?" And the second is "What is the recruitment process of the DHKP/C?" IN the course of this research, I used specific reports written by DHKP/C members and personal experience to come to better understanding of the motivation behind terrorism and the process by which people are recruited in the terrorist organizations.
An Analysis of Adler's Theory and the Female Criminal
This research paper addressed the following question: Do select case studies conform to Dr. Freda Adler's theory regarding socio-economic influences on female criminal behavior or dispute her theory? My research involved three female criminals: Karla Faye Tucker, Andrea Yates, and Susan Smith. I addressed Adler's theory in detail, other theories, the makeup of the female criminal and various female crimes. This study provided evidence that all three case studies conform to Adler's theory. nIn accordance with Adler's theory, each of these three females committed crimes of accessibility. None of the three individuals sought to commit a premeditated act or to murder unknown victims. They were motivated by emotions arising at a point in time when access/opportunity presented itself.
Combating Corruption: A Comparison of National Anti-Corruption Efforts
The primary goal of this thesis is to provide a comparative analysis of the institutional and organizational mechanisms designed to monitor and control political corruption at the national level. The paper will provide comparisons of these arraignments and control systems across three nations. The thesis will identify differences across countries in terms of organizational and institutional political corruption control mechanisms, and use the CPI index to suggest and identify those control mechanisms that appear to be present in nations with low CPI measurements. Finally, the thesis will conclude with the discussion concerning the future prospects for controlling political corruption in Turkey based on the comparative analysis described above.
New Surveillance Technologies and the Invasion of Privacy Rights
Definition of privacy has changed by the changes and improvements in information and surveillance technologies. These changes and improvement need new legal decisions for new kinds of privacy invasions. This study explores the scope of privacy right, particularly when a technological surveillance has occurred by law enforcement agencies. It focuses in particular on increasing law enforcements' surveillance technologies and devices that have the potential to impact citizens' information privacy. These increasing changes in surveillance technologies have important implications both for law enforcements and citizens. This study also discusses increasing law enforcement surveillance for the public's security, changes of the laws that allow law enforcements to use new surveillance powers as a war on terrorism, and the citizens concerns of information privacy. A particular attention is given to the recent public opinion surveys which show citizens' increasing privacy concerns. Finally, a set of recommendations to figure out security-privacy debate and reduce the privacy concerns of the citizens is offered.
The Appropriate Use of Human Intelligence in Combating Terrorism
When we looked at different issues in terrorism such as definitions, descriptions and motivations, groups and supporters, tactics, strategies, and victims of terrorists and terrorist activities, we see that terrorism is an issue that can occur at any time, and in any place, and it seems that the terrorism threat will still exist in the future. It is almost impossible to stop all terrorist activities all over the world, but it is possible to formulate an anti-terrorism policy that can keep terrorist activities at a minimum level and prevent planned terror activities by a well developed intelligence network. It seems that to establish a good intelligence collection system an approach in which HUMINT and TECHINT are interdependent with each other is necessary. By using a combination of human and technical intelligence collection methods, intelligence agencies can become more effective and efficient against terrorism.
A Descriptive Study of the Intelligence Community in the United States of America
This treatise represents a descriptive study of the intelligence community in the United States. It explores the ramifications of terrorism on the intelligence function, post September 11, 2001. In-depth discussions concerning the structure of the U.S. intelligence community are presented as well as a focus on the defined steps of the intelligence process: planning and directions, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination. The final aspect of this study poses questions and issues relating to the restructuring of the U.S. intelligence community in light of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
Criminal Investigations: The Impact of Patrol Officers on Solving Crime
This two-part study of the criminal investigation process first evaluated the frequency with which patrol officers solve cases assigned to the investigations division and then examined how detectives spent their time, both on case assignments and on other activity not related to current case assignment. Cases assigned to the investigations division for follow up were examined to determine how often a case was cleared by the patrol officer. The detective's time was then evaluated in order to determine how much time detectives spent on investigative tasks and other activities. This study confirms that the patrol officer should be given more time to conduct preliminary investigations for specific cases, and that tasks performed by detectives could be shifted to other personnel in the department. Both actions should serve to positively impact case clearance rates.
Correlates of Recidivism: A Study Examining the Differences Between First Time Felony Probationers and Recidivist Felony Probation Offenders
The purpose of this study is to explore the differences and characteristics between first time felony probationer and recidivist felony probation offender. The importance of said studies grows significantly, given current trends of sentencing offenders to probation. Using archived data on random sample of felony offenders in 2000 and based on information acquired and maintained by the Denton County Community Supervision and Corrections Department (CSCD), the study consists of 40 first time felony offenders and 40 recidivist felony offender placed on probation during the year 2000. The method consists of a longitudinal comparison model. To examine the research question, descriptive statistics are used to compare basic demographics. Then, in order to answer the research question bi-variate significant tests, Chi-square and Independent Sample T-tests were employed when appropriate. Results indicate differences between first time felony probation offenders and recidivist felony probationers.
Computer Crime as a Barrier to Electronic Commerce: New Solutions for Public Law Enforcement.
Electronic commerce was expected to grow exponentially, but the actual rate of growth in recent years has been disappointing. Recent surveys of perceptions of the development of electronic commerce clearly focus our attention on the perception and fear of computer crime as the major cause of this disappointing growth pattern. The thesis critiques existing private law solutions to this problem and argues from a normative theory on “the commons” for the application of new public law enforcement solutions in the public trust, sanctions, and public coproduction of order. The thesis argues that given the failures of existing private law solutions to the problem, these public law enforcement solutions should be more effective, efficient, and more satisfactory.
Investigation of Computer Crimes
In this study, the development of the computer related crime will be examined in the first chapter. After a detailed introduction to computer crimes, the most common types of the computer crimes will be examined and the characteristics of the offenders and their motivates will be identified. The general investigation process of the computer crime investigation will be outlined in the second chapter. After attempting to define computer crime, computer criminals and investigation process, a case study related to the topic will be examined and the characteristics and the motives of the criminals will be identified. In the last chapter the response by law enforcement officers to high technology crime will be discussed.
Changing Privacy Concerns in the Internet Era.
Privacy has always been a respected value regardless of national borders, cultural differences, and time in every society throughout history. This study focuses on the unprecedented changes in the traditional forms of privacy and consequent concerns with regard to invasion of privacy along with the recent emergence and wide use of the Internet. Government intrusion into private domains through the Internet is examined as a major concern. Privacy invasions by Web marketers, hacker threats against privacy, and employer invasion of employee privacy at the workplace are discussed respectively. Then a set of possible solutions to solve the current problems and alleviate the concerns in this field is offered. Legal remedies that need to be performed by the government are presented as the initial solution. Then encryption is introduced as a strong technical method that may be helpful. Finally, a set of individual measures emphasized as complementary practical necessities. Nevertheless, this study indicates that technology will keep making further changes in the form and concerns of privacy that possibly may outdate these findings in the near future, however, privacy itself will always remain as a cherished social value as it has always been so far.