This study investigated significant influences including Hispanicness, traditionalism and demographic characteristics on Hispanic women's purchase behavior when selecting work and social activity apparel. A sample of 114 Hispanic women from a Hispanic professional organization or businesses in the Dallas and El Paso, Texas areas. Surveys were collected by mail or administered to subjects. Analyses included frequencies, percentages, t-tests, and Pearson's product-moment correlations. For both situations, mean scores indicated the most influential information sources were: clothing displays, friends, and female family members, while the most used acquisition sources were: department and specialty stores. In both situations, these women had very feminine appearance attributes and very feminine and fashionable clothing style. Hispanicness, traditionalism, and demographic characteristics made some difference when selecting work and social activity apparel.
The purpose of this research was to determine the level of nutrition knowledge of students in four-year hospitality programs; their attitudes toward nutrition in general (general attitudes); and their attitudes toward its role in commercial foodservice (restaurant attitudes). Correlations between knowledge and attitudes and differences based on gender, age, college classification, and completion of a college nutrition course were also examined. Hospitality management majors in baccalaureate programs at three Texas universities completed 454 usable questionnaires. Although knowledge was not extensive, general and restaurant attitudes were positive. Knowledge was influenced by all factors except gender. General attitudes were influenced by gender, age, and classification. Only gender influenced restaurant attitudes. Knowledge was positively correlated with favorable attitudes.
This study explored the inferences male children held about the brand personality. The sample included 46 male fifth graders. Personal interviews were conducted and the results were compiled and interpreted using descriptive statistics. Four subject areas were addressed: identification and inferences about brand personality, sources of inferences, children's ability to make inferences about other children based on brand personality, and application of brand personality to self. Results indicated children make inferences about brand personality, make inferences about other children based on brand personality, and apply brand personality to themselves. An attempt to identify sources of inferences was inconclusive.
The hospitality industry in recent years has become intensely competitive. Better communication between industry professionals and educators is important for university programs to provide relevant learning experiences for students. The purpose of this study was to determine competencies that hotel and restaurant professionals deem necessary for the success of graduates in the industry. Thirty supervisors of hotel and restaurant management majors who graduated from the University of North Texas from 1990 through 1992 responded to the research questionnaire. The supervisors were given 36 competencies and asked to rate their level of importance. Percentages were used to identify the most important competencies. The skills most frequently identified as important by the industry professionals surveyed were leadership skills, professional ethics, personnel management, and understanding the different laws that affect hospitality operations and management.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in opinion between chain and franchise restaurant managers and independent owner/operators toward the effects of a smoking ordinance. Results of this study showed a significant statistical difference between restaurateur groups toward the perception of economic effects.
One hundred forty-nine hospitality and culinary programs located in the U.S. and 49 hospitality and culinary programs located in other countries were examined to identify the differences of nutrition topics taught and teaching methods/resources used in undergraduate hospitality management and culinary programs.
This study focused on the hotel front office management course and how this course and related topics were taught in hospitality management programs. The results of the study can guide faculty in developing and expanding the hotel front office management course, related textbooks and teaching resources to best prepare students to meet the future needs of the lodging industry.
This study investigated demographic characteristics of 240 Chamber of Commerce members in terms of their expectations for customer service in hotels. Subjects reported their age, gender, marital status, race, educational level, income level and ethnicity, and completed a 26-item questionnaire which measured expectations for customer service. Principal components analysis was used to reduce the 26 items to five dimensions of service quality, and multivariate analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effect of the demographic variables on those dimensions. Gender of the customer was found to have a significant effect on the combined dimensions of service quality; other variables were not significant.
Service quality defined by the customer is an important element in satisfying customers and may determine retail survival. The SERVQUAL instrument measured desired and minimum expectations and perceptions of service quality in a small apparel specialty store. Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in three dimensions of service quality for both desired and minimum levels of expectations and perceptions: (a) Personal Attention, (b) Reliability, and (c) Tangibles. Regression analyses determined the relationship between overall service quality (OSQ) and various predictor variables. Based on gap scores between desired expectations and perceptions, the Personal Attention and Tangibles dimensions were significant in predicting OSQ. SERVQUAL is a managerial tool that small apparel retailers may use to improve service quality.
The research questions of this study were to determine the specific hotel, restaurant and institutional management courses offered as required and elective courses, to determine which hospitality management courses were taught by faculty members in the hospitality management program versus being taught by faculty in other programs, to determine the teaching methods used to present hospitality curriculum, and to determine the distance learning methods currently used.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of psychographic (shopping orientation, lifestyle, social class), demographic (gender, ethnicity, age), and geographic (area of residence) variables on time-related shopping behaviors when shopping for clothing for the self. The concept of time-related shopping behaviors has not been the focus of any study of the American market. Data (N = 550) were collected via a questionnaire with an online survey company. Through analysis of chi square statistics, ANOVA, Pearson product-moment correlation, and factor analysis, it was found that psychographics and demographics affected time-related and other shopping behaviors. Geographics was found to affect shopping behavior, but not specifically the time-related shopping behaviors studied.
Mobile phone usage has grown rapidly and is widely used as an advertising channel. Both short message service (SMS) and multimedia messaging service (MMS) are typically used for mobile advertising. The goals of this study are to examine the determinants of attitudes toward mobile advertising in an apparel context and subsequent impact on behavior intention and to investigate the effects of modality and culture on attitudes toward apparel mobile advertising. Results indicate that entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and credibility are determinants of attitudes toward apparel mobile advertising, and attitudes can explain behavioral intention at least in part. Perceived entertainment is different between SMS and MMS apparel mobile advertising, and perceived entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and credibility are different between U.S. and Korea participants.
The purpose of this study was to develop a test blue-print for a hospitality management capstone course to measure programmatic student learning outcomes. A total of 50 hospitality industry professionals and hospitality management faculty were interviewed through focus group discussions, and a post-focus group survey was conducted to determine a weighted percentage for each of the nine determined content domains. A test blueprint was developed from the weighted proportions determined by this study and a process by which other educational institutions could follow to establish a consistent and accurate evaluation method for a capstone course was described.
The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study compared fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors of African-American and Caucasian-American college students. Secondly, this study examined characteristics of leadership in general, and fashion leadership specifically, on fashion personality characteristics. The fashion personality characteristics studied included fashion leadership, fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment, and fashion consciousness. The participants consisted of 268 African Americans and 239 Caucasian Americans from two universities in the United States. Ethnicity was found to be an influence on fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors in this study. African Americans in the sample were found to have higher levels of fashion personality characteristics and shopping behaviors than Caucasian Americans. Fashion leadership was found to be positively related to general leadership, fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment and fashion consciousness. General leadership was found to be positively related to fashion involvement, shopping enjoyment, fashion consciousness, academic classification level. However, there was no significant difference found between general leadership and age.
With the development of free and easy-to-use software programs, blogging has helped turn Web consumers into Web content providers. Blogging provides distinctive insight into comprehending e-consumer behavior explicitly with respect to social networking and information searching behaviors while facilitating a state of flow. The objectives of this study are to identify determinant dimensions of blogging motivations and flow, and to investigate the hypothesized relationships of the motivational blogging behavior. Analyzing data (n = 432) from a southwestern university, results reveal the critical dimensions of motivations, behaviors, and flow in blogging. Upon extending Hoffman and Novak's (1996) flow model, 14 out of 26 hypotheses were confirmed regarding the significant impacts of blogging motivations and flow on blogging behaviors. The findings revealed that the desire for information, enjoyment, and loyalty are the primary drivers for experiential blogging behavior. Specifically, information-seeking is the decisive motivation to urge experiential and e-shopping behavior concurrently. This study shows that indulgence and telepresence in flow might play pivotal mediating roles to promote the goal-oriented e-shopping behavior resulting enjoyment and loyalty-seeking motivations.
Cruise travel has become very popular worldwide. The North American cruise market is the world's biggest. Asian countries are among the fastest-growing outbound market for cruise travel. The Taiwanese cruise market has grown substantially. However, few research studies have examined Taiwanese travelers' motivation to experience a cruise vacation, and their satisfaction with the experience. Primary data was collected from a convenience sample of Taiwanese tourists who had been on North American cruise tours. Survey respondents were first time cruisers, over 40 years old, married, and had a Bachelor's degree, or higher. Push and pull motivational factors were identified. Respondents were influenced by recommendations from media and people. Respondents were satisfied with tangibles, cleanliness, food choices and selection, and responsiveness of staff. An overwhelming majority of cruisers would re-visit and recommend this trip. Implications for researchers and practitioners are suggested.
The purposes of the study were to: 1) identify Indian tourists' demographics and travel patterns; 2) examine Indian tourists' motivation to take the Bangkok area trip; 3) examine the level of importance of information sources; 4) identify the level of satisfaction of Indian tourists on their travel experience on the Bangkok area attributes; and 5) examine the intention to return and willingness to recommend the Bangkok area and Thailand. The findings showed that Indian tourists were motivated to visit the Bangkok area by both push and pull factors. Family and/or friends and the Internet were considered as important sources in trip decision making. Indian tourists were generally satisfied with the Bangkok area's attributes. They also showed the desire to revisit and recommend Bangkok and Thailand as travel destinations.
By measuring intentions to purchase, this research gives insight into environmental attitudes, pressures to purchase environmentally friendly apparel, factors that inhibit environmentally friendly apparel purchasing, awareness of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and marketing insight into the eco-friendly consumer. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to assess consumer purchasing intentions for environmentally friendly apparel. The TPB consists of a three-pronged measurement: individual attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Individual attitudes were gauged on three dimensions which included environmental attitudes, demographic patterns, and environmentally friendly apparel purchase intentions. Subjective norms involve social pressure to engage in eco-friendly behavior, perceived individual environmental impact, and desire for uniqueness in dress. Finally, perceived behavioral control was studied through previous environmentally friendly apparel purchases, accessibility of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and cost of environmentally friendly apparel. The results revealed that individual environmental attitudes, social pressure to behave environmentally friendly, perceived individual environmental impact, desire for uniqueness in dress, past environmentally friendly apparel purchases, accessibility of environmentally friendly apparel purchase options, and cost of environmentally friendly apparel all have an impact on intentions to purchase environmentally friendly apparel. The variable with the strongest relationship to intentions was social pressure. A demographic profile of intent to purchase environmentally friendly apparel, however, was not possible with this sample. This indicates there is not specifically one type of person who purchases environmentally friendly apparel.
Employee turnover has been one of the most serious issues facing the hotel industry for many years. Both researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable time and effort to better understand and indentify ways to decrease employee turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual differences focusing on career motivation and polychronicity on job satisfaction and its influence on employee turnover intention in the hotel industry. This study surveyed 609 non-supervisory employees working at two Dallas hotels. Respondents provided information regarding career motivations, polychronicity, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Career motivations were significantly related to employee job satisfaction which impacted employee turnover intention. This finding can be useful to hotel companies and their managers when attempting to understand employee motivation.
The purposes of the study were to: 1) identify the underlying dimensions of consumer shopping motivations and attitudes toward online auction behaviors; 2) examine the relationships between shopping motivations and online auction behaviors; and 3) examine the relationships between shopping attitudes and online auction behaviors. Students (N = 341) enrolled at the University of North Texas completed self-administered questionnaires measuring shopping motivations, attitudes, online auction behaviors, and demographic characteristics. Using multiple regression analyses to test the hypothesized relationships, shopping motivations and shopping attitudes were significantly related to online auction behaviors. Understanding the relationships is beneficial for companies that seek to retain customers and increase their sales through online auction.
The purpose of the study was to determine customer perceptions of fairness concerning pricing policies charged by the hotel industry, and to examine how different outcomes in pricing policies affect customer perceptions of fairness. Convenience-Interception survey sampling was used to collect 460 sample data at the Dallas Love Field Airport. After analyzing data, one can infer that when revenue management information was provided, customers are satisfied. Further, age, education, Airline FFP enrolled and redeem miles, and pricing based on marketing channels plays an imperative role in this study.
Dining out has become an important part of the American lifestyle, greater frequencies as well as increased portion sizes have led to concern. The number of Americans that are classified as overweight or obese has also increased considerably, and the foodservice industry has become a target. Mandatory labeling of menu items has been avoided to this point, but the subject has moved to the forefront and continues to be debated. This study surveyed 502 patrons at a student-run restaurant in Texas. Respondents provided information concerning their health and dining habits as well as their attitudes toward and intended usage of nutritional information (NI) on menus in full-service restaurants. Gender, education levels, age, and household income affect the attitudes toward and intended usage of NI. Exercise frequency, the current use of nutritional information on packaged foods, and the practice of healthy eating habits are all related to the intended use of NI while dining out.
A number of lifestyle merchandising and advertising strategies are being used in the home furnishings industry. However, there is limited research regarding the effectiveness of these strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore consumers' attitudes toward the lifestyle concept. Analyses of several consumer behavior variables and descriptors offered noteworthy findings for the home furnishings industry. This study found that although lifestyle orientation is a valuable tool for delineating consumer markets, these segmentations were not significant determinates of consumers' preference for elements of the lifestyle construct. Retailers and manufacturers are not simply creating home furnishing collections that target the needs of specific psychographic segment, but rather creating lifestyles being aspired to obtain. Although respondents scored the attitude variables neutral, the current market environment offers many examples of successfully home furnishing implementations of the lifestyle concept. These success stories coupled with additional findings indicate consumers' positive response to lifestyle merchandising.
Travel is now the largest online business-to-consumer product in the United States. Online hotel bookings are the second largest segment of online travel. Leisure travelers online spending will increase dramatically from 2002 to 2007. However, a majority of hospitality companies do not currently take advantage of the Internet as the cheapest and most efficient distribution medium. The purpose of this study examined leisure travelers' demographic and psychographic characteristics, online booking and travel frequency that influence travelers' desired hotel Website features and functions. The results found out that demographics (gender, occupation, and ethnicity), and psychographics (travel benefit sought), number of leisure travel trips per year, and number of online hotel bookings per year have impact on hotel Website attribute preferences.
Over the last decade there has been a rapid development of United States quick service restaurant companies such as KFC and McDonalds in China. Increasingly urban Chinese consumers patronize these restaurants as a way to experience American culture. For some it is becoming a part of their eating pattern. Recent health studies have demonstrated that nutritional diseases are increasing in China. This study accessed urban Chinese consumers' perceptions about U.S. quick service restaurants and their knowledge about the nutritional value that U.S. quick service food can provide. This study revealed that Chinese consumers' perceptions and knowledge about U.S. quick service impacts their patronage. Additionally, the study determined correlation between consumer patronage and reported health status as well as consumers' length of patronage negative influence on their health status. The results of this study will help U.S. quick service restaurants in educating consumers on nutrition and improving the menus.
The population percentage, population growth, buying power, and geographic concentration of Hispanic-Americans in the United States is causing marketers and retailers to carefully examine this market segment. Through a better understanding of Hispanic-American consumers, marketers and retailers will be more capable of meeting their wants and needs. Tailoring marketing promotions and strategies can help a company more effectively reach the Hispanic-American market. This study compared Hispanic-Americans and Anglo-Americans in their general shopping characteristics, responses to excitement in the mall, consumption patterns, and repatronage intention. A total of seven hypotheses were developed, all of which were either supported or partially supported.
The purpose of this study was to investigate supply chain relationships within the apparel retail product development process under a single site case study setting. Relationship determinants (i.e. drivers, facilitators and barriers) that facilitated or impeded the degree of collaborative efforts between the retailer and the supply chain members were identified. As the retailer integrated its product development process with its suppliers, a triangular relationship was formed between the retailer, the overseas manufacturers, and the designated suppliers. The study found that the retailer sought operational efficiency in its business relationships with supply chain members, but continued to seek long-term commitment in these relationships to establish a virtual vertical company.
This study examined consumer attitude towards adding branded quick-service items on domestic airline in-flight menus with the aim of assessing the variables of perceived customer value and customer satisfaction. A random sample of one hundred sixteen frequent flyers residing in the United States participated in the study. An examination of consumer attitude towards branded quick-service menu items if introduced on domestic in-flight menus was performed. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which of the four relationships was the most significant. The results showed that frequent flyer satisfaction with branded quick-service food items had the most significant relationship with perceived satisfaction of adding branded quick-service foods to coach class in-flight meal service.
This study investigates the consumers' intention towards Internet shopping. The Theory of Planned Behavior is used to predict behavioral intention (BI), which is a function of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The effects of demographic and personal variables on BI are also examined. Data analysis (n = 303) indicates that attitude, subjective norm, perceptions of behavioral controls, and previous purchases are significant predictors of behavioral intention. Product/Convenience, Customer Service (attitude factors), Purchase and Delivery, Promotional Offers, Product Attribute (factors of PBC), subjective norm, hours spent online, money spent online, and previous purchases discriminate respondents of high BI from low BI. Behavioral intention of shopping online is highest for Specialty Products followed by Personal, Information Intensive, and Household Products.
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of restaurant facilities, belonging to a B&B and leased to a professional restaurateur, upon the revenue of the B&B. This study assessed the physical demands placed on the B&B operator by an on-premises restaurant. Lack of sufficient data precluded proving the premise that an on-premises restaurant leased to a restaurateur would increase the income of the B&B without placing undue physical demands on the B&B operator. However, many contributing factors support the importance of a B&B having an on-premises restaurant that is leased to a professional restaurateur.
The commercial value for Bed and Breakfasts and Country Inns did not kept pace with other lodging establishments. Lodging real estate investment trusts (REITs) grew in the 1990's by acquiring hotels and motels but not the smaller Inns. This study investigated what sale terms and conditions an Inn owner would sell their property to a REIT. The study examined what conditions an innkeeper would manage the property for the REIT once the sale was closed. This study concluded that a REIT was not a feasible exit strategy for Inn owners.
Following Ajzen/Fishbein's 1980 Theory of Reasoned Action, influences of hospitality students' external variables (age, gender, university classification, and work experience) on computer attitudes, and relationships between computer attitudes and intentions to learn and use computers were tested. A sample of 412 hospitality students completed two measurements: Loyd/Gressard's 1984 Computer Attitude Scale, and Behavioral Intentions to Learn and Use Computers. Males and females had positive computer attitudes. Graduates had more positive computer attitudes. No interaction effect existed between gender and classification. No relationships existed between age and work experience on computer attitudes. Computer attitudes positively correlated with intentions to learn and use computers. Results supported the Theory of Reasoned Action. External variables partially influence attitudes and attitudes influence intentions.
The purpose of the study was to determine (a) types of marketing strategies, (b) perceived success of marketing strategies, (c) importance of marketing strategies, (d) amenities offered to consumers, and (e) negatives (problems) in marketing strategies by bed and breakfast owners/operators. A questionnaire to assess areas of concern covered in the research questions was developed. The questionnaire contained closed- and open-ended questions, with nominal, interval, and ratio levels of measurement. The sampling frame included the 1,140 bed and breakfast owners/operators listed in the Texas Hotel Occupancy Tax Accounts Report, first quarter, 1998, as interpreted for this study. A sample of 775 of this population was randomly chosen, using a random numbers table. A response rate of 36% was obtained.
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