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Leisure Interests and Leisure Participation of Executives from Randomly Selected Companies in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex
This study investigated leisure interests and leisure participation of executives in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. The Leisure Activities Blank and a questionnaire designed to collect demographic information were administered to twenty-five randomly selected executives. Five hypotheses were tested. Four were retained; one was rejected. Gold was found to be the favorite leisure interest of the respondents. They are currently engaged in eighteen leisure interests, and indicated a desire to participate in thirty-six leisure activities at some future time. Leisure interests which the respondents participated in during their past, or are currently engaged in, appear to be those they hope to continue in the future.
An Investigation of the Role of Industrial Arts in Developing Values in the Areas of Work and Leisure
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of examining the work and leisure values in the industrial society and identifying objectives and methods which develop these two values in the student through industrial arts. Information was gathered from the written works of industrial arts, general education, sociology, and psychology. The study offers a survey of work and leisure values which have evolved in the twentieth century. Also, it presents a historical perspective of industrial arts objectives relating to work and leisure values as they are influenced by the vocational, social, and general education movements. Finally, the study presents specific strategies and tactics which develop work and leisure values through industrial arts.
A Study of Creativity and Education
This investigation is concerned with the identification of creative students in the classroom. One purpose of the study is a search of the literature to determine the emphasis given to creativity in education today. A second is to determine if a measure of creativity given to a group of students would reveal a discrimination between the students. The measure of creativity used in this study was the Christensen-Guilford Fluency Tests. The sample group for the study included fifty-two male and fifty-three female students in the ninth grade of the Richardson Independent School District in Dallas', Texas. This study concludes that measurements of mental abilities must include measurements of creativity as well as intelligence if the more gifted students are to be recognized.
A Description of Progress in Expressive Language and Literacy of Four Young Children Learning English as a Second Language
Four young children who were learning English as a second language were observed during their participation in an English Language Development class in a school in the North Texas area. Demographic data and checklists were used to describe progress in expressive language and the key vocabulary approach to beginning literacy as adapted by Trietsch and Monk. Data from the interviews with the classroom teachers of the subjects and anecdotal records were used to describe the interaction of the subjects with other English-speaking children and adults. Comparisons were made between progress in writing the key vocabulary and progress in expressive language and between progress in writing the key vocabulary and the progress of interaction with other English-speaking children and adults. The subjects progressed in literacy in English as a second language while learning English as a second language.
A Description of the Types, Availability and Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Literature in Six Selected Child Care Centers
Twenty-four teachers completed questionnaires and demographic data forms to describe the types of books they chose most often, where they got them, how they selected them, and how important they felt it was to expose children to good literature. A criteria sheet was used to describe the types and currency of books in each center. The teachers used a variety of sources to select and obtain books. Most teachers knew how literature aids some aspect of development. Every type of book was represented in all collections, but poetry and wordless picture books were least represented.
The Effect of Roughness Elements on the Magnus Characteristics of Rotating Spherical Projectiles
Thirty trials of each of three roughness conditions were examined. The first condition consisted of a baseball pitched so that two of the roughness elements opposed the flow. The second condition consisted of a pitched baseball with four of the roughness elements opposing the flow. The third consisted of a pitched uniformly rough sphere. The conclusions were that roughness elements increase horizontal flight deviations when a baseball rotates about a vertical axis; roughness elements on the surface of a baseball may cause a decrease in the encountered drag forces; linear velocity has a dominating effect on the trajectory of a spinning baseball; previously developed mathematical models do not adequately predict flight deviations.
A Comparison Between the Interactions of Multi-Age Constant Caregiver Groups and Same-Age Multiple Caregiver Groups in Day Care Centers
Interactions of children and adults in two child care groups were observed and examined. Each group was observed as a same-age multiple caregiver group and eight months later as a multi-age constant caregiver group. Twenty indicators were used to evaluate positive interactions. Analysis showed positive interactions occur in multi-age constant caregiver groups. Multi-age constant caregiver groups enhance the interest of caregivers in children and promote development and interaction of language between caregivers and peers. This study indicates a multi-age constant caregiver group is an alternative to meet the needs of young children by increasing and enhancing positive interactions with caregivers and peers.
The Relationship Between Faculty-Led Small Groups and Character Development of Seminarians in an Evangelical Seminary
The problem for this study was the relationship between faculty-led small groups and the development in seminary students of the character traits biblically mandated of those who occupy spiritual leadership positions in the church (1 Timothy 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9). This experimental study developed and assessed a program which combined involvement in a small group of peers with a faculty mentor. The discipleship groups met weekly for two semesters for either thirty or seventy-five minutes. The research instrument used was the Biblical Leadership Qualities Inventory, a revision of the Spiritual Leadership Qualities Inventory. The longer treatment length groups were not found to differ significantly from the shorter treatment length groups for change in trait score (p = .281), although means were generally lower for the longer groups. A MANOVA showed that both treatment groups differed significantly from the control group for the traits observed (p < .001) with the general direction of change being to a lower trait score. Five post-hoc hypotheses were investigated. An education effect, as measured by number of traits studied in the group, was not found to be related to outcome. A fatigue or stress effect, as measured by academic load, work load, and marital status, was not found to be related to outcome. Instrument weakness, peer effect, and mentor effect were suggested as possible explanations for the outcome. Peer and mentor relationships may have resulted in the subjects developing higher standards and thus a decrease on the posttest. Demographic factors of marital status, Christian age, academic load, work load, and absences did not prove to be effective predictors of outcome. Neither faculty trait scores nor faculty fidelity to the topics for discussion in the treatment groups proved to be an effective predictor of student outcome. Previous research by Parker showing factors for the SLQI was ...
An Analysis of Student Ratings of Instructors and Introductory Courses in Economics at North Texas State University
The problem of this investigation is to determine the relationships between certain cognitive, conative, and demographic variables and student ratings of instructors and introductory economics courses at North Texas State University. In addition, the study seeks to determine whether significant, interactive effects exist among the seventeen main variables: pretest, posttest, sex, age, college major, required course, actual grade, residence, SAT, socioeconomic class, Opinionation, Dogmatism, instructor, course rating, instructor rating, expected grade, and attitude. The principal sources of data are students' test scores on the Test of Understanding in College Economics, Rokeach Scales of Opinionation and Dogmatism, Modified Purdue Rating Scale, Personal Data Sheet with Hollingshead Index, and Questionnaire on Student Attitude Toward Economics-Revised. The organization of the study includes a statement of the problems, a review of the literature related to student ratings of courses and instructors, the ethodology used in the statistical analysis of the data, an analysis of the data, and the findings, conclusions, implications, and recommendations for additional research. Chapter I introduces the background and significance of the problems. Hypotheses are stated in the research form, terms in the study are defined, and limitations are delineated. Chapter II is a topically-arranged review of the related literature, including both experimental and descriptive studies. Literature is included on student ratings of courses and instructors, attitude, achievement, grades (actual and expected), and student characteristics. Chapter III includes information on the population of the study, the Test of Understanding in College Economics, Modified Purdue Rating Scale for College Instructors, the Rokeach Dogmatism and Opinionation Scales, the Questionnaire on Student Attitude Toward Economics-Revised, Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position, the variables used in each study, methods of data collection, and stepwise multiple linear regression, the basic statistical design employed in the study, with a nonlinearity factor added. In Chapter IV, data were ...
A Survey of the Twentieth Century American Trends in Secondary Mathematics Education
This investigation of twentieth century trends in mathematics education includes the survey of existing literature and questionnaires conducted with retired and active Texas teachers. Historical events, trends in curriculum, instruction, learning theories, and contradictions of twenty-year periods are delineated. Questionnaire responses are tabulated along the same periods and vignettes of typical classrooms are drawn from the data. Results of the survey show the impact of societal forces on mathematics curricula, a continued downward expansion of content into lower grades and expanding knowledge of learning processes. A unified mathematics curriculum, classroom-related learning theory research, and further development of team-teaching are postulated as future trends. Recommendations include further examination of trends through isolation of other variables such as region and ethnicity.
A Study of Goal Congruence within and Among Public Leisure Service Organizations
The purpose of this study is to determine whether goal congruence exists among administrative, supervisory and direct service personnel within public leisure service organizations and among public leisure service organizations of different sizes,. The source of data for the study was a Goal Study Questionnaire distributed to 344 employees of selected leisure service organizations. The results indicated that goal congruence was not established either among duty levels within public leisure service organizations or among public leisure service organizations of different sizes.
A Kinematic Analysis of the Baseball Batting Swings Involved in Opposite-Field and Same-Field Hitting
The purpose of the study was to examine selected mechanical factors involved in hitting a baseball to the same and opposite fields. Special emphasis was placed on an identification of those factors which distinguish players of different hitting abilities. Twenty male college level baseball players, ten in each of two groups, hit six pitched baseballs, three each to two assigned areas of the playing field. The movement patterns for the opposite field and same field batting swings appeared to be similar in form with differences between the two swings due to (a) differences in the angular displacements at the left wrist and left elbow joints and (b) differences in the temporal characteristics.
An Analysis of Higher Education in Iran and a Proposal for Its Improvement
The problem with which this study is concerned is the development of a plan to reform the structure of the current system of Iranian higher education, both quantitatively and qualitatively. These goals have been set by the Charter of Educational Revolution and coincide with the Development Plans of the nation which have aimed to bring about a fundamental change in society. Educational history of Iran since ancient times is discussed, with special emphasis on higher education, and the religio-cultural influences in shaping the organization of educational institutions and curricula are overviewed. The nation developed one of the world's oldest scholastic centers of higher learning, Gondi-Shapur Academy, whose international faculty contributed significantly to the advancement of knowledge. Iranian culture was exposed to Islam following the Arab invasion; and Islamic doctrine, which has been opposed to secular education, has dominated the educational philosophy of the country. Western education came to Iran through military institutions and religious institutions. Modern schools increased during the last decades of the nineteenth century; however, their progressive development can be traced only from the reign of Reza Shah, beginning in 1925. The first modern university of Iran was established forty years ago. The provincial universities and other institutions of higher learning came into existence in following years. After adopting the Charter of Educational Revolution in 1968, Iran experienced a rapid expansion of its institutions of higher learning. The percentage of total student enrollment in these institutions has never exceeded 0.37 per cent of the population, however, because the institutions could not expand rapidly enough to accommodate the students who applied for admission. Graduate education is also in the primary stages of development, currently comprising 2.4 per cent of the college students of the nation. To cope with these shortcomings, the study has come to the following conclusions: 1. ...
The Effects of Aerobics Conditioning Exercises on Selected Personality Characteristics of Seventh- and Eighth-Grade Girls
This study is a description of selected personality characteristics of seventh- and eighth-grade girls and the changes that occur before and after a program of either aerobics (running) or anaerobics (calisthenics) conditioning exercises during the fall semester, 1973.
Student Attitudes Toward Reading Following Computer-Assisted Reading Instruction
The problem investigated in this study was whether students who received computer-assisted reading instruction would display positive attitudes toward reading six or more months after the instruction was completed. A Likert attitude scale was administered to thirteen pre-adolescent and adolescent subjects to assess their attitudes toward reading six or more months after they had received computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In addition, a questionnaire was administered to the subjects' parents to determine their perception of the subjects' attitudes toward reading. Data obtained from the Likert scale indicated that the subjects' attitudes toward reading were neutral. An analysis of responses to the parent questionnaire revealed that the students' attitudes toward school-related reading were positive as a result of CAI. This study concluded that CAI had no apparent positive impact on the subjects' attitudes toward recreational reading.
A Study Comparing the Effects of Organized and Nonorganized Play on the Self-Concepts of Five, Six and Seven Year-Old Children
This study investigated the self-concepts of five, six, and seven year old children after participation in organized and nonorganized play programs. The subjects were sixty boys and girls participating in Little League Tee-Ball programs and sixty boys and girls participating in the City Playground Program in the Fort Worth, Texas, area during the 1979 spring and summer season. The instrument used to measure self-concept was the Purdue Self-Concept Scale, Results indicated that the type of organization has little effect upon the self-concept of the children in this study.
The Effects of an Achievement Motivation Program on the Self-Concepts of Selected Ninth-Grade Students Representing Three Ethnic Groups
The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effects that an achievement motivation program had on changing the self-concepts and academic achievement among ninth-grade students in a triethnically mixed junior high school. The subjects for this study were ninth-grade students from a large southwestern city. The experimental program was conducted in a junior high school composed of Anglo, Mexican-American, and Negro students of approximately 30 per cent, 40 per cent, and 30 per cent ratios, respectively. The comparison school was an adjoining area with approximately the same ethnic mixture. In measuring changes in self-concept, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used. Teacher-assigned grades converted to numerical equivalents were used in measuring changes in academic achievement. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence by using two by three analysis of covariance. All data were entered on computer cards, using computer services of North Texas State University.
A Comparison of Certain Factors in Students with and without Financial Aid at Austin College
This study compares certain factors of Austin College financial aid recipients to the same factors in their classmates who received no financial assistance. First, this study attempts to determine whether there are significant differences in selected variables between these two groups. Second, the study seeks to identify the causes for students' withdrawing from the College. Subjects were randomly selected from two groups: (l) 100 subjects receiving financial assistance; and (2) 100 subjects not receiving such assistance. The sources of data for this study were students'. records located in the Educational Advising Center, the Records Office, and the. Counseling Center.
Attitudes of Selected Authorities Toward Policy Statements Relative to School-Municipal Recreation Cooperation
This study seeks to determine the attitudes of public school and municipal recreation authorities in the state of Texas with respect to policies pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the attitudes of selected public school and municipal recreation authorities toward certain policy statements pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of public school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. The second is to develop guidelines for public school and municipal recreation authorities for the resolution of possible conflicts.
A Study of the Current Status of Employment of Therapeutic Recreation Personnel and Projected Manpower Needs of Selected Agencies in the State of Texas
The study was conducted to determine the current status and employment needs for therapeutic recreation personnel in selected agencies in the state of Texas. The study provided the first definitive information on therapeutic recreation manpower needs on a state-wide basis. The study determined the status of therapeutic recreation personnel and assisted in identifying projected training needs in the state of Texas. A survey was mailed to 114 Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation and parks and recreation agencies. Information was requested concerning General Agency Information, Recreation Services, Current Employment, Current Therapeutic Recreation Personnel, Projected Employment and Bilingual Employees and Client information.
Corporal Punishment in American Education from a Historical, Legal, and Theoretical Perspective
This paper discusses corporal punishment as a disciplinary method in American public schools. The effectiveness of corporal punishment is investigated. Chapter I introduces corporal punishment as a pertinent educational issue. Chapter II discusses the historical development of corporal punishment. Chapter III discusses the legal ramifications of corporal punishment. Chapter IV looks at surveys and studies that have been conducted in regard to the issue. Chapter V discusses a survey of teachers in Lewisville, Texas. Teachers responded to 42 statements pertaining to corporal punishment. Chapter VI concludes that research indicates that corporal punishment will not be effective unless it is administered harshly and consistently. The paper concludes that corporal punishment will not be necessary if higher educational institutions train teachers in alternative methods.
State Funding for Community Education Projects
The problem of this study was an analysis of the funding procedures in states which provide funding for local community education projects. The purpose of the study was to identify states which appropriate funds for community education and to provide an analysis of the guidelines for operation and use of state funds for community education at the local level. Twenty-five states were initially identified as having some type of state funding for community education, Eleven of the twenty-one states responding do provide funding for use at the local level. The guidelines and applications for obtaining these funds were compared in the areas of purpose of state legislation, minimum elements required of community education projects, eligibility requirements, use of state funds, grant periods, and annual reporting requirements.
A Kinematic Comparison Between Greater-and Lesser-Skilled Powerlifters Doing the Traditional Style Deadlift
Comparison kinematic models of the traditional style deadlift are presented. Data was obtained through film and analyzed via computer and computer graphics. The comparison between the models revealed that the greater-skilled: 1. used less trunk flexion from the instant of initial trunk lean to the instant of maximum trunk lean, 2. used less knee extension (in same time interval as 1), and 3. demonstrated a smaller horizontal distance between the body center of mass (CM) and the CM of the bar at the instant the bar left the platform. A trend was also observed in which the greater-skilled subjects demonstrated less thoracic lean than the lesser-skilled group at the time the bar reached knee level.
Shoulder Muscle Electromyography During Diagonal and Straight Plane Patterns of Movement
The purpose of this study was to further investigate the relationship between patterns of shoulder movement and muscular response. Thirteen females were tested against maximal manual resistance in twelve different patterns, eight straight plane, and four diagonal. Five of the six subjects who met established kinematic criteria were used for electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the anterior deltoid (AD), the middle deltoid, the posteroir deltoid (PD), and the pectoralis major. No significant differences were found between number of muscles solicited or duration of muscular effort during the different movements. Maximal EMG was significantly higher for the AD in abduction and in flexion than in the other patterns, and for the PD in diagonal flexion with abduction and in transverse abduction.
The Necessary Job Competencies of Secondary School Principals as Perceived by Selected Texas Educators
The problem of this study was to determine competencies which are necessary for effective administration by secondary school principals. The sources of data included a review of the literature and supplemental materials. The survey technique, employing a jury-validated questionnaire, was used to collect the perceptions of superintendents, principals, teachers, and college professors in the State of Texas. A total of 316 educators responded to the questionnaire. The development and findings of this study are presented in five chapters. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. In Chapter II, a survey of the literature is reported. Chapter III contains details of the procedures employed in collecting data for the study. Chapter IV presents the data gathered through the use of the questionnaire. Chapter V presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the study. The study identified eight general areas of competency for secondary school principals. Those competency areas were (1) organization and administration, (2) curriculum design and improvement, (3) the instructional process, (4) business and financial management, (5) student management, (6) personnel management, (7) facilities, equipment, and supplies, and (8) communications. A total of ninety-five competencies was identified from the literature and from communications with college professors and practicing school administrators. The six-member jury panel validated ninety-one competencies for inclusion on the survey questionnaire. Eighty-eight of the ninety-one competencies submitted to the educator sample achieved the criterion level for acceptance. An analysis of variance procedure revealed that significant differences among group means appeared at the .01 level on eleven of the competency statements. The competency-based preparation and certification concept appears to be sound and to be in harmony with other movements in American education. Many operational aspects need additional refinement; however, the concept holds considerable promise for improvement upon the traditional approaches to the preparation and certification of ...
The Effects of Counseling and Religious Groups upon Selected Personality and Behavioral Variables
This study investigates and evaluates the effects of an eighteen-hour weekend encounter group and three twelve-week groups--a weekly counseling group, a Bible discussion group, and a church attendance group, upon selected personality and behavioral variables, group morale and social integration. Subjects were forty-eight volunteers from a 250-member Protestant, evangelical church in a suburb of a Texas city of five-hundred thousand people. Six men and six women were randomly assigned to each of the four groups. Data analyzed were the pre-, post-, and post-post-experiment scores of the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and the sociometric variables based on Bonney's "Criteria for a Better Group on Sociometric Scales". The .05 level of significance was required for rejection of the null hypotheses. The statistical analyses were accomplished by applying a one-way analysis of co-variance design to the raw scores from the Personal Orientation Inventory, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, and two of the three sociometric variables--mutual choices and opposite sex choices. The sociometric variable, choices between upper and lower quarters, was computed with the z formula. The sociometric data, mutuals and opposite sex choices on the encounter group, were further analyzed using the single-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. It was hypothesized that the participants in the weekend encounter group would show a significantly greater change in self-actualization, positive personality and behavioral changes, social integration and group morale than would the participants in the other groups. It was further hypothesized that the weekly counseling group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale, than would the Bible discussion or church attendance groups. It was also hypothesized that the Bible discussion group would show a significantly greater change in the selected variables, social integration and group morale than would the church attendance group. ...
A Survey Study of a Human Relations Training Program for a Select Group of Airport Public Safety Officers
The problem of this study was to survey the perceived effectiveness of a human relations training program for a select group of Public Safety Officers at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. In relation to this select group of Public Safety Officers, the purposes of the study were as follows: (1) to describe the selection procedures, (2) to provide a general overview of the procedures involved in a thirteen-week police training program, (3) to describe the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program, (4) to describe the public safety officer trainees in terms of their performance on various criteria measurements, (5) to assess and describe the personality characteristics of the Public Safety Officer trainees, and (6) to determine the Public Safety Officers' perceptions of, and reactions to, the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program.
A Study of Failure in First and Second Grade and Intervention Through Group Counseling
This investigation of failure in the first two grades and the effectiveness of group counseling upon the failing children seeks first to determine whether students who have failed hold a different self-concept or attitude toward school from those of students who have not. The second aim is to determine the effect of group counseling on self-concept and attitude toward school of failing students. The third purpose is to analyze the implications of these findings for elementary school counselors and teachers. The investigation's two phases include a survey study and an experimental study. The ninety-six subjects for the survey phase were selected by identifying forty-eight first and second grade students who failed their grade level in the 1972-1973 school year, and by randomly selecting a control group of forty-eight second and third grade students who had not failed a grade. For the experimental phase of the study, the forty-eight failing students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. Twenty-four were randomly placed in the counseling groups, with the remaining twenty-four as a control group.
A Curriculum Based on the Half-Unit Psychology Elective in Texas High Schools
This study constructs a curriculum guide to supplement the half-unit elective in Texas high school psychology. The guide is designed to provide a basic course structure to assist the secondary-level psychology teacher. Material already in existence in high school psychology was determined from The Educational Index, Psychological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts, and the Education Research Information Center. The Texas Education Agency provided guidelines for teaching secondary psychology and all other state-level information on high school psychology. The American Psychological Association furnished information about their work in secondary psychology, and the fifty state departments of education provided other state-level information. Further, a survey was conducted of the 111 high school psychology teachers in the 85 schools in the State of Texas which offer secondary-level psychology courses. An equal number of counselors within these same schools was also surveyed, as well as an expert panel of six judges. Points of emphasis in high school psychology textbooks were determined from the tables of contents in the eight such texts voluntarily used in the state. Relatively little published information provides guidelines for a high school psychology curriculum. The survey of the fifty state departments of education produced no statewide curriculum guides. The survey of teachers, counselors, and experts confirmed the desirability of five basic course areas recommended by the Texas Education Agency and five recommended by this researcher. The survey of textbook authors also supported these results, and the curriculum guide developed includes all ten areas. Each curriculum area included concepts to be conveyed, content to be taught, and instructional strategies suggested to the classroom teacher. This study recommends that this curriculum guide be piloted in Texas high school psychology classrooms, that it be updated to meet current needs, and that it be revised to improve its effectiveness.
Effects of a Parent Education Program upon Parental Acceptance, Parents' Self-Esteem, and Perceptions of Children's Self-Concept
The problem of this study concerns the effects of a Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and perceived self-concept of children. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and children's perceived self-concept; and to investigate the relationships between parental acceptance, parents' self-esteem, children's perceived self-concept, and parents', teachers' and counselors' perception of children's self-concept.
Field Dependence and the Effectiveness of Training in Two Selected Orientations to Counseling
This study investigates the effect of Witkin's cognitive-style variable on training success in two different orientations to counseling. Field-dependent individuals exhibit more social orientation, social compliance, and emotional warmth than field-independent individuals. Conversely, field-independent individuals exhibit more internal directedness, achievement orientation, emotional distance, and analytical task orientation than field-dependent individuals. Traits associated with field dependence appeared more complementary to an interpersonal-skills counseling approach, while traits associated with field independence appeared more complementary to behavior-modification techniques. Thus it was hypothesized that field-dependent individuals would be significantly more successful and satisfied with interpersonal skills training than would field-independent individuals, and that field-independent individuals would be more successful and satisfied with behavior modification training.
The Effect of IOX Objectives-Based Reading Test Collections upon Fifth-Grade Comprehension and Word-Attack Skills
This study compares the effect of the objectives-based test collections of the Instructional Objectives Exchange on reading comprehension and word-attack skills of fifth-grade students in a basal reader program. The IOX, a non-profit educational organization, was established in the late 1960's to provide educators with instructional materials such as criterion-referenced tests to allow realistic assessment of students in reference to specific instructional objectives. IOX Director James Popham states the Exchange's purpose as encouraging educators throughout the country to use criterion-referenced instructional procedures. The study compares gains in reading comprehension and word-attack skills of a research group with the gains of a control group, using the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test for both pre-test and post-test. The IOX criterion-referenced tests were added to the reading program for the research group but were not given the control group.
The Standardization of the Basic Movement Performance Profile for Profoundly Retarded Institutionalized Residents
The problem of this study was to standardize the Basic Movement Performance Profile with male and female profoundly retarded residents from the ten Texas state schools for the mentally retarded. To standardize the Basic Movement Performance Profile, the following objectives were formulated: 1. To determine if the test items found in the Basic Movement Performance Profile were valid and appropriate items to measure the basic movement skills of profoundly retarded residents of state institutions. 2. To establish the reliability of the Basic Movement Performance Profile test items utilizing the test-retest method with thirty profoundly retarded males and thirty profoundly retarded females at the Denton State School for the Mentally Retarded. 3. To establish performance level norms utilizing percentile ranks for both sexes on the Basic Movement Performance Profile.
The Politics of Educational Policy-Making: The Legal and Political Implications of the Rodriguez Decision
Legal data for the study come from briefs of state and federal court decisions. Political information is drawn from various governmental reports to the Sixty-third Texas Legislature on public school finance reform. Other material is from minutes of the House Committee on Education and interviews with members involved in the legislative process. The study describes and analyzes competing forces which try to influence policy decisions and attempts to identify the salient issues in the political process of educational policy-making. This information is incorporated into a systems model for heuristic purposes. The study pays special attention to state and federal court decisions, with emphasis on the "Burger Court" and President Nixon's influence upon the court. The latter part of the study concentrates on the Sixty-third Legislature and post-Sixty-third Legislature of Texas, and its efforts to write a public school finance reform program. The findings of the study show that the disparity in educational opportunity in Texas is a reality. The study also shows that school districts with the greatest need for reform are often least effective in influencing educational decision-makers. Finally, the study reveals that the inequities in public school finance are inherent in the ad valorem tax system used in most states for public school financing. Further study is recommended into the politics of public school finance reform, with particular attention to the Texas Constitutional Convention's efforts to reform the state's funding formula. A study of the governor's role in public school finance should also be made, with special attention to the reasons for his refusal to call a special legislative session to deal with the problem. Finally, it is recommended that a study be made of the Fort Worth et al. v. Edgar case, since it represents a new dimension in the conflict over the use of the ad ...
A Competency-Measurement Instrument for Evaluating School Counselors
This study develops the first measurement instrument designed to accompany the concept of competency basing in counselor training. In so doing, the study screens and validates a list of skills most essential to an effective counselor. The problem of this study is to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of competencies of school counselors. The instrument developed and validated by this study is especially designed to delineate the specific skills which best represent the competencies necessary for a well-qualified counselor.
A Study of Region 10 Education Service Center Programs of Service as Perceived by Superintendents of Schools
The problem of this study was to survey and report the perceptions of superintendents of school districts in Region 10 regarding programs of service offered by Region 10 Education Service Center. The superintendents of all public school districts in Region 10 were included in the survey study. All school districts concerned were grouped into one of three categories, according to size. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the perceptions of superintendents in Region 10 regarding programs of service offered by Region 10 Education Service Center, and to make the results available for use in planning future center operations.
Administrator Perceptions of the Individually Guided Education Staff Development Process
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of analyzing elementary school principals' perceptions of the Individually Guided Education process of staff development. A survey is made of 100 randomly selected principals from 18 states of the United States with regard to the problems of implementing the process in their schools.
The Emerging Role and Status of the Director of Human Relations in the Desegregation of Selected Public Schools in Texas
The problem of this study was to ascertain the role and status of the specialist in human relations in the desegregation of selected public schools in Texas. Its purpose was to review human relations literature in order to compile a list of representative criteria for human relations programs in industry and to describe the human relations programs and roles of the directors in selected schools. An analysis of available information indicated that industrial organizations have given more attention to human relations programs than have the educational institutions of this country, although their problems have been similar. It was in the workshops of the factories, rather than in the classrooms of America, that social scientists developed human relations skills and techniques. The social issue of desegregation of the races has been a battle often fought on public school campuses. These racial confrontations, coupled with conflicts spawned by the rigidity of traditional schools, have signaled the urgent call for human relations programs to alleviate human problems. The background study included a review of relevant literature, interviews with public school officials, and discussions with state and regional educational administrators. The survey technique was used to collect data for the study. Personal interviews were held with public school officials from five representative districts. The remaining participants responded to mailed questionnaires. The following procedures were used to develop the survey questionnaire: (1) construction of the initial survey questionnaire, (2) selection of a jury panel to validate the questionnaire, (3) validation of the questionnaire, (4) construction of the final questionnaire, and (5) administration of the validated questionnaire.
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Preservice Human Relations Training for Teachers
This study was an investigation of the different effects of three procedures of human relations training in changing the personality characteristics and attitudes of preservice teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between a structured group laboratory experience, a non-structured group counseling experience, and a regular classroom lecture experience on the development of interpersonal attitudes of preservice teachers, and to ascertain the extent to which attitudinal and personality changes take place.
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of the Intensive and Concurrent Scheduling Plans for Teaching First-Semester English Composition in the Community College
The purpose of this study was to observe the differences in English achievement, critical-thinking ability, and attitude toward subject attributable to two scheduling approaches -- "Concurrent" and "Intensive"--in the teaching of first-semester freshman English composition to community college students. Further, the study was initiated in order to provide factual information as a basis for administrative and instructional judgments affecting future planning for accelerated scheduling at the experimental institution. Two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting three hours weekly for fifteen weeks, comprised the control group (Concurrent); two classes of first-semester freshman English composition, meeting nine hours weekly for five weeks, comprised the experimental group (Intensive). The same form of three criterion instruments was administered to both groups before and after the experimental treatment. The instruments were the Cooperative English Expression Test, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, and the Purdue Attitude Scale, Part A -- Attitude Toward Any Subject. Three instructors were involved in the experiment during the fall and spring semesters of the 1973-74 school year. Conventional methods of instruction, using the same course of study, were duplicated in all situations. Statistical analyses utilized in the study were analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. It was felt that Intensive scheduling was superior to Concurrent as a means of promoting student-faculty harmony. Also, the frustrations experienced within the traditional classroom situation could be lessened by granting greater freedom from the constraints of hourly schedules and competing classes. With tensions reduced, English proficiency could be increased. Acting upon these suppositions, three hypotheses--related to each of the criterion measures-- were formulated. All hypotheses stated that the adjusted post-test scores for the experimental groups would be significantly greater than the adjusted post-test scores for the control groups. The results of the experiment, however, showed no significant difference for any of the hypotheses ...
A Concept of Teaching Undergraduate Adults in Freshman and Sophomore English
The problem was to develop a concept of teaching English for the adult (24 years old or older) undergraduate. The purposes were to make a statement on teaching the adult, survey adults for their perceptions of their needs and the ways the courses met them, review findings of schools offering special adult degree programs, and develop a typology of the adult undergraduate in English with teaching implications. Chapter I states the problem, purposes, significance, and limitations of the study. Chapter II develops the historical background. Chapter III covers the survey and its implications. Chapter IV presents teachers' views of teaching English for adults. Chapter V summarizes the study and sets forth a conceptual structure for teaching the adult undergraduate in such courses.
Analysis of Nursing Functions and Preparation
The problem of this study was an analysis of the differences between associate degree and baccalaureate degree nursing school graduates in relation to the functions they were currently performing, their perceptions of the adequacy of their educational preparation for these functions, and their apparent readiness for these nursing functions as reported by employers of nurses. A questionnaire was devised and mailed to a random sample of employers of nurses and to recent graduates of two associate degree and two baccalaureate degree nursing programs in Texas. Graduates were asked to report on the extent of their performance of each of eighty nursing activities as well as their perception of their preparation for each activity. Employers were requested to report the readiness of recent graduates to perform each nursing activity, The eighty activities were categorized into the following five functions: (1) physical care and technical skills, (2) interpersonal relationships, (3) leadership, (4) decision making, and (5) community health care.
Crime Prevention and Drug Education: The Legislative Mandate and its Implementation by the Texas Education Agency and Nineteen Texas School Districts
The problem of this study is to determine the extent to which the Texas Education Agency and selected school districts have implemented the legislative provisions of House Bill 467, enacted by the Sixty-First Texas Legislature. No hypothesis is advanced. The purpose of the study is twofold: first, it describes the sequential development of the crime prevention and drug education program by the Texas Education Agency as mandated through House Bill 467; and second, it determines the current status of the crime prevention and drug education program in selected school districts through the use of a semi-structured personal interview with the individual assigned primary responsibility for coordination of the program in each of the nineteen school districts included in the study. It is the further purpose of this study to determine principal and teacher perceptions toward twenty-two factors related to drug abuse among students. This was accomplished through the use of a perception survey mailed to a random sample of 1,184 teachers and all 149 principals within the nineteen school districts participating in the study. This procedure resulted in the return of usable surveys by 804 teachers and 119 principals.
A Study of the Correlates of Vocational Bias in Elementary Students
The purpose of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between the presence of vocational bias in elementary students and (1) the presence of bias in the textbooks they use, (2) father's occupation, (3) student grade level, (4) level of intelligence, and (5) sex of the student. The population for the study consisted of 368 kindergarten, third-grade, and sixth-grade students from two North Texas school districts. The instrument used to measure student vocational bias was the Were I a Worker attitude inventory developed by P. K. Yonge Laboratory School at the University of Florida under the direction of the Fusion of Applied and Intellectual Skills Research Project. The instrument used to categorize the father's occupations into professional and non-professional groups was the "Two-Factor Index of Social Position" developed by A. B. Hollingshead. The data were collected by having each student respond to the attitude inventory under the supervision of the participating classroom teacher. In addition, the student's I.Q., grade level, sex, and father's occupation were recorded on the test booklet. A notation was also placed on each instrument indicating the type of textbook used by that student. After all the data were collected, the attitude inventory was hand scored and the results were recorded on data sheets along with the student information involving the other variables. All statistical computations necessary to this study were done by the North Texas State University Computer Center. Two statistical tests were used to check for relationships between student vocational bias and the other variables being examined. A t-test analysis was used to test for significant differences, and multiple regression analysis was done to more accurately determine what impact the various variables had on vocational attitudes.
An Analysis of Inter-Rater Reliability in Selection of Beginning Teachers
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of achieving reliability of administrative judgment in the selection of beginning teachers. This study has a threefold purpose. The first is to determine the type and extent of investigation necessary to achieve reliability of judgment in the ratings of teacher applicants. The second is to investigate the feasibility of a Regional Education Service Center's providing personnel selection services to independent school districts. The final purpose is to develop recommendations relating to reliability in teacher selection.
Predicting Achievement in American History at North Texas State University
The problem of this study was to determine the value of Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and high school percentile rank for predicting a student's achievement in American history at North Texas State University. The study also sought to determine what, if any, difference existed between male and female students, students of different ethnic backgrounds, and students of different semester classification with respect to learning achievement in American history.
A Comparison of Certain Personality Traits Between College Student Cigarette Smokers and Nonsmokers
This investigation seeks to determine whether certain personality traits of college students are related to their smoking habits. The purpose of the study is to determine whether significant personality differences exist among college students who can be classified as light smokers, heavy smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers and to determine the nature of the differences. The study involved four male experimental groups and four female experimental groups, assigned on the basis of sex and cigarette smoking habits as ascertained from a questionnaire. A total of 191 subjects from two junior colleges comprised the sample. The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS), and a questionnaire to obtain information on each subject's smoking habits were administered to the subjects at one sitting. Comparisons of the group means of each of the four classifications of smokers and nonsmokers were accomplished by a one-way analysis-of-variance design.
Operant Conditioning of Counselor Verbal Responses Through Radio Communication
The problem of this study was to determine whether using radio communication can facilitate learning in counseling practicums. This study had four purposes: 1. To determine whether the use of radio communication would be effective in providing positive reinforcement to the counselor during counseling sessions. 2. To determine whether the use of radio communication would be effective in enhancing the learning of facilitative responses by counselors in practicum situations. 3. To determine the effect of positive reinforcement on the student counselors' performance. 4. To provide information that might be beneficial with regard to future research involving the use of radio communication in counselor training.
A Study of the Relationship Between Romantic Love and Marital Adjustment in Middle-Class Couples
This study investigates the relationship between romantic love and marital adjustment in a sample of middle class couples. Romantic love is defined as a general disposition an individual has toward love, marriage, the family, and relationships involving male-female interaction in which the affective component is regarded as primary and all other considerations are excluded from conscious reflection. Marital adjustment is defined as the positive accomodation of husband and wife interacting within the framework of a legally established marital relationship. Middle socioeconomic class is operationally defined as a specific quantitative range on the Warner Index of Social Characteristics. This study examines the nature of any quantifiable relationship between romantic love and marital adjustment, current or future. Three views of this relationship are investigated. The first view contends that romanticism is functional, contributing to positive marital adjustment. The second is characterized by the belief that romantic love has a negative impact upon marital adjustment and is dysfunctional. A third view of the relationship between romantic love and marital adjustment suggests that the critical element determining dysfunctionality is the isparity between partners, rather than the individual level of romanticism. No author has heretofore considered this alternative.
The Development of a Rating Scale for Use by Texas School Board Members to Evaluate a Superintendent's Performance
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of developing a scale for rating a public school superintendent in Texas in terms of his adherence to selected characteristics of administrative leadership. A secondary problem is to verify the hypothesis that very few schools in Texas, if any, use a rating scale to evaluate the performance of the superintendent. The purpose of this study will be to identify a set of administrative leadership characteristics which are accepted by members of Boards of Trustees, professors of educational leadership, and superintendents.