This study investigated leisure interests and leisure participation of executives in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. The Leisure Activities Blank and a questionnaire designed to collect demographic information were administered to twenty-five randomly selected executives. Five hypotheses were tested. Four were retained; one was rejected. Gold was found to be the favorite leisure interest of the respondents. They are currently engaged in eighteen leisure interests, and indicated a desire to participate in thirty-six leisure activities at some future time. Leisure interests which the respondents participated in during their past, or are currently engaged in, appear to be those they hope to continue in the future.
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of examining the work and leisure values in the industrial society and identifying objectives and methods which develop these two values in the student through industrial arts. Information was gathered from the written works of industrial arts, general education, sociology, and psychology. The study offers a survey of work and leisure values which have evolved in the twentieth century. Also, it presents a historical perspective of industrial arts objectives relating to work and leisure values as they are influenced by the vocational, social, and general education movements. Finally, the study presents specific strategies and tactics which develop work and leisure values through industrial arts.
This investigation is concerned with the identification of creative students in the classroom. One purpose of the study is a search of the literature to determine the emphasis given to creativity in education today. A second is to determine if a measure of creativity given to a group of students would reveal a discrimination between the students. The measure of creativity used in this study was the Christensen-Guilford Fluency Tests. The sample group for the study included fifty-two male and fifty-three female students in the ninth grade of the Richardson Independent School District in Dallas', Texas. This study concludes that measurements of mental abilities must include measurements of creativity as well as intelligence if the more gifted students are to be recognized.
Four young children who were learning English as a second language were observed during their participation in an English Language Development class in a school in the North Texas area. Demographic data and checklists were used to describe progress in expressive language and the key vocabulary approach to beginning literacy as adapted by Trietsch and Monk. Data from the interviews with the classroom teachers of the subjects and anecdotal records were used to describe the interaction of the subjects with other English-speaking children and adults. Comparisons were made between progress in writing the key vocabulary and progress in expressive language and between progress in writing the key vocabulary and the progress of interaction with other English-speaking children and adults. The subjects progressed in literacy in English as a second language while learning English as a second language.
Twenty-four teachers completed questionnaires and demographic data forms to describe the types of books they chose most often, where they got them, how they selected them, and how important they felt it was to expose children to good literature. A criteria sheet was used to describe the types and currency of books in each center. The teachers used a variety of sources to select and obtain books. Most teachers knew how literature aids some aspect of development. Every type of book was represented in all collections, but poetry and wordless picture books were least represented.
Thirty trials of each of three roughness conditions were examined. The first condition consisted of a baseball pitched so that two of the roughness elements opposed the flow. The second condition consisted of a pitched baseball with four of the roughness elements opposing the flow. The third consisted of a pitched uniformly rough sphere. The conclusions were that roughness elements increase horizontal flight deviations when a baseball rotates about a vertical axis; roughness elements on the surface of a baseball may cause a decrease in the encountered drag forces; linear velocity has a dominating effect on the trajectory of a spinning baseball; previously developed mathematical models do not adequately predict flight deviations.
Interactions of children and adults in two child care groups were observed and examined. Each group was observed as a same-age multiple caregiver group and eight months later as a multi-age constant caregiver group. Twenty indicators were used to evaluate positive interactions. Analysis showed positive interactions occur in multi-age constant caregiver groups. Multi-age constant caregiver groups enhance the interest of caregivers in children and promote development and interaction of language between caregivers and peers. This study indicates a multi-age constant caregiver group is an alternative to meet the needs of young children by increasing and enhancing positive interactions with caregivers and peers.
The problem for this study was the relationship between faculty-led small groups and the development in seminary students of the character traits biblically mandated of those who occupy spiritual leadership positions in the church (1 Timothy 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9). This experimental study developed and assessed a program which combined involvement in a small group of peers with a faculty mentor. The discipleship groups met weekly for two semesters for either thirty or seventy-five minutes. The research instrument used was the Biblical Leadership Qualities Inventory, a revision of the Spiritual Leadership Qualities Inventory. The longer treatment length groups were not found to differ significantly from the shorter treatment length groups for change in trait score (p = .281), although means were generally lower for the longer groups. A MANOVA showed that both treatment groups differed significantly from the control group for the traits observed (p < .001) with the general direction of change being to a lower trait score. Five post-hoc hypotheses were investigated. An education effect, as measured by number of traits studied in the group, was not found to be related to outcome. A fatigue or stress effect, as measured by academic load, work load, and marital status, was not found to be related to outcome. Instrument weakness, peer effect, and mentor effect were suggested as possible explanations for the outcome. Peer and mentor relationships may have resulted in the subjects developing higher standards and thus a decrease on the posttest. Demographic factors of marital status, Christian age, academic load, work load, and absences did not prove to be effective predictors of outcome. Neither faculty trait scores nor faculty fidelity to the topics for discussion in the treatment groups proved to be an effective predictor of student outcome. Previous research by Parker showing factors for the SLQI was ...
The problem of this investigation is to determine the relationships between certain cognitive, conative, and demographic variables and student ratings of instructors and introductory economics courses at North Texas State University. In addition, the study seeks to determine whether significant, interactive effects exist among the seventeen main variables: pretest, posttest, sex, age, college major, required course, actual grade, residence, SAT, socioeconomic class, Opinionation, Dogmatism, instructor, course rating, instructor rating, expected grade, and attitude. The principal sources of data are students' test scores on the Test of Understanding in College Economics, Rokeach Scales of Opinionation and Dogmatism, Modified Purdue Rating Scale, Personal Data Sheet with Hollingshead Index, and Questionnaire on Student Attitude Toward Economics-Revised. The organization of the study includes a statement of the problems, a review of the literature related to student ratings of courses and instructors, the ethodology used in the statistical analysis of the data, an analysis of the data, and the findings, conclusions, implications, and recommendations for additional research. Chapter I introduces the background and significance of the problems. Hypotheses are stated in the research form, terms in the study are defined, and limitations are delineated. Chapter II is a topically-arranged review of the related literature, including both experimental and descriptive studies. Literature is included on student ratings of courses and instructors, attitude, achievement, grades (actual and expected), and student characteristics. Chapter III includes information on the population of the study, the Test of Understanding in College Economics, Modified Purdue Rating Scale for College Instructors, the Rokeach Dogmatism and Opinionation Scales, the Questionnaire on Student Attitude Toward Economics-Revised, Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position, the variables used in each study, methods of data collection, and stepwise multiple linear regression, the basic statistical design employed in the study, with a nonlinearity factor added. In Chapter IV, data were ...
This investigation of twentieth century trends in mathematics education includes the survey of existing literature and questionnaires conducted with retired and active Texas teachers. Historical events, trends in curriculum, instruction, learning theories, and contradictions of twenty-year periods are delineated. Questionnaire responses are tabulated along the same periods and vignettes of typical classrooms are drawn from the data. Results of the survey show the impact of societal forces on mathematics curricula, a continued downward expansion of content into lower grades and expanding knowledge of learning processes. A unified mathematics curriculum, classroom-related learning theory research, and further development of team-teaching are postulated as future trends. Recommendations include further examination of trends through isolation of other variables such as region and ethnicity.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether goal congruence exists among administrative, supervisory and direct service personnel within public leisure service organizations and among public leisure service organizations of different sizes,. The source of data for the study was a Goal Study Questionnaire distributed to 344 employees of selected leisure service organizations. The results indicated that goal congruence was not established either among duty levels within public leisure service organizations or among public leisure service organizations of different sizes.
The problem investigated in this study was whether students who received computer-assisted reading instruction would display positive attitudes toward reading six or more months after the instruction was completed. A Likert attitude scale was administered to thirteen pre-adolescent and adolescent subjects to assess their attitudes toward reading six or more months after they had received computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In addition, a questionnaire was administered to the subjects' parents to determine their perception of the subjects' attitudes toward reading. Data obtained from the Likert scale indicated that the subjects' attitudes toward reading were neutral. An analysis of responses to the parent questionnaire revealed that the students' attitudes toward school-related reading were positive as a result of CAI. This study concluded that CAI had no apparent positive impact on the subjects' attitudes toward recreational reading.
This study investigated the self-concepts of five, six, and seven year old children after participation in organized and nonorganized play programs. The subjects were sixty boys and girls participating in Little League Tee-Ball programs and sixty boys and girls participating in the City Playground Program in the Fort Worth, Texas, area during the 1979 spring and summer season. The instrument used to measure self-concept was the Purdue Self-Concept Scale, Results indicated that the type of organization has little effect upon the self-concept of the children in this study.
The purpose of the study was to examine selected mechanical factors involved in hitting a baseball to the same and opposite fields. Special emphasis was placed on an identification of those factors which distinguish players of different hitting abilities. Twenty male college level baseball players, ten in each of two groups, hit six pitched baseballs, three each to two assigned areas of the playing field. The movement patterns for the opposite field and same field batting swings appeared to be similar in form with differences between the two swings due to (a) differences in the angular displacements at the left wrist and left elbow joints and (b) differences in the temporal characteristics.
This paper discusses corporal punishment as a disciplinary method in American public schools. The effectiveness of corporal punishment is investigated. Chapter I introduces corporal punishment as a pertinent educational issue. Chapter II discusses the historical development of corporal punishment. Chapter III discusses the legal ramifications of corporal punishment. Chapter IV looks at surveys and studies that have been conducted in regard to the issue. Chapter V discusses a survey of teachers in Lewisville, Texas. Teachers responded to 42 statements pertaining to corporal punishment. Chapter VI concludes that research indicates that corporal punishment will not be effective unless it is administered harshly and consistently. The paper concludes that corporal punishment will not be necessary if higher educational institutions train teachers in alternative methods.
The problem of this study was an analysis of the funding procedures in states which provide funding for local community education projects. The purpose of the study was to identify states which appropriate funds for community education and to provide an analysis of the guidelines for operation and use of state funds for community education at the local level. Twenty-five states were initially identified as having some type of state funding for community education, Eleven of the twenty-one states responding do provide funding for use at the local level. The guidelines and applications for obtaining these funds were compared in the areas of purpose of state legislation, minimum elements required of community education projects, eligibility requirements, use of state funds, grant periods, and annual reporting requirements.
Comparison kinematic models of the traditional style deadlift are presented. Data was obtained through film and analyzed via computer and computer graphics. The comparison between the models revealed that the greater-skilled: 1. used less trunk flexion from the instant of initial trunk lean to the instant of maximum trunk lean, 2. used less knee extension (in same time interval as 1), and 3. demonstrated a smaller horizontal distance between the body center of mass (CM) and the CM of the bar at the instant the bar left the platform. A trend was also observed in which the greater-skilled subjects demonstrated less thoracic lean than the lesser-skilled group at the time the bar reached knee level.
The purpose of this study was to further investigate the relationship between patterns of shoulder movement and muscular response. Thirteen females were tested against maximal manual resistance in twelve different patterns, eight straight plane, and four diagonal. Five of the six subjects who met established kinematic criteria were used for electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the anterior deltoid (AD), the middle deltoid, the posteroir deltoid (PD), and the pectoralis major. No significant differences were found between number of muscles solicited or duration of muscular effort during the different movements. Maximal EMG was significantly higher for the AD in abduction and in flexion than in the other patterns, and for the PD in diagonal flexion with abduction and in transverse abduction.
This study constructs a curriculum guide to supplement the half-unit elective in Texas high school psychology. The guide is designed to provide a basic course structure to assist the secondary-level psychology teacher. Material already in existence in high school psychology was determined from The Educational Index, Psychological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts, and the Education Research Information Center. The Texas Education Agency provided guidelines for teaching secondary psychology and all other state-level information on high school psychology. The American Psychological Association furnished information about their work in secondary psychology, and the fifty state departments of education provided other state-level information. Further, a survey was conducted of the 111 high school psychology teachers in the 85 schools in the State of Texas which offer secondary-level psychology courses. An equal number of counselors within these same schools was also surveyed, as well as an expert panel of six judges. Points of emphasis in high school psychology textbooks were determined from the tables of contents in the eight such texts voluntarily used in the state. Relatively little published information provides guidelines for a high school psychology curriculum. The survey of the fifty state departments of education produced no statewide curriculum guides. The survey of teachers, counselors, and experts confirmed the desirability of five basic course areas recommended by the Texas Education Agency and five recommended by this researcher. The survey of textbook authors also supported these results, and the curriculum guide developed includes all ten areas. Each curriculum area included concepts to be conveyed, content to be taught, and instructional strategies suggested to the classroom teacher. This study recommends that this curriculum guide be piloted in Texas high school psychology classrooms, that it be updated to meet current needs, and that it be revised to improve its effectiveness.
The problem of this study concerns the effects of a Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and perceived self-concept of children. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and children's perceived self-concept; and to investigate the relationships between parental acceptance, parents' self-esteem, children's perceived self-concept, and parents', teachers' and counselors' perception of children's self-concept.
This study investigates the effect of Witkin's cognitive-style variable on training success in two different orientations to counseling. Field-dependent individuals exhibit more social orientation, social compliance, and emotional warmth than field-independent individuals. Conversely, field-independent individuals exhibit more internal directedness, achievement orientation, emotional distance, and analytical task orientation than field-dependent individuals. Traits associated with field dependence appeared more complementary to an interpersonal-skills counseling approach, while traits associated with field independence appeared more complementary to behavior-modification techniques. Thus it was hypothesized that field-dependent individuals would be significantly more successful and satisfied with interpersonal skills training than would field-independent individuals, and that field-independent individuals would be more successful and satisfied with behavior modification training.
This study compares the effect of the objectives-based test collections of the Instructional Objectives Exchange on reading comprehension and word-attack skills of fifth-grade students in a basal reader program. The IOX, a non-profit educational organization, was established in the late 1960's to provide educators with instructional materials such as criterion-referenced tests to allow realistic assessment of students in reference to specific instructional objectives. IOX Director James Popham states the Exchange's purpose as encouraging educators throughout the country to use criterion-referenced instructional procedures. The study compares gains in reading comprehension and word-attack skills of a research group with the gains of a control group, using the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test for both pre-test and post-test. The IOX criterion-referenced tests were added to the reading program for the research group but were not given the control group.
The problem of this study was to standardize the Basic Movement Performance Profile with male and female profoundly retarded residents from the ten Texas state schools for the mentally retarded. To standardize the Basic Movement Performance Profile, the following objectives were formulated: 1. To determine if the test items found in the Basic Movement Performance Profile were valid and appropriate items to measure the basic movement skills of profoundly retarded residents of state institutions. 2. To establish the reliability of the Basic Movement Performance Profile test items utilizing the test-retest method with thirty profoundly retarded males and thirty profoundly retarded females at the Denton State School for the Mentally Retarded. 3. To establish performance level norms utilizing percentile ranks for both sexes on the Basic Movement Performance Profile.
Legal data for the study come from briefs of state and federal court decisions. Political information is drawn from various governmental reports to the Sixty-third Texas Legislature on public school finance reform. Other material is from minutes of the House Committee on Education and interviews with members involved in the legislative process. The study describes and analyzes competing forces which try to influence policy decisions and attempts to identify the salient issues in the political process of educational policy-making. This information is incorporated into a systems model for heuristic purposes. The study pays special attention to state and federal court decisions, with emphasis on the "Burger Court" and President Nixon's influence upon the court. The latter part of the study concentrates on the Sixty-third Legislature and post-Sixty-third Legislature of Texas, and its efforts to write a public school finance reform program. The findings of the study show that the disparity in educational opportunity in Texas is a reality. The study also shows that school districts with the greatest need for reform are often least effective in influencing educational decision-makers. Finally, the study reveals that the inequities in public school finance are inherent in the ad valorem tax system used in most states for public school financing. Further study is recommended into the politics of public school finance reform, with particular attention to the Texas Constitutional Convention's efforts to reform the state's funding formula. A study of the governor's role in public school finance should also be made, with special attention to the reasons for his refusal to call a special legislative session to deal with the problem. Finally, it is recommended that a study be made of the Fort Worth et al. v. Edgar case, since it represents a new dimension in the conflict over the use of the ad ...
This study investigates and evaluates the effects of an eighteen-hour weekend encounter group and three twelve-week groups--a weekly counseling group, a Bible discussion group, and a church attendance group, upon selected personality and behavioral variables, group morale and social integration. Subjects were forty-eight volunteers from a 250-member Protestant, evangelical church in a suburb of a Texas city of five-hundred thousand people. Six men and six women were randomly assigned to each of the four groups. Data analyzed were the pre-, post-, and post-post-experiment scores of the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and the sociometric variables based on Bonney's "Criteria for a Better Group on Sociometric Scales". The .05 level of significance was required for rejection of the null hypotheses. The statistical analyses were accomplished by applying a one-way analysis of co-variance design to the raw scores from the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and two of the three sociometric variables--mutual choices and opposite sex choices. The sociometric variable, choices between upper and lower quarters, was computed with the z formula. The sociometric data, mutuals and opposite sex choices on the encounter group, were further analyzed using the single-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. It was hypothesized that the participants in the weekend encounter group would show a significantly greater change in self-actualization, positive personality and behavioral changes, social integration and group morale than would the participants in the other groups. It was further hypothesized that the weekly counseling group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale, than would the Bible discussion or church attendance groups. It was also hypothesized that the Bible discussion group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale than would the church attendance group. ...
The problem of this study was to survey the perceived effectiveness of a human relations training program for a select group of Public Safety Officers at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. In relation to this select group of Public Safety Officers, the purposes of the study were as follows: (1) to describe the selection procedures, (2) to provide a general overview of the procedures involved in a thirteen-week police training program, (3) to describe the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program, (4) to describe the public safety officer trainees in terms of their performance on various criteria measurements, (5) to assess and describe the personality characteristics of the Public Safety Officer trainees, and (6) to determine the Public Safety Officers' perceptions of, and reactions to, the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program.
The problem of this study was to determine competencies which are necessary for effective administration by secondary school principals. The sources of data included a review of the literature and supplemental materials. The survey technique, employing a jury-validated questionnaire, was used to collect the perceptions of superintendents, principals, teachers, and college professors in the State of Texas. A total of 316 educators responded to the questionnaire. The development and findings of this study are presented in five chapters. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. In Chapter II, a survey of the literature is reported. Chapter III contains details of the procedures employed in collecting data for the study. Chapter IV presents the data gathered through the use of the questionnaire. Chapter V presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the study. The study identified eight general areas of competency for secondary school principals. Those competency areas were (1) organization and administration, (2) curriculum design and improvement, (3) the instructional process, (4) business and financial management, (5) student management, (6) personnel management, (7) facilities, equipment, and supplies, and (8) communications. A total of ninety-five competencies was identified from the literature and from communications with college professors and practicing school administrators. The six-member jury panel validated ninety-one competencies for inclusion on the survey questionnaire. Eighty-eight of the ninety-one competencies submitted to the educator sample achieved the criterion level for acceptance. An analysis of variance procedure revealed that significant differences among group means appeared at the .01 level on eleven of the competency statements. The competency-based preparation and certification concept appears to be sound and to be in harmony with other movements in American education. Many operational aspects need additional refinement; however, the concept holds considerable promise for improvement upon the traditional approaches to the preparation and certification of ...
This investigation of failure in the first two grades and the effectiveness of group counseling upon the failing children seeks first to determine whether students who have failed hold a different self-concept or attitude toward school from those of students who have not. The second aim is to determine the effect of group counseling on self-concept and attitude toward school of failing students. The third purpose is to analyze the implications of these findings for elementary school counselors and teachers. The investigation's two phases include a survey study and an experimental study. The ninety-six subjects for the survey phase were selected by identifying forty-eight first and second grade students who failed their grade level in the 1972-1973 school year, and by randomly selecting a control group of forty-eight second and third grade students who had not failed a grade. For the experimental phase of the study, the forty-eight failing students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. Twenty-four were randomly placed in the counseling groups, with the remaining twenty-four as a control group.
This study is concerned with the effect of placing text into a mediated structure form upon the generation of test items for analysis level domain referenced test construction. The item writing methodology used is the linguistic (operationally defined) item writing technology developed by Bormuth, Finn, Roid, Haladyna and others. This item writing methodology is compared to 1) the intuitive method based on Bloom's definition of analysis level test questions and 2) the intuitive with keywords identified method of item writing. A mediated structure was developed by coordinating or subordinating sentences in an essay by following five simple grammatical rules. Three test writers each composed a ten-item test using each of the three methodologies based on a common essay. Tests were administered to 102 Composition 1 community college students. Students were asked to read the essay and complete one test form. Test forms by writer and method were randomly delivered. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences among either methods or writers. Item analysis showed no method of item writing resulting in items of consistent difficulty among test item writers. While the results of this study show no significant difference from the intuitive, traditional methods of item writing, analysis level test item generation using a mediating structure may yet prove useful to the classroom teacher with access to a computer. All three test writers agree that test items were easier to write using the generative rules and mediated structure. Also, some relief was felt by the writers in that the method theoretically assured that an analysis level item was written.
The problem with which this investigation was concerned is that of treating agoraphobia with cognitive-behavioral group therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combined with the drug alprazolam (Xanax). The purpose of the research was twofold. The first goal was to determine the relative effectiveness of the two treatment conditions on phobic behavior, anxiety, and depression. A second goal was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning each of these modalities available to agoraphobics, their families, and to treatment specialists. The research design of this study was a randomized, pretest-posttest, experimental group design. The sample (N = 15) consisted of Group I (N = 7), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy combined with the medication alprazolam, and Group II (N = 8), who received behavioral-cognitive group therapy only. The treatment included 15, 2-hour weekly group sessions, with the addition of a brief medication evaluation prior to each group meeting for Group I. During these sessions, the subjects received information about agoraphobia in the form of brief didactic segments, treatment materials, homework assignments, group interaction, and various forms of desensitization. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy can significantly reduce phobic avoidance, anxiety, and depression associated with agoraphobia; and 2. Multidimensional behavioral-cognitive group therapy in combination with administration of alprazolam, can significantly reduce phobic avoidance and anxiety associated with agoraphobia.
This research examined several independent variables and their prediction of perceived freedom in leisure (PFL). Four instruments were utilized to collect data from research subjects regarding the independent variables of shyness, extroversion, gender and activity preference style and the dependent variable, PFL. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients were calculated for each scale employed in the research. Reliabilities for the scales within this research were as follows: Stanford Shyness Survey (.78), Adult Short Form of the Leisure Diagnostic Battery (.92), three scales from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Extroversion (.85), Neuroticism (.79), and LIE (.75), and the Activity Preference Style Scales - Active (.45), Group (.53), and Risk (.67). Due to the low alpha reliabilities of two of the Activity Preference Style Scales, Active and Group, factor analysis was performed in an attempt to construct new sub-scales with higher alpha reliabilities. This resulted in some of the new sub-scales, as well as the original Active and Group scales being used in the data analysis. The sample was comprised of 325 undergraduate students enrolled in a required history or English class. The age of the sample ranged from 17 to 50 with a mean age of 20.4. Questionnaires were given out during class time and students were instructed to complete them at home and return them to their instructor. Respondents were categorized into six non-independent groups: all subjects, not shy subjects, shy subjects, and three shyness sub-groups — shy now and in the past, shy now but not in the past and shy in the past. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was employed with four different sets of Activity Preference Style scales and sub-scales in the prediction of PFL for the six subject groupings. Regardless of a subject's level of shyness, extroversion, and in several other cases, one of the activity style variables ...
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in pulmonary ventilation (V_E), ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (VE_O_2) and lactic acid (LA) in relation to oxygen uptake (V_O_2) as predictors of the lactate threshold (LT). Eight healthy male (21.9 ± 3.0 years) subjects conducted three incremental-load tests. In each test the initial work rate consisted of 4 minutes of unloaded pedaling ("0" load) followed by incremental-load work of 360 Kgm • min^-1 at 60 rpm for trial I and trial II, while during trial III the work rate consisted of 540 Kgm • min^-1 of incremental-load work at 90 rpm. Work load was increased every third minute until the subject reached voluntary exhaustion. Blood samples from a forearm vein were collected during trial II (60 rpm) and trial III (90 rpm) and analyzed for lactic acid. In our subjects the measured (x̄ ± SD) lowest VE_O_2 for O_2 in relation to V_O_2 for trial I of 22.9 ± 1.9 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.27 ± 0.8 L • min^-1. For trial II the VE_O_2 of 22.4 ± 1.3 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.09 L • min^-1, while for trial III a VE_O_2 of 24.4 ± 2.5 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.84 ± 0.15 L • min^-1. The lowest VE_O_2 and onset of LA accumulation as calculated from individual exponential equations relating V_E to V_O_2 yielded V_O_2 values at 1.77 ± 0.18 L • min^-1 and 1.74 ± 0.25 L • min^-1 for trial II, and 1.83 ± 0.19 L • min^-1 and 2.02 ± 0.53 during trial III. Utilizing ln[LA]-ln V_O_2 equations, the LT occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.07 L • min^-1 during trial II and 1.85 ± 0.12 L • min^-1 during trial III. It was concluded that during the ...
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that students of unequal writing ability are frequently placed in the same beginning media writing classes in college journalism. It is difficult for a teacher to be effective when the ability of the students ranges from those who cannot write clear complete sentences to others whose work already appears in newspapers and magazines. The purpose of this study is to determine whether students who are ability grouped into slow—average and advanced groups do the same, better, or worse than heterogeneously grouped students. In the spring semester of 1987, students in Journalism 1345, Media Writing laboratory, at the University of Texas at Arlington, were given a pretest to determine how well they wrote a simple news story and a simple feature story. On the basis of that test, which was graded by three raters, the students were placed in two separate ability groups in three classes. The fourth class contained students with heterogeneous abilities who were not placed in groups. At the end of the semester a posttest was given in news and feature writing. A two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the posttest scores of sixty-seven students. There was no significant difference in the posttest scores of students who were grouped homogeneously and those who were grouped heterogeneously. The difference in the scores of heterogeneously grouped advanced students and homogeneously grouped advanced students was not significantly different from the difference between the posttest scores of heterogeneously grouped slow-average students and homogeneously grouped slow-average students.
This qualitative case study provided a narrative portrait of 12 students in the 11th grade in one north Texas district who failed the initial administration of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) exit-level test. It also presented an account of their perceptions of the test and their efforts to overcome this educational hurdle. The following conclusions were drawn from the study. Limited English proficiency (LEP) students had difficulty mastering the language arts section of the test. A majority of the students reported that TEAMS failure had no social impact. Most of the students declined district-offered remediation. Students tended to perceive the test as a personal challenge. Those students who attended remedial tutoring sessions performed better on the following retest than those who declined remediation. Hispanic and Asian students expressed additional study as being the key to passing the test. Black students felt that the key to passing was to spend sufficient time while taking the test. Those students who were more verbal during their interviews tended to be more successul in passing the language arts section of the TEAMS. The following recommendations were made from the study: (a) students who fail the TEAMS by minimal margins should be encouraged to take remediation; (b) an intensive remedial English course for LEP students should be offered; (c) "high interest" TEAMS mini-lessons should be presented daily for several weeks as a lead-up to the TEAMS; (d) a TEAMS ex it-level orientation program which stresses the importance of the test for the student's future should be implemented; and (e) additional research should be conducted on older students' verbal responses to see if a rich language approach in English classes including listening, reading, writing, and speaking will develop higher level language skills.
The purpose of this study was to compare the peer relationships of highly gifted and highly gifted-highly creative primary students in a gifted classroom of a public school. The study was conducted using thirty-one highly gifted first, second, and third graders who had scores of 140 or better on the WISC-R, WPPSI, or Otis-Lennon. At the beginning of the school year, the Creativity Assessment Packet was administered to the class. The top 20 percent scorers in the class (termed gifted-creative) and those who scored in the bottom 20 percent of the class (termed gifted) on the CAP were targeted for observation. In addition, a sociogram was administered to each student individually for the purpose of determining each child's social status. A bivariate correlation coefficient was employed to express the degree of any relationship between creativity scores and rankings on the class sociogram. Observational anecdotes were used in the discussion of the sociometric results. The following findings resulted from the study. The gifted-creative students, as a group, ranked higher on a class sociogram on measures of friendship and choice of academic work partners than did the gifted group. On sociometric measures of choice of creative work partners, there was no significant difference. During observations, the gifted students displayed approximately the same amount of positive verbal behaviors as the gifted-creative students. The gifted students did exhibit more isolated behavior, especially during academic tasks, than.did their gifted creative counterparts. The gifted-creative group displayed much more verbal and physical aggression than the gifted group. This report concludes that in the gifted classroom under investigation, gifted-creative and gifted pupils differ in their peer relationships thus supporting findings documented in past research. However, information from the sociogram seemed to suggest that the gifted-creative students, as a group, achieved higher social status within this gifted classroom than ...
What happened to women who are former athletic directors of intercollegiate athletic programs during each of the four stages of the departing experience was the problem of this study. A qualitative design using personal interviews for data collection and ethnoscientific explanation for analysis of the data were used to study thirty-one women who were athletic directors between 1975 and 1986. Analytical tasks performed for each of the four levels of analysis helped answer research questions directed toward finding patterns among women in the following areas: what happened to them within and throughout the four stages of the departing experience, reasons they left the position of athletic director, and satisfaction in their subsequent job. Analysis of the data established that the departing experience occurred in four stages. How the subjects responded to the way that opportunities for female student-athletes were offered during each st3ge of the departing experience determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances. Sixteen subjects either were in positive circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in positive circumstances. Fifteen subjects were either in negative circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in negative circumstances. The ability to reevaluate their beliefs and values, adapt to changes in their programs, make rational decisions, and influence others to support their decisions determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances in each stage of the departing experience. In general, the findings of this study support literature on women in administrative positions and literature on the effects of job loss and job change.
The purpose of this study is to determine the possible relationship between post-doctoral research productivity of doctorally prepared nurses and instructional experiences of doctoral study, conditions of employment and other factors that may be related to research productivity. The design of the study is causal comparative.
This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
This study sought to determine the extent a relationship exists between locus of control and the rate of completion for proposal and dissertation defense among doctoral students. Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales were utilized to identify locus of control orientation. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority, 102, scored highest on the Internal scale; (2) Internal scale scores above the median related to increased probability of a proposal and dissertation defense and to reduced time in reaching those points; (3) no significant difference was found between male and female defensive externals in completing the proposal or dissertation defense; and (4) females tended to score higher than males on the Internal scale. Among conclusions drawn are: (1) Internal scale scores above the median relate to a reduced length of time to complete the proposal and dissertation defense; and (2) few doctoral candidates scoring higher on the Powerful Others or Chance scales were identified in this doctoral program after the point of qualifying examinations.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare various attributes of never-married single men and women to married men and women. The Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale, and the Personal Skills Map were completed by 138 never-married singles and 139 married volunteers, both male and female. Volunteers were predominantly Caucasian, Protestant, active in their churches, and college educated. Ages ranged from 30 to 39 years. Married volunteers were married only once for five years or more. A step-wise discriminant analysis was run on each of the three instruments to determine which variables were significant across groupings. Summary conclusions were made showing that never-married men and women were more socially energetic but less expressive and responsive than were married men and women. Single men, as compared to married men, were also more passive and saw themselves in a less favorable light. Single women, when compared to married women, were also more dominant. Single women, when compared to single men, were more relaxed and more assertive, but more critical and punitive. An implication for counselors is that never-married single people may need help with relating at a deeper level of vulnerability and personableness. Single men may need help in interpersonal assertiveness as well as in personal openness and transparency. Single women may need help in resolving some of their hostilities. Further research is needed to explore the possible factors contributing to the guardedness of singles, the passivity of men, and the hostility of women. More work needs to be done in the area of causality.
The problem of this study is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 in the United States of America according to the perceptions of design educators who were polled using a Delphi exercise. Basic design is an introductory course in design disciplines covering fundamental principles, components, and applications of design. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 to allow design educators to better prepare for the future. The second is to provide a basis for further research that might address specific areas in the future of teaching design.
Recall of expository prose after one of two learning techniques was determined. Pearson correlation did not discover a significant difference between the recall writings of the examinees who studied by discussion and those who studied by underlining. The significance of the difference between two proportions found that the group which underlined recalled significantly better than the group which discussed what they had read. This highly significant difference was almost identical when all synonyms from the Turbo Lightning computer program were considered correct recall and analyzed by the significance of the difference between two proportions.
The problem of this study concerns the reduction of spasticity in physically handicapped persons with CP. The hypotheses tested were: that there would be no significant difference between the mechanical efficiency (ME) of persons with spastic CP following application of the TENS Unit and following application of the placebo unit; that there would be no significant difference between the ME of males with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit, and the ME of females with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit; and that there would be no significant interaction between the treatment factor and the gender category.
The purpose of the investigation was two-fold: (1) to develop an educational design for consciousness-raising in social justice education using Paulo Freire's literacy method, and (2) to investigate its effect on the Incarnate Word sisters' attitude toward the economically poor, Workshop sessions examined social justice concepts of the economically poor as stated in the Acts of the Congregation's General Chapter and applied Freire's method of consciousness-raising outlined in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed and his Education for Critical Consciousness.
Guest author visits are popular events in schools across the United States. Little has been written, however, on a single author doing a single presentation in a school. This study addressed that situation. The study utilized two authors visiting four schools in a large North Central Texas school district.
This study examined the Kodaly approach to music teaching and investigated four different approaches to teaching first graders in elementary school to sing on pitch, echo (clap) rhythms, audiate tonal patterns, and audiate rhythm patterns. The approaches were the Kodaly approach, the traditional approach, and two eclectic approaches. One emphasized some of the techniques of the Kodaly approach, and the other emphasized some of the techniques of the Orff approach. The sample for this study consisted of one hundred twenty-one students in five classes from four different elementary schools. Two instruments were utilized: the standardized Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) by Gordon and the Individual Performance Test (IPT) designed by the investigator. The PMMA had two sections of forty examples each and measured the child's ability to audiate tonal and rhythmic patterns. This test was administered to the children as a group and they recorded their answers on an answer sheet. The IPT was tape recorded and administered individually by the investigator and assistants. It had two sections, rhythm and tonal. The children matched pitches and clapped the rhythms they heard. Responses were tape recorded and evaluated. Pretests were given shortly after the school year began and post-test were given eight weeks later. A completely randomized analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in the achievement of the children in the different classes to perform the selected skills. Findings revealed that the approach to music teaching does make a difference in the musical achievement of first-graders and their abilities to echo rhythms, match pitches, and to audiate rhythm patterns. The approach to music teaching does not make a difference in the musical achievement of the subjects and their abilities to audiate tonal patterns.
The problem with which this study is concerned is that of developing a recommended sequential format for jazz improvisation instruction. The method of content analysis is used. Seventeen subject matter categories (instructional areas) are established upon which the data is analyzed. Coding instructions are constructed with adjustments for additional emphasis placed on the instruction areas by the respective authors. By selecting instructional areas recorded above the median per cent of emphasis, and co-ordinating these areas with the mean sequential introduction of each instructional area, a recommended format of instruction is developed.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to identify role functions and characteristics perceived as important to Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs) in Texas, and to identify differences in perceived importance of role functions and characteristics of ANPs according to gender, educational preparation, practice setting, and whether the practitioner entered practice before or after the current rules and regulations for ANP practice were adopted. Two questionnaires and a demographic data form were mailed to 300 ANPs in primary health care in Texas, with 152 responding. Data from the questionnaire, "Characteristics of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner," were analyzed using independent group t-tests. The findings indicated that the characteristics "person-oriented," "perceptive," and "skilled in problem-solving" were the most valued by the practitioners, while aggressive" was the least valued. Independent group t-tests were used to analyze data from the instrument, "Advanced Nurse Practitioner Functions." The results of this analysis were not significant. The Chi square test was used to further examine data from this questionnaire to determine if the responses differed from chance. With the exception of four items, all of the responses differed significantly from chance. The responses "extremely important or important" were selected significantly more frequently that any of the other options. Not appropriate," was selected significantly more often than could be expected by chance for two functions: suturing minor lacerations and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Fourteen functions were examined further using frequency, percentage of responses, and the Chi square test to determine if there were differences in responses between groups. There were significant differences in responses between ANPs in nurse-managed settings and those in physician-managed settings on four functions: ordering diagnostic tests, prescribing medications in consultation with a physician, suturing minor lacerations, and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Practice setting and educational preparation were the variables which had ...
This investigation concerned the effect of nurse educator/nursing student learning style match on the latter's problem solving ability. Problem solving ability was defined as the processes of finding facts, problems, ideas, solutions and their acceptance in other than past experience, tradition and habit. The underlying conceptual framework was Kolb's holistic model of experiential learning which combines experience, perception, cognition and behavior. The model has vertical and horizontal axes resulting in four quadrants or kinds of learners: diverger, assimilator, converger and accommodator. Instruments used were Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and Gover's Nursing Performance Simulation Instrument.
A review of the literature regarding behavioral characteristics and underlying factors for behaviorally disordered (BD) students revealed that both elementary school aged and secondary school aged BD students may be able to be described by a similar factor structure. Utilizing ratings obtained on a national sample of BD students with the Behavioral Dimensions Rating Scale (BDRS). Research Edition, the pattern of item ratings for students in grades kindergarten through five (K-5) and grades six through eleven (6-11) was examined to confirm this literature-based theory. Multigroup simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation procedures was utilized to compare the covariance structures of students in grades K-5 and grades 6-11. A goodness-of-fit index revealed that the covariance matrices of the two groups were invariant. Since the same factor structure could be used to describe BD students in grades K-5 and grades 6-11, the means for the two groups were compared using Hotelling's T^2 statistic for two independent samples. The analysis resulted in finding a significant difference between the two groups' means. A univariate F test was conducted for the behavioral dimensions to locate the source of the mean difference. A significant difference was found only for Factor I: Aggressive/Acting Out, indicating that teachers perceive these types of behavior to be more problematic for students in grades K-5. No significant differences were found between the two groups' means on Factor II: Socially Withdrawn, Factor III: Irresponsible/Inattentive, or Factor IV: Fearful/Anxious. This investigation has demonstrated that teachers can use the BDRS, Research Edition with confidence when assessing the behaviors of both elementary and secondary school aged students. Areas for further investigation include an examination for invariance across (a) more narrowly defined grade distributions, (b) gender, and (c) socioeconomic status.
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