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Disease Tissue Imaging and Single Cell Analysis with Mass Spectrometry
Cells have been found to have an inherent heterogeneity that has led to an increase in the development of single-cell analysis methods to characterize the extent of heterogeneity that can be found in seemingly identical cells. With an understanding of normal cellular variability, the identification of disease induced cellular changes, known as biomarkers, may become more apparent and readily detectable. Biomarker discovery in single-cells is challenging and needs to focus on molecules that are abundant in cells. Lipids are widely abundant in cells and play active roles in cellular signaling, energy metabolism, and are the main component of cellular membranes. The regulation of lipid metabolism is often disrupted or lost during disease progression, especially in cancer, making them ideal candidates as biomarkers. Challenges exist in the analysis of lipids beyond those of single-cell analysis. Lipid extraction solvents must be compatible with the lipid or lipids of interest. Many lipids are isobaric making mass spectrometry analysis difficult without separations. Single-cell extractions using nanomanipulation coupled to mass spectrometry has shown to be an excellent method for lipid analysis of tissues and cell cultures. Extraction solvents are tunable for specific lipid classes, nanomanipulation prevents damage to neighboring cells, and lipid separations are possible through phase dispersion. The most important aspect of single-cell analysis is that it uncovers the extent of cellular heterogeneity that exists among cellular populations that remains undetected during averaged sampling.
Elucidation of Photoinduced Energy and Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Multimodular Artificial Photosynthetic Systems
Multimodular designs of electron donor-acceptor systems are the ultimate strategy in fabricating antenna-reaction center mimics for artificial photosynthetic applications. The studied photosystems clearly demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the antenna system to the primary electron donor, and charge stabilization of the radical ion pair achieved with the utilization of secondary electron donors that permits either electron migration or hole transfer. Moreover, the molecular arrangement of the photoactive components also influences the route of energy and electron transfer as observed from the aluminum(III) porphyrin-based photosystems. Furthermore, modulation of the photophysical and electronic properties of these photoactive units were illustrated from the thio-aryl substitution of subphthalocyanines yielding red-shifted Q bands of the said chromophore; hence, regulating the rate of charge separation and recombination in the subphthalocyanine-fullerene conjugates. These multicomponent photosystems has the potential to absorb the entire UV-visible-NIR spectrum of the light energy allowing maximum light-harvesting capability. Furthermore, it permits charge stabilization of the radical ion pair enabling the utilization of the transferred electron/s to be used by water oxidizing and proton reducing catalysts in full-scale artificial photosynthetic apparatuses.
Design Considerations and Implementation of Portable Mass Spectrometers for Environmental Applications
Portable mass spectrometers provide a unique opportunity to obtain in situ measurements. This minimizes need for sample collection or in laboratory analysis. Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) utilizing a semi permeable membrane for selective rapid introduction for analysis. Polydimethylsiloxane membranes have been proven to be robust in selecting for aromatic chemistries. Advances in front end design have allowed for increased sensitivity, rapid sample analysis, and on line measurements. Applications of the membrane inlet technique have been applied to environmental detection of clandestine drug chemistries and pollutants. Emplacement of a mass spectrometer unit in a vehicle has allowed for large areas to be mapped, obtaining a rapid snapshot of the various concentrations and types of environmental pollutants present. Further refinements and miniaturization have allowed for a backpackable system for analysis in remote harsh environments. Inclusion of atmospheric dispersion modeling has yielded an analytical method of approximating upwind source locations, which has law enforcement, military, and environmental applications. The atmospheric dispersion theories have further been applied to an earth based separation, whereby chemical properties are used to approximate atmospheric mobility, and chemistries are further identified has a portable mass spectrometer is traversed closer to a point source.
Reductive Functionalization of 3D Metal-Methyl Complexes and Characterization of a Novel Dinitrogen Dicopper (I) Complex
Reductive functionalization of methyl ligands by 3d metal catalysts and two possible side reactions has been studied. Selective oxidation of methane, which is the primary component of natural gas, to methanol (a more easily transportable liquid) using organometallic catalysis, has become more important due to the abundance of domestic natural gas. In this regard, reductive functionalization (RF) of methyl ligands in [M(diimine)2(CH3)(Cl)] (M: VII (d3) through CuII (d9)) complexes, has been studied computationally using density functional techniques. A SN2 mechanism for the nucleophilic attack of hydroxide on the metal-methyl bond, resulting in the formation of methanol, was studied. Similar highly exergonic pathways with very low energy SN2 barriers were observed for the proposed RF mechanism for all complexes studied. To modulate RF pathways closer to thermoneutral for catalytic purposes, a future challenge, paradoxically, requires finding a way to strengthen the metal-methyl bond. Furthermore, DFT calculations suggest that for 3d metals, ligand properties will be of greater importance than metal identity in isolating suitable catalysts for alkane hydroxylation in which reductive functionalization is used to form the C—O bond. Two possible competitive reactions for RF of metal-methyl complexes were studied to understand the factors that lower the selectivity of C—O bond forming reactions. One of them was deprotonation of the methyl group, which leads to formation of a methylene complex and water. The other side reaction was metal-methyl bond dissociation, which was assessed by calculating the bond dissociation free energies of M3d—CH3 bonds. Deprotonation was found to be competitive kinetically for most of the 1st row transition metal-methyl complexes (except for CrII, MnII and CuII), but less favorable thermodynamically as compared to reductive functionalization for all of the studied 1st row transition metal complexes. Metal-carbon bond dissociation was found to be less favorable than the RF reactions for most 3d transition ...
Synthesis of Gold Complexes From Diphosphine Ligands and Screening Reactions of Heterocyclic Acetylacetonato (ACAC) Ligands with Transitional Metal Complexes
Syntheses of diphosphine gold (I) complexes from gold THT and two ligands, 4, 5-bis (diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1, 3-dione (BPCD) and 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)-N-phenylmaleimide (BPPM), were done separately. The reactions happened under ice conditions followed by room temperature conditions and produced two diphosphine gold (I) complexes in moderated yield. Spectroscopic results including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray crystallography were used to study and determine the structures of the products formed. Moreover, X-rays of all newly synthesized diphosphine gold (I) complexes were compared with the known X-ray structures of other phosphine and diphosphine gold (I) complexes. There were direct resemblances in terms of bond length and angle between these new diphosphine gold (I) complex structures and those already published. For instance, the bond lengths and angles from the newly prepared diphosphine gold (I) complexes were similar to those already published. Where there were some deviations in bond angles and length between the newly synthesized structures and those already published, appropriate explanation was given to explain the deviation. Heterocyclic ligands bearing acetylacetonate (ACAC) side arm(s) were prepared from ethyl malonyl chloride and the heterocyclic compounds 8-hydroxylquinoline, Syn-2-peridoxyaldoxime, quinoxalinol and 2, 6-dipyridinylmethanol. The products (heterocyclic ACAC ligands) from these reactions were screened with transition metal carbonyl compounds in thermolytic reactions. The complexes formed were studied and investigated using NMR and X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, the X-ray structures of the heterocyclic ACAC ligand or ligand A and that of rhenium complex 1 were compared with similar published X-ray structures. The comparison showed there were some similarities in terms of bond length and bond angles.
Applications of Single Reference Methods to Multi-Reference Problems
Density functional theory is an efficient and useful method of solving single-reference computational chemistry problems, however it struggles with multi-reference systems. Modifications have been developed in order to improve the capabilities of density functional theory. In this work, density functional theory has been successfully applied to solve multi-reference systems with large amounts of non-dynamical correlation by use of modifications. It has also been successfully applied for geometry optimizations for lanthanide trifluorides.
Computational Studies of C–H/C–C Manipulation Utilizing Transition Metal Complexes
Density Functional Theory (DFT) is an effective tool for studying diverse metal systems. Presented herein are studies of a variety of metal systems, which can be applied to accomplish transformations that are currently difficult/impossible to achieve. The specific topics studied utilizing DFT include: 1) C–H bond activation via an Earth-abundant transition metal complex, 2) C–H bond deprotonation via an alkali metal superbase, 3) and amination/aziridination reactions utilizing a CuI reagent. Using DFT, the transformation to methanol (CH3OH) from methane (CH4) was examined. The transition metal systems studied for this transformation included a model FeII complex. This first-row transition metal is an economical, Earth-abundant metal. The ligand set for this transformation includes a carbonyl ligand in one set of complexes as well as a phosphite ligand in another. The 3d Fe metal shows the ability to convert alkyls/aryls to their oxidized counterpart in an energetically favorable manner. Also, “superbasic” alkali metal amides were investigated to perform C—H bond cleavage. Toluene was the substrate of interest with Cs chosen to be the metal of interest because of the highly electropositive nature of this alkali metal. These highly electrophilic Cs metal systems allow for very favorable C—H bond scission with a toluene substrate. Finally, the amination and aziridination of C–H and C=C bonds, respectively, by a CuI reagent was studied. The mechanism was investigated using DFT calculations. Presently, these mechanisms involving the use of coinage metals are debated. Our DFT simulations shed some insight into how these transformations occur and ultimately how they can be manipulated.
Quantitative Chemical Analysis of the Soils of Erath County, Texas
A chemical analysis of representative samples of Windthorst sand, Denton sand, and Denton clay has been made, and this analysis shows that their composition has a strict correlation with respect to their geological origins. The analyses of the different soils have shown the Windthorst sand to be highly deficient in all of the essential elements, whereas the Denton sand is deficient in only one; namely, phosphorus. The analysis of the Denton clay showed it to be highly fertile. From the consideration of the pH and the lime content, it has been determined to some extent what crops will grow in each of the soils.
A Study of the Quantitative Determination of Nitrogen
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Kjeldahl method of nitrogen determination.
Organomagnesium Compounds in Benzene Solvent and Their Application in Synthesis of Organoberyllium Compounds
The work reported by D. Bryce-Smith and G. F. Cox, along with several recent publications describing experimental results designed to elucidate the long disputed question of the structure of the Grignard reagent in ether stimulated the work reported here, in an effort to obtain additional evidence of the structure of the organomagnesium complex in benzene solvent. Since the primary objective of this work was to prepare organoberyllium compounds using the organomagnesium complexes in hydrocarbon solvents, it seemed an insight into the structure of these complexes would be beneficial in this work. The techniques used and experimental evidence obtained from the structure elucidation of the ethereal Grignard reagent have been most helpful in organization of the methods used to study the structure of organomagnesium halide complexes in benzene solvent. It seemed that an insight into the structure of these organomagnesium halide complexes in hydrocarbon solvents would be beneficial in accomplishing the second objective of this work. This objective was to prepare organoberyllium compounds using the organomagnesium halide complexes prepared in hydrocarbon solvents.
Chemical Cleavage of Human Phosphoglucose Isomerase at Cysteine
The present study has resulted in the development of a procedure for the specific chemical fragmentation of human phosphoglucose isomerase into a minimal number of peptides. A two-cycle procedure for cleaving the protein with 2-nitro-5- thiocyanobenzoic acid results in four primary peptides and three overlap peptides. The peptides can be readily separated on the basis of their size by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Preliminary peptide alignments have been considered, and amino acid analyses have been performed. End-terminal analyses of the enzyme revealed a carboxyl terminal sequence of Asp-Val-Gln and a blocked amino terminus. The cysteine cleavage procedure provides an excellent method for the identification and location of specific genetic mutations of human phosphoglucose isomerase.
Magnetic Properties of Metal(II) Schiff Base Complexes
Ligands prepared from various combinations of aldehydes and ketones with the appropriate aminealcohol were complexed with cupric acetate monohydrate. The complexes with O,NO or N,N,O donor atoms were synthesized to study the influences of the ligand on molecular structure, spin-spin interaction, and on the value of the exchange integral. The magnetic data indicated that of the eight Cu(II) complexes discussed, two behaved differently from known analogous compounds. Cu (benzoylacetone :ethanolamine) was compared to Cu(acac:ethanolamine), and Cu(pyrr:oaminophenol) was compared to Cu(acac:o-aminophenol). Each pair of complexes was postulated to have the same molecular structure. The synthesis and characterization of Mn(pyrr:oaminophenol) 2H2 is also discussed. The following physical data were collected and discussed: elemental analysis, melting point, molecular weight, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, and magnetic susceptibility.
Synthesis and Study of Glutaryl-S-(ω-aminoalkyl)-L-cysteinylglycines as Inhibitors of Glyoxalase I
This thesis describes the synthesis and preliminary enzymatic study of glutaryl-S-(8-aminooctyl)-L-cysteinylglycine and glutaryl-S-(10-aminodecyl)-L-cysteinylglycine as inhibitors of glyoxalase I. These analogs of glutathione were prepared as potential ligands for affinity chromatography purification of glyoxalase I. The compounds were synthesized by a seven-step procedure in overall yields of 24% for the octyl analog and 33% for the decyl analog. Both compounds exhibited mixed type inhibition of the enzyme, with the decyl derivative being more inhibitory than the octyl derivative. The inhibition was nonlinear (parabolic) for both compounds. Although less inhibitory than the corresponding S-substituted glutathione derivatives, these analogs are promising candidates for affinity chromatography ligands. Such compounds may also be useful in studying the mechanism of glyoxalase I.
Magnetic Properties of Copper (II) Complexes of Schiff Bases
The synthesis and characterization of two new Schiff base copper(II) complexes are reported. These are Cu(acac: 2-amino-l-phenylethanol) and Cu(acac:2-amino-l-butanol). The ligands, derived from acetylacetone and the appropriate aminoalcohol, are dibasic tridentates with 0,N,O donor atoms. The magnetic properties of the complexes were studied at several temperatures between 78 OK and 296 OK. The magnetic moment of Cu(acac:2-amino-l-phenylethanol) varied little with temperature, and that of Cu(acac:2-amino-lbutanol) increased as the temperature was lowered. This is in contrast to the magnetic moment of Cu(acac:ethanolamine), which decreases as the temperature decreases. Molecular weight data, infrared spectra, magnetic data, electronic spectra, and electron spin resonance spectra of both complexes are reported and discussed.
Inhibitors of Dihydrofolate Reductase, 8-Oxapteridines
The biological activities of some homeosterically related analogs of dihydrofolic acid have been examined involving pyrimido[4,5-b][l,4]oxazine (8-oxapteridine) derivatives. It is anticipated that these compounds might interfere with the essential intermediary metabolic functions of the vitamin and thus serve as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Preliminary toxicity studies in microbial assay systems were disappointing; however, inhibitory effects were demonstrated in cell free enzyme systems. A comparison of the structure/activity relationships was determined using two folic acid coenzyme systems, dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthetase. The 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(substituted)-8-oxapteridines were generally more effective inhibitors than the corresponding 2,4-diamino analogs. The relative biological activity of a series of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-ω-phenylalkyl derivatives were examined, and the most active derivative was the 6-phenylethyl analog which appears to function as a mixed-type inhibitor involving partially competitive and partially non-competitive inhibition.
Copper (II) Complexes with Deprotonated N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine
This thesis reports the synthesis and characterization of two new copper(II) halide complexes with deprotonated N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine behaving as a bidentate. The magnetic properties of the new copper(II) complexes were studied from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The magnetic data show that both complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic interactions with a singlet ground state and a thermally accessible triplet excited state. Magnetic data and infrared spectra indicate the complexes are halogenbridged. Deprotonation at an amine nitrogen is based on the presence of a hydroxyl stretching band in the infrared spectra. Electronic spectra and infrared spectra indicate the complexes are square planar. Elemental analyses, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, electron spin resonance spectra, and magnetic data are reported and discussed.
Denaturation, Renaturation and Other Structural Studies on Phosphoglucose Isomerases
Structural properties of phosphoglucose isomerases isolated from a variety of species have been compared by peptide fingerprinting, predicted amino acid sequence homologies and by denaturation and renaturation studies. The enzymes are more readily denatured in guanidinium chloride than in urea, and the isomerase isolated from yeast is more stable toward acid pH than the rabbit muscle enzyme. The rates of guanidinium chloride-induced denaturation are markedly increased by ionic strength and decreased by substrates, competitive inhibitors or glycerol. The enzyme can be renatured, but only in the presence of glycerol. The renaturation process is dependent on protein concentration and temperature and provides a method for the formation of mixed species heterodimers.
Electrodeless Discharge of Isopropyl Alcohol
Gases at satisfactory pressures fluoresce in the presence of radio frequency radiation (6). Such fluorescent gases have been used to probe fields of radio frequency oscillation and their emission spectra have been recorded and studied. Ions with multiple charges also exist in these gases, (6). In 1941 Oliver (12) observed the fluorescence of an isobutane- isobutene gaseous mix flowing to a pump through a glass tube which was wrapped by a spiral antenna of a sevenmegacycle transmitter. A white deposit was noticed at a bend in the tubing on the pump side of the fluorescing section of the gas (12, p. 8). In 1957 Blacknall (3) studied the fluorescence and reaction products of propylene in the antenna region of sevenmega- cycle radiation, The oscillator employed by Blacknall was an ARC-5/T-22 military surplus transmitter of range 7.00 to 9.10 megacycles, which he operated at 7.00 megacycles. Blacknall observed a drop in pressure and the formation of a brown deposit in the region of the coil. Blacknall did not report an analysis of this product. In 1959 Armstrong (1) repeated Blacknall's experiments and modified Blacknall's apparatus into an improved design. He also performed an analysis on Blacknall's product. Blacknall used a vertical open-end mercurial manometer with which to measure pressure in his system and as a result introduced mercury vapor into his system. Armstrong tried to minimize the amount of mercury introduced by covering his manometric mercury with a layer of octyl sebacate, "octoil". Armstrong used a spiral-would antenna wrapped around his reaction vessel and reported the formation of spiral brown rings coincident with the copper wire of the antenna. There was a white product deposited in a spiral interlaced with the spiral of dark brown material. No definite identification was reported by Armstrong other than reporting, his solid material as isotactic ...
The Crystal and Molecular Structure of 2, 2' bipyridylglycinatochloro Copper (II) Dihydrate
The three-dimensional x-ray structure of 2,2'-bipyridylglycinatochloro copper(II) dihydrate has been fully refined to a final R factor of 0.081. The bipyridyl and glycine ligands are arranged about the central copper atom in a square planar configuration while the chlorine atom is 2.635 angstroms above this plane directly over the copper atom. This unusually long distance is explained by the positioning of a glycine group on the opposite side of the square plane, resulting in a distorted octahedral arrangement. Also, the chlorine atom is linked to three oxygen atoms via hydrogen bonding, thus stabilizing the distorted octahedral complex.
The Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra of Cyclohexane, Cyclohexene, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene, Isotetralin, and Several Methyl Substituted Analogs
A paucity of literature exists on the Independent System analysis of adjacent, parallel transition dipoles. Applying this theory and certain spectral information semiemperical calculations were made to predict absorption profiles and band intensities. To aid in the assignment of the 7*+7 absorption bands it was necessary to obtain the vacuum ultraviolet spectra of cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Because the spectra of these molecules contained sharp, atomic-like absorption bands a Rydberg series could be fitted to certain absorptions, thus the determination of their ionization potentials. Using Independent System analysis profiles and intensities of 7*+q-- absorption bands ins 'several methyl substituted 1,4- cyclohexadienes and isotetralin were predicted where general agreement was found with observed experimental spectra.
Studies of L-Asparaginase from Lactobacillus Plantarum
This study is concerned with the regulation of Lasparaginase (LA) in the cell-free crude extracts from Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC8014). A previously reported finding that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inhibits the action of LA in crude extracts was confirmed. The study was extended to include the mono-, di-, and triphosphates of adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, and uridine. These compounds were also shown to inhibit LA activity. These andother studies revealed that LA appears to be an allosteric type enzyme exhibiting positive homotropism with respect to substrate and heterotropism with respect to the nucleotides tested. The regulation of LA activity by high energy compounds, when coupled with asparagine synthetaseL suggests a relationship between amide synthesis-amide degradation and the energy levels of the cell.
Isolation and Characterization of Proteus vulgaris Methylglyoxal Synthetase
Methylglyoxal synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of methylglyoxal and inorganic phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate, was found in extracts of Proteus vulgaris. An efficient purification procedure utilizing ion exchange column chromatography and isoelectric focusing has been developed. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and rechromatography.Two components of methylglyoxal synthetase were obtained upon isoelectric focusing. A comparison of the chemical and physical properties of the two components was carried out. The enzyme is a dimer. In the presence of inorganic phosphate, the hyperbolic saturation kinetics with dihydroxyacetone phosphate are shifted to sigmoidal.
Studies Concerning Asparagine Metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum
This study is concerned with the metabolism of L-asparagine in Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014). Theprimary area of investigation is the preliminary characterization of a previously unreported L-asparaginase enzyme in L. plantarum. This L-asparaginase was determined to be an inducible enzyme with variations in its activity level according to the L-asparagine level in the growth medium. L-Glutaminase could not be induced in this organism by L-glutamine, nor would L-glutamine induce the asparaginase activity. These and other studies with amino acid analogs demonstrated the high specificity of both induction and enzymic activity of the asparaginase. Various physical properties of the enzyme were studied. The enzyme was found to be inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This inhibition appears to be cooperative in nature and of the type exhibited by allosteric enzymes. These studies should be confirmed on a highly purified enzyme as these preliminary experiments were performed using a crude cell-free extract.
Isozymes and In Vivo Activity of Triosephosphate Isomerase
The distribution of isozymes of triosephosphate isomerase was normal in all human tissues examined. This finding argues against the existence of tissue-specific isozymes. Normal distributions of isozymes were also found in patients with cri-du-chat syndrome. Thus it is unlikely that a gene for triosephosphate isomerase is located on the short arm of chromosome five in man. When triosephosphate isomerases from a wide range of species were examined by starch gel electrophoresis, definite evolutionary patterns were found. Kinetic studies were conducted on human triosephosphate isomerase under conditions simulating the intracellular environment of the erythrocyte. Calculations using the kinetic parameters obtained indicate that even in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency disease, enough enzyme activity remains that the rate of glycolysis should not become inhibited.
Magnetic Properties of Copper (II) Complexes of N-(Hydroxyalkyl) Pyrrole-2-Aldimines
In this work magnetic properties of copper(II) complexes on N-(hydroxyalkyl) pyrrole-2-aldimines were investigated by various techniques, one of which was magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic moments are not directly determined experimentally, but magnetic susceptibilities are.
The Correlation Between Carbon-Proton and Proton-Proton Coupling Constants
The correlation between the carbon-proton and proton-proton coupling constants have been studied in various 13 systems. Isocrotonic acid-carboxyl-3C, crotonic acid- 13 13 carboxyl-3C, and 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid-carboxyl-3C- 1,5,6,7,7-hexachloro were synthesized and their carbonproton coupling constants were analyzed. Nmr studies showed the magnitudes of the carbon-proton coupling constants to correlate well with analogous protonproton coupling constants, although the values of the couplings were larger than expected. The geminal olefinic couplings were considerably larger than all other couplings, but they were self-consistent. The signs of the carbon-proton coupling constants also were in agreement without exception with the signs of analogous proton-proton coupling constants.
Mass Spectral Study of Trimethylsilylmethyl Substituted Chlorosilanes
The mass spectra of the compounds [Me 3 SiCH2 nSiCl 4 n (n=1-3) were studied in detail. MIKES and CID spectra were used in conjunction with the observance of metastable processes to develop consistent fragmentation schemes. Particular attention is drawn to the formation of charged and neutral species containing the silicon-carbon double bond, including 2-silaallene, under conditions of electron impact.
Regulation of Pyridine Nucleotide Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The levels of total nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), and their redox states were determined as the function of growth in S. cerevisiae. Cells growing in a medium containing 0.8% glucose exhibit two phases of exponential growth, utilizing glucose and ethanol, respectively. The NAD pool is 50% reduced during both stages of growth while the NADP pool is 67% reduced in glucose growth and 48% reduced in ethanol growth. The NAD/NADP ratio is constant during growth on glucose and a two-fold increase in the NAD/NADP ratio occurs upon exhaustion of glucose. The increased ratio is maintained during growth on ethanol. This alteration in the regulation of the relative levels of NAD and NADP may be due to a change in the regulation of NAD kinase and/or NADP phosphatase activities. These changes may be related to the redox state of the NADP pool.
Simultaneous Part-Per-Billion Determination of Sodium and Chloride Ions
The method utilizes both cation and anion concentrator columns in parallel as a preconcentration system. The preconcentrator system is loaded using a reagent delivery module operated for a specific time at a preset flow rate. Total injection volumes of 2-5 ml are routinely used. Various chromatograms are discussed along with detailed information concerning detection limits for sodium and chloride, the system operating conditions, and the solutions to other pitfalls which have arisen during the course of this work.
The Determination of Organic-Bound Chlorine Levels in Municipal Wastewaters After Treatment with Heavy Chlorine Doses
The development of an analytical method for the determination of total organic-bound chlorine (TOCl) produced during the chlorination of municipal wastewater effluents is presented. Sewage effluent from the Denton, Texas municipal treatment plant was chlorinated at high chlorine doses (1000 - 4000 ppm), as well as typical treatment levels. Chlororganics present in the wastewater, before and after chlorination, were concentrated by adsorption on Amberlite XAD-2 macroreticular resin, followed by elution with diethyl ether. After concentration, the extracts were analyzed for TOC1 by microcoulometry. Analysis of wastewater extracts revealed the production of substantial amounts of new chlorinated organics when effluents were treated with chlorine. The method shows good precision and estimated accuracy is favorable.
The Electronic Spectrum of (-)-S-(pS)-2,5,3',6'-Tetrahydro-2.2-Paracyclophane-2-Carboxylic Acid
A new, efficient route was used in the synthesis of [2.2]-paracyclophane-2-carboxylic acid. The acid as then resolved and the Birch reduction performed yielding one enantiomer of tetrahydro-[2.2]-paracyclophane-2-carboxylic acid. The ultraviolet spectrum of tetrahydro-[2.2]-paracyclophane- 2-carboxylic acid in isopenthane shows one absorption at 206 nm (Emax = 5,271). There are three bands observed in the circular dichroism spectrum in isopentane at 236 nm ([] = 1.8 X 104), 201 nm ([0] = -16 X 104) and a positive band indicated below 180 nm but not observed. The bands were assigned and possible reasons for the occurrence of a mr'r* transition at unexpectedly long wavelengths are discussed.
The Chlorination of Amino Acid in Municipal Waste Effluents
In model reaction systems to test amino acids in chlorinated waste effluents, several amino acids were chlorinated at high chlorine doses. (2000-4000 mg/1). Amino acids present in municipal waste effluents before and after chlorination were concentrated and purified using cation exchange and Chelex resins. After concentration and cleanup of the samples, the amino acids were derivatized by esterification of the acid functional groups and acylation of the amine groups. Identification and quantification of the amino acids and chlorination products was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using a digital computer data system. Analysis of the waste products revealed the presence of new carbon-chlorine bonded derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine when the effluents were treated with heavy doses of chlorine.
Kinetic Study of Ligand Exchange in mu-(2,2,8,8-Tetramethyl-3,7- Dithianonane)-Decacarbonylditungsten(0)
The substitution reaction of (DTN)W2 (CO)10 with P(OCH(CH3 )2 )3 is a stepwise reaction. The kinetics of step 1 follow the equation: -d[substrate] /dt = kld [substrate] + k la [substrate] [ligand]. Thus the mechanism of step 1 is expected to be a competition between dissociative and associative pathways. The kinetics of step 2 follow the equation: -d[(DTN)W(CO)5]/dt = k2dk3[(DTN)W(CO)5][ligand]/k-2[DTN] + k3[ligand] The plot of kobsd versus [ligand] thus is a hyperbolic curve and the plot of 1/kobsd versus 1/[L] exhibits linear behavior. A mechanism for step 2 in which (DTN)W(CO)5 dissociates to an intermediate, W(CO) 5 , and in which DTN and P(OCH(CH3 )2 )3 compete to associate with W(CO) 5 is favored. The dissociative rate constant of the first step, kld' is about 1.2 times of that of the second step, k2d. The dissociation of (DTN)W(CO) 5 from (DTN)W2 (CO) 1 0 is favored over the dissociation of DTN from (DTN)W(CO) 5 due to a combination of the steric, stoichiometric, charge repulsion and entropy effects of the reaction.
Investigation of Substituent Effects of 2-Substituted Silaethylenes
This investigation is concerned with determining whether a carbon substituent or a silicon substituent on the carbon terminus of a silicon-carbon double bond has a more stabilizing effect. Two different 2-substituted silaethylenes were generated at the same time by pyrolyzing 1, 1-dimethyl-2-neopentyl-4- (dimethylalkoxysilyl) silacyclobutanes in a nitrogen flow system. The results of these pyrolyses, both neat and in the presence of a trapping reagent, show that the silaethylene with a silicon substituent on the carbon terminus was favored approximately two to one over the silaethylene with a carbon substituent. This datum, along with other observations and hypotheses discussed, leads to the suggestion that the silicon substituenton the carbon terminus of the silaethylene bond has a more stabilizing effect than the carbon substituent.
The Effect of Ozonation in Reducing Trihalomethane Formation Potential
Trihalomethanes such as chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform are formed when natural water is chlorinated in water treatment. This investigation explores the use of ozone to remove organic precursors from natural water, thus decreasing trihalomethane formation potential. The data suggest a mechanism involving formation of secondary precursors after prolonged contact with ozone, suggesting that trihalomethane precursors may be minimized by using low doses of ozone and short contact time.
Evaluation of Adsorption and Microcoulometric Methods for Determination of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Water
Two adsorption/microcoulometric methods have been investigated for total organic halogen (TOX) in water. TOX, a proposed water-quality parameter, is a rapid, surrogate method to detect halides microcoulometrically and does not require compound identification before water quality can be judged. An XAD resin is used to concentrate organic halides that are eluted by a two-step, two-solvent procedure, followed by analysis using :chromatography or pyrolysis to convert organic halides to halide. In the granular activated carbon (GAC) method, the entire GAC-organic halide sample is pyrolyzed. TOX measurements of model compounds are comparable by both methods, but GAC was found to be superior to XAD for adsorption of chlorinated humics in drinking water and chlorinated lake water.
Vibrational Spectra and Potential Function of Tetrachlorocyclopropene
The laser Raman spectra of tetrachlorocyclopropene in the liquid and solid phases have been recorded and vibrational assignments are presented. These results along with root mean squared vibrational amplitudes from electron diffraction data have been employed in a normal coordinate analysis in which a 19 parameter potential function is refined. This potential function, originally expressed in terms of compliance constants, is then used to derive the corresponding conventional and relaxed force constants.
Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Gem-Cyano Pyrethroids
The synthesis and insecticidal activity of a series of 2,2-dicyano cyclopropane carboxylic acids, (3-phenoxyphenyl)- methyl esters were investigated. Synthesis of the compounds was accomplished by reaction of a dimethyl sulfonium carbethoxy ylide with propanedinitrile alkylidene compounds. Final products were formed in one step by use of the (3-phenoxyphenyl)-methyl ester of the ylide. Insecticidal activity was determined at 500 ppm application with Permethrin as the standard against houseflies, mexican bean beetles, and southern army worms.
The Stereochemistry of 1,4-Di-Tert-Butyl-1,4-Dihydronaphthalene
A new approach was taken in the elucidation of the stereochemistry of the symmetrically 1,4-disubstituted 1,4-dihydronaphthalene systems which show deceptively simple NMR spectra. Thus, the stereochemistry of 1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene was established unequivocally. The epoxide derivative, the subject compound, 1,4-di-tertbutyl-2, 3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydronaphthalene, was formed and its trans stereochemistry was established by ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. A lanthanide shift study was also conducted on the epoxide derivative, further proving the trans stereochemistry. One of the lanthanide shifted spectra was analyzed using the LAACOON III computer program and the true coupling constants obtained this way were in excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum. Establishing the trans stereochemistry of the epoxide derivative proved the trans stereochemistry of 1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene.
Syntheses of a New C₂₂H₂₈ Cage Hydrocarbon System and 2,2- Tetramethylene-1 /4-Dibromobutane
(1). An improved method for synthesizing bicyclo (2,2,1) hepta-2,5-diene-7-spiro-1'-cyclopentane (5) has been developed. Thermal reaction of compound (5) with neat iron pentacarbonyl under nitrogen atmosphere affords the corresponding cage dimer (6). Some aspects of the syntheses, spectra, and chemistry of compound (5) and (6) are discussed. (2). A structure isomer of decamethyldodecahedrane (C₃₀H₄₀), molecule (11), is expected to be synthesized via thermal reaction of iron carbonyl complexes with compound (10). An intermediate in this synthesis, 2,2- tetramethylene-1,4-dibromobutane (9) was efficiently synthesized starting from cyclopentanone. Some aspects of the syntheses, spectra, and chemistry of compound (1) to (9) will be discussed.
Isolation and Partial Characterization of Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase and High Density Lipoprotein from Hog Plasma
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified 30,000-fold from hog plasma in a homogeneous state as indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 66,000 and was found to contain about 21.4 percent (w/w) carbohydrate. The properties of hog LCAT including amino acid composition were compared with human LCAT. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was isolated from the hog plasma by an immunoaffinity column chromatography. The isolated HDL showed nearly identical lipid-protein composition although it contained additional protein components when it was compared to HDL isolated by a traditional method involving ultracentrifugation.
Synthesis of trimethylsilyl-substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecanes and chloro-substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecane
As part of a continuing study of the synthesis and chemistry of new, substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹º.0⁵,⁹)undecanes, the following compounds have been synthesized: 1: X=O, Y=SiMe_3; 2: X=CH_2, Y=SiMe_3; 3: X=O, Y=Cl; 6: X=OAc, Y=H; 8: X=OC(O)Ph, Y=H; 9: X=OSO_2Ph, Y=H; 11: X=OH, Y=H; 12: X=OMe, Y=H; 14: X=CHSiMe_3, Y=SiMe_3; 15: X=OH, Y=Cl; 16: X=OAc, Y=Cl; 17: X=OMe, Y=Cl. An important objective of this work is to prepare new polycyclic cage compounds which can be utilized as intermediates for the synthesis of new, substituted tricyclopentanoid natural products (triquinanes) and related systems. Compounds 1-4 were identified as target molecules in this connection.
Determination of Halogens in Organic Compounds by Using Sodium Fusion-Ion Chromatography Method
A sodium fusion-Ion chromatographic method for determination of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in organic compounds is described. Seventeen organic halogen compounds and eleven mixtures were decomposed by Na fumes at 280-290°C for one hour or longer. The absorbing solutions were injected for ion chromatographic analysis using electrochemical and conductometric detectors. The arrangement of the apparatus includes the placement of the electrochemical and conductometric detectors. This method provides a mechanism providing for complete analysis for all four halogens in one ion chromatographic sample injection. Reproducibility is excellent and liquid sample handling is mentioned.
Raman Studies of Conformational Energies and Hydrogen Bonding in Alcohols
The conformational energy differences have been determined for ethylene glycol, 2- chloroethanol, and 2,2- dichloroethanol in the neat liquid, DMSO, and H20 with Raman spectroscopy. Spectra in the 0-H valence region were utilized to determine the energy difference between interand intramolecularly hydrogen bonded species. It was found that the solvent effect on the relative stabilities of the gauche and trans rotamers of the alcohols differ significantly. The results also indicate that, unlike ethylene glycol, there is significant intramolecular hydrogen bond formation in the halogenated alcohols in the neat liquid phase. Stronger intramolecular hydrogen bond formation was observed in dichloroethanol than in 2-chloroethanol.
A Carbon-13 and Lithium-6 NMR Study of Alkyllithium Compounds
A variable temperature 13C and 6Li NMR study has been conducted for 6Li-enriched ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, isobutyl-, t-butyl--, isopentyl-, 2-ethylbutyl-, and n-hexyllithium in cyclopentane. Significant differences in the 13C NMR parameters are observed as a function of the alkyl group and temperature. These changes are compared to the 6Li spectra and explained in terms of the aggregates present. 13C-6Li coupling is readily observed in both the 13 6 C and Li spectra of compounds which contain branching at either the alpha or beta carbons of the alkyl group. This coupling has been used to identify the aggregates present in solution and to identify the fluxional behavior of these aggregates.
Reactivity of Five-Coordinate Intermediates Derived from (Chelate) Tetracarbonylmetal (0) Complexes
The reactivity of the [(Phen)Cr(CO)_3] intermediate with phosphines and phosphites (L) has been investigated through ligand-competition studies. This intermediate possesses virtually no ability to discriminate among L. The agreement between reactivity data for the thermal and photochemically-generated intermediates indicates that the same intermediate is produced via each process. Pulsed laser flash photolysis of (n^2-NP)M(CO)_4 (I) (M = Cr, Mo; NP = 1-diethylamino-2-diphenylphosphinoethane) in the absence and presence of P (OPr-i)_3 (L) in 1,2-dichloroethane and chlorobenzene induces unimolecular ring-opening to afford [(n^1-NP)M(CO)_4] (II), in which the bidentate ligand is coordinated through P. Reaction of this intermediate takes place through competitive ring-reclosure and attack at (II) by L to afford (I) and cis-(n^1-NP) (L)M(CO)_4.
Conformation-Activity Studies of Pyrethroid Alcohols
The synthesis and insecticidal activity of certain alcohols (hydroxymethyldibenzofurans, hydroxymethyldibenzothiophenes and some of their ⍺-cyano derivatives), esterified with trans-chrysanthemic acid, were investigated. The preparation of these planar alcohol moieties was undertaken to study conformation-activity effects in insecticides of the pyrethroid type. The synthesis of final ester products employed two methods. One was the direct condensation of the appropriate alcohol with chrysanthemic acid chloride in the presence of pyridine. The other involved the in situ formation of the cyanohydrin from the appropriate aldehyde and subsequent condensation with chrysanthemic acid chloride in the presence of a phase transfer reagent. Insecticidal activity is to be tested at rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 10, 100, and 1000 ppm. Fenvalerate is used as the standard against Diabrotica undecimpuntata (spotted cucumber beetles).
Optimization of High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Separations
This study had a twofold purpose. First, the usefulness of the simplex algorithm as a short method of optimization in high performance liquid chromatographic separations was investigated. The second was to test a modified simplex method. The volume fractions of mobile phase components were chosen as the variable factors in the optimization process. Four test cases were performed which included separation of cholesterol esters, naphthalene and its derivatives, polycyclic aromatic compounds, and the thiane compounds. The standard for accepting an optimum was based on the baseline separation of two adjacent peaks and the analysis time. In addition to successful separations, the correlation between the separation and the chemical characteristics of mobile phase compositions was calculated and this could then be used for further modification of simplex search strategy.
Vibrational Dephasing of Haloalkanes and Halobenzenes
The Raman linewidths of the carbon-halogen stretching mode was measured as a function of temperature in ethyl bromide, isopropyl chloride, isopropyl bromide, t-butyl chloride, t-butyl bromide, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, iodobenzene and o-dichlorobenzene. The vibrational relaxation times showed a very clear trend. Together with earlier work on methyl iodide, these results provide evidence that the vibrational dephasing efficiencies (T^-1_iso) of the carbon-halogen mode vary in the order of Cl > Br > I. Vibrational dephasing times were calculated from the Fischer-Laubereau Isolated Binary Collision Mode. If further work shows this transferability to extend to other types of skeletal modes in molecular systems, this would have significant ramifications on future vibrational lineshape studies.
The Analysis of Fire Debris Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
This paper describes a new technique for analyzing fire debris using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Petroleum distillates, which are commonly used accelerants, were weathered, burned, and steamdistilled. These, as well as virgin samples of the accelerants, were analyzed by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, solvent studies and detectibility limit studies were conducted. The use of NMR is described as a valuable adjunct to the existing methods of analysis.