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Ornament
In this debut collection, Anna Lena Phillips Bell explores the foothills of the Eastern U.S., and the old-time Appalachian tunes and Piedmont blues she was raised to love. With formal dexterity—in ballads and sonnets, Sapphics and amphibrachs—the poems in Ornament traverse the permeable boundary between the body and the natural world. The contents include: Midafternoon -- Qualifications for one to be climbed by a vine -- Trillium -- Ornament -- Piedmont -- Pears -- Fall swim -- Trifoliate orange -- Unhomemaking -- Mapping -- Girl at the state line -- I'm going back to North Carolina -- Unfinished story -- Limax maximus -- Knot -- The waxweed girl -- Wand -- Proem -- Strapless -- Dishwashing -- Shade -- Crosses -- Bonaparte crossing the Rhine -- Strike -- Green man -- And not look back -- Girl at the state line -- Stitch -- To do in the new year -- The royal typewriter company delivers by parachute, 1927 -- Sunday -- Nesting -- When the fire comes down from heaven -- Honeysuckle -- Early blackberries -- Roustabout -- Overture -- June swim -- Sprout wings and fly -- Hush.
Graham Barnett: A Dangerous Man
Graham Barnett was killed in Rankin, Texas, on December 6, 1931. His death brought an end to a storied career, but not an end to the legends that claimed he was a gunman, a hired pistolero on both sides of the border, a Texas Ranger known for questionable shootings in Company B under Captain Fox, a deputy sheriff, a bootlegger, and a possible “fixer” for both law enforcement and outlaw organizations. In real life he was a good cowboy, who provided for his family the best way he could, and who did so by slipping seamlessly between the law enforcement community and the world of illegal liquor traffickers. Stories say he killed unnumbered men on the border, but he stood trial only twice and was acquitted both times. Barnett lived in the twentieth century but carried with him many of the attitudes of old frontier Texas. Among those beliefs was that if there were problems, a man dealt with them directly and forcefully—with a gun. His penchant to settle a score with gunplay brought him into confrontation with Sheriff W. C. Fowler, a former friend, who shot Barnett with the latter’s own submachine gun on loan. One contemporary summed it up best: “Officers in West Texas got the best sleep they had had in twenty years that Sunday night after Fowler killed Graham.” The contents include: Graham Barnett 1890-1931, It was him or me -- 1890-1908 "He shot dove with a rifle" -- 1908-1913 "A fair man but he expected my brothers and me to live by his strict rules" -- 1912-1913 "When I put my hand in my pocket, he knew it was all over" -- 1914-1916 "I was shot all to pieces" -- 1914-1915 "I knew Graham was in some kind of trouble" -- 1915-1917 "Conspiring to steal ...
Stilwell and Mountbatten in Burma: Allies at War, 1943-1944
Stilwell and Mountbatten in Burma explores the relationship between American General Joseph “Vinegar Joe” Stilwell and British Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten in the China-Burma-India Theater (CBI) and the South East Asia Command (SEAC) between October 1943 and October 1944, within the wider context of Anglo-American relations during World War II. Using original material from both British and American archives, Jonathan Templin Ritter discusses the military, political, and diplomatic aspects of Anglo-American cooperation, the personalities involved, and where British and American policies both converged and diverged over Southeast Asia. Although much has been written about CBI, Stilwell and China, and Mountbatten, no published comparison study has focused on the relationship between the two men during the twelve-month period in which their careers overlapped. This book bridges the gap in the literature between Mountbatten’s earlier naval career and his later role as the last Viceroy of British India. It also presents original archival material that explains why Stilwell was so anti-British, including his 1935 memorandum titled “The British,” and his original margin notes to Mountbatten’s farewell letter to him in 1944. Finally, it presents other original archival material that refutes previous books that have accused Stilwell of needlessly sacrificing the lives of his men during the 1944 North Burma Campaign, merely out of hatred for the British.
Single Star of the West: The Republic of Texas, 1836-1845
Does Texas’s experience as a republic make it unique among the other states? In many ways, Texas was an “accidental republic” for nearly ten years, until Texans voted overwhelmingly in favor of annexation to the United States after winning independence from Mexico. Single Star of the West begins with the Texas Revolution and examines the emergence of a Texas identity. Next, several contributors discuss how the Republic was defended by its army, navy, and the Texas Rangers. Individual chapters focus on the early founders of Texas—Sam Houston, Mirabeau B. Lamar, and Anson Jones. Texas’s efforts at diplomacy, and persistence and transformation in its economy, also receive careful analysis. Finally, social and cultural aspects of the Texas Republic receive coverage, with discussions of women, American Indians, African Americans, Tejanos, and religion.
The Best American Newspaper Narratives, Volume 4
This anthology collects the ten winners of the 2016 Best American Newspaper Narrative Writing Contest at the Mayborn Literary Nonfiction Conference, an event hosted by the Frank W. Mayborn Graduate Institute of Journalism at the University of North Texas. First place winner: Stephanie McCrummen, “An American Void” (The Washington Post), focused on the friends of the alleged murderer of nine members of Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, North Carolina. Second place: Christopher Goffard, “Fleeing Syria: The Choice” (Los Angeles Times), is about a former dressmaker from Syria gaining asylum in Sweden for her family, but her husband and children were still in Turkey. Third place: Sarah Schweitzer, “The Life and Times of Strider Wolf” (Boston Globe), documented the difficult life of a six-year-old boy and his brother, who were rescued from near-fatal abuse and sent to live with their grandparents in campgrounds in Maine. Runners-up include Cynthia Hubert, “Genny’s World” (Sacramento Bee); Michael M. Phillips, “Inside an FBI Hostage Crisis” (The Wall Street Journal); Mark Johnson, “Patient, Surgeon Work Together” (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel); Howard Reich, “Norman Malone’s Quest” (Chicago Tribune); John Woodrow Cox, “Telling JJ” (The Washington Post); Maria Cramer, “The Boy Who Burned Inside” (Boston Globe); and Gina Barton, “Unsolved: A Murdered Teen, a 40-year Mystery” (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel).
Sutherland Springs, Texas: Saratoga on the Cibolo
In Sutherland Springs, Texas, Richard B. McCaslin explores the rise and fall of this rural community near San Antonio primarily through the lens of its aspirations to become a resort spa town, because of its mineral water springs, around the turn of the twentieth century. Texas real estate developers, initially more interested in oil, brought Sutherland Springs to its peak as a resort in the early twentieth century, but failed to transform the farming settlement into a resort town. The decline in water tables during the late twentieth century reduced the mineral water flows, and the town faded. Sutherland Springs’s history thus provides great insights into the importance of water in shaping settlement. Beyond the story of resort spa aspirations lies a history of the community and its people itself. McCaslin provides a complete history of Sutherland Springs from early settlement through Civil War and into the twentieth century, its agricultural and oil-drilling exploits alongside its mineral water appeal, as well as a complete community history of the various settlers and owners of the springs/hotel. The contents include: Setting a pattern -- Losing a generation -- Another start uphill -- Building new Sutherland Springs -- Century of decline -- Endnotes.
Ordered West: The Civil War Exploits of Charles A. Curtis
During the Civil War, Charles Curtis served in the 5th United States Infantry on the New Mexico and Arizona frontier. He spent his years from 1862 to 1865 on garrison duty, interacting with Native Americans, both hostile and friendly. Years after his service and while president of Norwich University, Curtis wrote an extensive memoir of his time in the Southwest. Curtis’s reminiscences detail his encounters with Indians, notable military figures, eccentrics, and other characters from the Old West—including Kit Carson—as well as the construction of Fort Whipple and expeditions against the Navajo and Apache. In Ordered West, editors Alan D. Gaff and Donald H. Gaff annotated the text with footnotes identifying people, places, and events, also adding pictures of key figures and maps.
All Over the Map: True Heroes of Texas Music
A lavishly illustrated collection of forty-two profiles of Texas music pioneers, most underrated or overlooked, All Over the Map: True Heroes of Texas Music covers the musical landscape of a most musical state. The first edition was published in 2005 to wide acclaim. This second edition includes updated information, a bonus section of six behind-the-scenes heroes, and fifteen new portraits of Lefty Frizzell, Janis Joplin, and others, spanning such diverse styles as blues, country, hip-hop, conjunto, gospel, rock, and jazz. D.J. Stout and Pentagram designed the reborn edition, with photographer Scott Newton providing portraits. Michael Corcoran has been writing about Texas music for more than thirty years, for the Dallas Morning News and Austin American Statesman, as well as in such publications as Texas Monthly and Spin. These pieces are based on his personal interviews with their subjects as well as in-depth research. Expertly written with flair, the book is a musical waltz across Texas. A Lone Star state of mind -- East Texas -- Soul Stirrers (Trinity). In search of Rebert Harris -- Harry Choates (Port Arthur). Death in a jail cell -- Barbara Lynn (Beaumont). The empress of Gulf Coast soul -- Janis Joplin (Port Arthur). Lust for love -- Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown (Orange). Count Basie of the blues -- Houston -- Geto Boys and D.J. Screw. Where the dirty South began -- Floyd Tillman. Honky tonk triple threat -- Milt Larkin Orchestra. Birth of the Texas tenors -- Archie Bell and the Drells with the Tsu Toronados. "Hey, everybody, that's me!" -- Dallas/ Fort Worth area -- Ray Price (Mount Pleasant). "The good times, my ass!" -- T-Bone Walker (Oak Cliff). Architect of electric blues -- Townes Van Zandt (Fort Worth). Poet -- Ella Mae Morse (Mansfield). "You sing like a black girl." -- King Curtis (Fort ...
Eavesdropping on Texas History
Mary L. Scheer has assembled fifteen contributors to explore special moments in Texas history. The contributors assembled for this anthology represent many of the “all stars” among Texas historians: two State Historians of Texas, two past presidents of TSHA, four current or past presidents of ETHA, two past presidents of WTHA, nine fellows of historical associations, two Fulbright Scholars, and seven award-winning authors. Each is an expert in his or her field and provided in some fashion an answer to the question: At what moment in Texas history would you have liked to have been a “fly on the wall” and why? The choice of a moment and the answers were both personal and individual, ranging from familiar topics to less well-known subjects. One wanted to be at the Alamo. Another chose to explore when Sam Houston refused to take a loyalty oath to the Confederacy. One chapter follows the first twenty-four hours of Lyndon Baines Johnson’s presidency after Kennedy’s assassination. Others write about the Dust Bowl coming to Texas, or when Texas Southern University was created.
Changing the Tune: The Kansas City Women’s Jazz Festival, 1978-1985
Even though the potential passage of the Equal Rights Amendment had cracked glass ceilings across the country, in 1978 jazz remained a boys’ club. Two Kansas City women, Carol Comer and Dianne Gregg, challenged that inequitable standard. With the support of jazz luminaries Marian McPartland and Leonard Feather, inaugural performances by Betty Carter, Mary Lou Williams, an unprecedented All-Star band of women, Toshiko Akiyoshi’s band, plus dozens of Kansas City musicians and volunteers, a casual conversation between two friends evolved into the annual Kansas City Women’s Jazz Festival (WJF). But with success came controversy. Anxious to satisfy fans of all jazz styles, WJF alienated some purists. The inclusion of male sidemen brought on protests. The egos of established, seasoned players unexpectedly clashed with those of newcomers. Undaunted, Comer, Gregg, and WJF’s ensemble of supporters continued the cause for eight years. They fought for equality not with speeches but with swing, without protest signs but with bebop. For the first book about this groundbreaking festival, Carolyn Glenn Brewer interviewed dozens of people and dove deeply into the archives. This book is an important testament to the ability of two friends to emphatically prove jazz genderless, thereby changing the course of jazz history. The Contents include: Crazy little women -- Everything's up to date in Kansas City -- Now's the time -- A beautiful friendship -- The first year, March 17-19, 1978 -- Summertime -- There's no business like show business -- Sweet Georgia Brown -- This could be the start of something big -- Spring can really hang you up the most -- Spring is here -- The second year, March 23-25, 1979 -- All of me -- Work song -- Blues Melba -- The more I see you -- You and the night and the music -- The third year, ...
Teaching Behavior Professionals to Use the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): A Preliminary Investigation
We assessed the implementation accuracy and fidelity of two board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) using the open-ended interview from Hanley. Participants interviewed a confederate using the open-ended interview, and were then asked to use information gathered from the interview to create operational definitions of target behaviors as well as test and control condition procedures for a subsequent matched test-control functional analysis as is characteristic of the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) strategy. Brief behavioral skills training (BST) was then implemented with all participants to increase the accuracy of constructing both target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures. Preliminary results show moderate rates of accuracy of target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures prior to BST, and high rates of accuracy following BST. The results also suggest high implementation fidelity on the open-ended interview may not be necessary to achieve high accuracy when constructing target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures.
"Second Life, Second Chance"
This is a collection of two stories, one fiction and one non-fiction, in communication with one another. Both stories explore how trauma can transform a life. In "Tabula Rasa," Mena is unable to recall her past after being beaten and left for dead. She must choose whether to uncover her past or forget it and move forward with her life. Set in a town run by witches, Mena learns that both choices are dangerous. In "Eternal Second," the narrator recounts the aftermath of her husband's suicide. She explores how trauma invades all aspects of her life. In both stories, women must navigate a new life created by the destruction of the old one.
A General Approach to Buhlmann Credibility Theory
Credibility theory is widely used in insurance. It is included in the examination of the Society of Actuaries and in the construction and evaluation of actuarial models. In particular, the Buhlmann credibility model has played a fundamental role in both actuarial theory and practice. It provides a mathematical rigorous procedure for deciding how much credibility should be given to the actual experience rating of an individual risk relative to the manual rating common to a particular class of risks. However, for any selected risk, the Buhlmann model assumes that the outcome random variables in both experience periods and future periods are independent and identically distributed. In addition, the Buhlmann method uses sample mean-based estimators to insure the selected risk, which may be a poor estimator of future costs if only a few observations of past events (costs) are available. We present an extension of the Buhlmann model and propose a general method based on a linear combination of both robust and efficient estimators in a dependence framework. The performance of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulations.
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Poly-Imine Ambipolar Ligands and Their Rhenium(I) Carbonyl Complexes
The phenomenon luminescence rigidochromism has been reported since the 1970s in tricarbonyldiimine complexes with a general formula [R(CO)3LX] using conventional unipolar diimine ligands such as 2,2;-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline as L, and halogens or simple solvents as X. As a major part of this dissertation, microwave-assisted synthesis, purification, characterization and detailed photoluminescence studies of the complex fac-[ReCl(CO)3L], 1, where L = 4-[4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-N,N-diethylbenzenamine are reported. The employment of microwaves in the preparation of 1 decreased the reaction time from 48 to 2 hours compared to the conventional reflux method. Stoichiometry variations allows for selective preparation of either a mononuclear, 1, or binuclear, fac-[Re2Cl2(CO)6], 2, complex. The photophysical properties of 1 were analyzed finding that it possesses significant luminescence rigidochromism. The steady state photoluminescence emission spectra of 1 in solution shift from 550 nm in frozen media to 610 nm when the matrix becomes fluid. Moreover, a very sensitive emission spectral analysis of 0.1 K temperatures steps shows a smooth transition through the glass transition temperature of the solvent host. Furthermore, synthetic modifications to L have attained a family of ambipolar compounds that have tunable photophysical, thermophysical and other material properties that render them promising candidates for potential applications in organic electronics and/or sensors - either as is or for their future complexes with various transition metals and lanthanides.
The King Arrives: Chinese Government Inspections and Their Effects
This dissertation studies a critical facet of Chinese politics, inspections by higher Chinese government to villages. Principally, it looks at how village economic development determines government inspection decisions and how inspections, once conducted, impact village politics. Specifically, I argue that villages perceived as destabilizing to the Chinese regime, villages with higher levels of economic inequality and villages located at the two extremes of economic development, should see more inspections. In addition, I argue that inspections, in return, drive village politics: they increase village leaders' governing efficacy and raise villagers' political awareness. This theory has received strong support from both field work and quantitative empirical tests using the Chinese Household Income Project (2002) dataset.
Mobile-Based Smart Auscultation
In developing countries, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are responsible for two million deaths per year. Most victims are children who are less than 5 years old. Pneumonia kills 5000 children per day. The statistics for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are even more alarming. According to a 2009 report from the World Health Organization (WHO), CVDs kill 17 million people per year. In many resource-poor parts of the world such as India and China, many people are unable to access cardiologists, pulmonologists, and other specialists. Hence, low skilled health professionals are responsible for screening people for ARIs and CVDs in these areas. For example, in the rural areas of the Philippines, there is only one doctor for every 10,000 people. By contrast, the United States has one doctor for every 500 Americans. Due to advances in technology, it is now possible to use a smartphone for audio recording, signal processing, and machine learning. In my thesis, I have developed an Android application named Smart Auscultation. Auscultation is a process in which physicians listen to heart and lung sounds to diagnose disorders. Cardiologists spend years mastering this skill. The Smart Auscultation application is capable of recording and classifying heart sounds, and can be used by public or clinical health workers. This application can detect abnormal heart sounds with up to 92-98% accuracy. In addition, the application can record, but not yet classify, lung sounds. This application will be able to help save thousands of lives by allowing anyone to identify abnormal heart and lung sounds.
A Systemic Model for Family Functioning: Mutual Influences of Spousal Attachment, Marital Adjustment, and Coparenting
The current study examined direct and indirect influences of romantic attachment processes, marital adjustment, and the coparenting relationship on family functioning. Data was collected from a community sample of 86 heterosexual couples with a child aged eight to eleven living in the home. Both spouses completed a demographic questionnaire, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Coparenting Scale, and the Self-Report Family Inventory as part of a larger study on family processes in middle childhood. Data analysis included multilevel modeling, utilizing the actor-partner interdependence model. Results indicated that marital adjustment mediated the association between attachment processes and family functioning, suggesting that a healthy marital relationship is an important variable that helps explain links between attachment security and the family functioning. Findings also highlighted the benefit of conceptualizing adult romantic attachment, marital, and coparental subsystems within a systemic framework.
"Momentarium"
"Momentarium" is a collection of poems that examines the instability of moments. By engaging with photography, the poems examine the strengths and flaws in representation. Qualified accuracy, in other words representations that exact no absolute authenticity, are paradoxically, most accurate. The original poems attempt to express both empathy an end to empathy, "I mean to give you what you cannot keep: a blue twice as true" and "I mean to give you what I cannot." The competing forces animate a contingent moment, before it becomes the past.
Effect of Surface Treatment on the Performance of CARALL, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Joints
Fiber-metal laminates (FML) are the advanced materials that are developed to improve the high performance of lightweight structures that are rapidly becoming a superior substitute for metal structures. The reasons behind their emerging usage are the mechanical properties without a compromise in weight other than the traditional metals. The bond remains a concern. This thesis reviews the effect of pre-treatments, say heat, P2 etch and laser treatments on the substrate which modifies the surface composition/roughness to impact the bond strength. The constituents that make up the FMLs in our present study are the Aluminum 2024 alloy as the substrate and the carbon fiber prepregs are the fibers. These composite samples are manufactured in a compression molding process after each pre-treatment and are then subjected to different tests to investigate its properties in tension, compression, flexural and lap shear strength. The results indicate that heat treatment adversely affects properties of the metal and the joint while laser treatments provide the best bond and joint strength.
Educational Uplift along the US-Mexico Border: How Students, Families, and Educators Cultivate a College-Going Culture in Contested Terrain
Using critical race theory and LatCrit as conceptual frameworks, I conducted a qualitative instrumental case study of a cadre of self-identified Mexican-American and Hispanic college students who bring college knowledge, goodwill, and aid to their border town communities. The purpose of this study was to explore how college knowledge and other forms of academic capital are transmitted and co-constructed in the contested terrain of the borderlands. Primary data sources included semi-structured interviews, participant and non-participant observation, and personal artifacts (e.g. newspaper articles, college admissions essays, social media, etc.) collected from 17 full-time undergraduate student participants, 11 males and 6 females, ranging from 19 to 22 years old, who were active members of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. Supplemental data sources included semi-structured interviews with 23 family members and 9 educators identified by student participants, as well as a review of public records regarding student participant's border town communities (e.g. newspaper articles, census data, educational statistics, etc.). Findings detail how this group of college students manages the 'scholar' distinction in their hometown and utilizes distinct methods to promote academic capital formation. Specifically, this study delineates the following four types of scholars: (1) pioneers, (2) guardians, (3) ambassadors, and (4) advocates. Ultimately, this research highlights the importance of college students' ingenuity in response to enduring system inequality in higher education, particularly along the U.S.-Mexico border, with implications for research theory, policy, and practice.
Professional Learning Communities: A Comparative Case Study of Shared Personal Practice
Effective instructional practice has a significant impact on student learning. Shared personal practice within a professional learning team (PLT) is one of the key elements in consistently improved instructional practice. However, this PLT characteristic is often the least evident and the hardest to absorb into PLT culture. This study examined the relational characteristics, facilitating factors, or barriers to shared personal practice within a PLT. Two PLTs in core subject areas across two Texas high school campuses were included in this comparative case study. Data from document analysis, PLC observations, focus group interviews, and in-depth individual interviews were examined thematically to answer the research questions guiding this study. The results of this study revealed that building strong relationships and an emphasis on collective creativity were strong predictors of sharing personal practice. Collective clarity on PLT practices and the purpose of sharing personal practice increased the success and occurrence of sharing personal practice. The results also revealed that the copious tasks of teaching and negative perceptions of being observed by colleagues hindered consistent sharing of personal practice. This study describes the current context of shared personal practice as a foundation for future studies to examine how practice can be transformed.
Developing a Self-Respect Instrument to Distinguish Self-Respect from Self-Esteem
Throughout the scientific literature, researchers have referred to self-respect and self-esteem as being the same construct. However, the present study advocated that they exist as two distinct constructs. In this quantitative study, an instrument was developed to measure self-respect as a construct, and subsequently distinguish that self-respect is distinct from the construct of self-esteem. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) indicated 32.60% of the variance was accounted for by the 11-item Jefferson Self-Respect instrument (JSR), which measured self-respect as a unidimensional construct. The reliability estimate of the scores from the JSR reached an acceptable α = .82. Fit indices (RMSEA = .031, SRMR = .037, CFI = .982, and TLI = .977) from the confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) signified a well-fitted hypothesized model of self-respect that existed as a unidimensional construct. Additionally, the CFA revealed that the construct of self-respect, and self-esteem was generally distinct, and the strength of the correlation between the two constructs was moderately positive (r = .62).
The Role of Thyroid Hormone across Avian Development Spectrum: Investigations on Systemic Development, Metabolism and Ontogeny of Endothermy
Achievement of endothernic capacity is vital for independence from ambient temperature changes, sustained activity, optimal biochemical reactions and optimization of parental care. During early avian development, the core tenets of transition from ectothermy to endothermy are development of metabolic capacity (oxygen consumption, mitochondrial bioenergetics), enhanced cardiovascular function (heart rate and cardiac output), pulmonary ventilation and thermogenic capacity. Thyroid hormones, particularly T3, are key metabolic regulators of basal metabolism, thermogenesis, pulmonary ventilation and mitochondrial respiration. Thyroid hormone fluctuation patterns during both precocial and altricial avian endothermic transition suggest a prominent role in maturation of endothermy, cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal muscle physiology. This body of work explores effects of T3 manipulations in two avian species: the precocial Pekin duck and the altricial Red-winged Blackbird. Increased plasma T3 during late incubation resulted in increased cardiac mass, elevated resting and intrinsic heart rate, intrinsic mean arterial pressure, increased cholinergic tone and blunted alpha-adrenergic tone in the precocial Pekin duck. In both Pekin duck and Red-winged blackbird, plasma T3 levels correlated with changes in the trajectory of endothermic ontogeny, systemic oxygen consumption, thermogenesis, maturation of pulmonary ventilatory function, altered growth and effects on skeletal and cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetics. These observations support the role of thyroid hormones as metabolic and developmental regulators at the time of attainment of endothermy during the perinatal period in precocial and altricial avian species. Insights into the role of thyroid hormone as a metabolic and development regulator at the time of avian endothermic attainment provide a more thorough understanding of metabolic and physical transitions a hatchling bird must undergo to reach the adult endothermic phenotype. Such insights also deepen understanding of the complex role thyroid hormones play in homeostasis and offer implications about the evolutionary history of endothermic capacity.
Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 into Blood Cells of Zebrafish: Potential for Genome Editing in Somatic Cells
Factor VIII is a clotting factor found on the intrinsic side of the coagulation cascade. A mutation in the factor VIII gene causes the disease Hemophilia A, for which there is no cure. The most common treatment is administration of recombinant factor VIII. However, this can cause an immune response that renders the treatment ineffective in certain hemophilia patients. For this reason a new treatment, or cure, needs to be developed. Gene editing is one solution to correcting the factor VIII mutation. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene editing introduces a double stranded break in the genomic DNA. Where this break occurs repair mechanisms cause insertions and deletions, or if a template oligonucleotide can be provided point mutations could be introduced or corrected. However, to accomplish this goal for editing factor VIII mutations, a way to deliver the components of CRISPR/Cas9 into somatic cells is needed. In this study, I confirmed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was able to create a mutation in the factor VIII gene in zebrafish. I also showed that the components of CRISPR/Cas9 could be piggybacked by vivo morpholino into a variety of blood cells. This study also confirmed that the vivo morpholino did not interfere with the gRNA binding to the DNA, or Cas9 protein inducing the double stranded break.
Electrochemical Deposition of Nickel Nanocomposites in Acidic Solution for Increased Corrosion Resistance
The optimal conditions for deposition of nickel coating and Ni-layered double hydroxide metal matrix composite coatings onto stainless steel discs in a modified all-sulfate solutions have been examined. Nickel films provide good general corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as a protective layer on many metallic substrates. In recent years, there has been interest in incorporation nano-dimensional ceramic materials, such as montemorillonite, into the metal matrices to improve upon the corrosion and mechanical properties. Layered double hydroxides have been used as corrosion enhancer in polymer coatings by increasing mechanical strength and lowering the corrosion rate but until now, have not been incorporated in a metal matrix by any means. Layered double hydroxides can be easily synthesized in a variety of elemental compositions and sizes but typically require the use of non-polar solvents to delaminate into nanodimensional colloidal suspensions. The synthesis of a Zn-Al LDH has been studied and characterized. The effects of the non-polar solvents dimethylformamide and n-butanol on the deposition and corrosion resistance of nickel coatings from a borate electrolyte bath have been studied, a nickel-LDH nanocomposite coating has been synthesized by electrochemical deposition and the corrosion resistance has been studied. Results indicate an improvement in corrosion resistance for the coatings with minimal change in the nickel matrix's internal strain and crystallite size.
Evolution of Precipitates and Their Influence on the Mechanical Properties of β-Titanium Alloys
Over the last few decades, body-centered-cubic (bcc) beta (β) titanium alloys have largely been exploited as structural alloys owing to the richness in their microstructural features. These features, which lead to a unique combination of high specific strength and ductility, excellent hardenability, good fatigue performance, and corrosion resistance, make these alloys viable candidates for many applications, including aerospace, automobile, and orthopedic implants. The mechanical properties of these alloys strongly depend on the various phases present; which can be controlled by thermomechanical treatments and/or alloy design. The two most important and studied phases are the metastable ω phase and the stable α phase. The present study focuses on the microstructural evolution and the mechanical behavior of these two phases in a model β-Ti alloy, binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy, and a commercial β-Ti alloy, β-21S. Microstructures containing athermal and isothermal ω phases in the binary Ti-12wt. %Mo alloy are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The formation and the evolution of the ω-phase based microstructures are investigated in detail via various characterization techniques such as SEM, TEM, and 3D atom probe tomography. The mechanical behavior was investigated via quasi-static tensile loading; at room and elevated temperatures. The effect of β phase stability on the deformation behavior is then discussed. Similar to the Ti-12wt. %Mo, the formation and the evolution of the athermal and isothermal ω phases in the commercial β-21S alloy was studied under controlled heat treatments. The structural and compositional changes were tracked using SEM, TEM, HR-STEM, and 3D atom probe tomography (3D-APT). The presence of additional elements in the commercial alloy were noted to make a considerable difference in the evolution and morphology of the ω phase and also the mechanical behavior of the alloys. The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) like effect was observed in iii this alloy at ...
Markov Model of Segmentation and Clustering: Applications in Deciphering Genomes and Metagenomes
Rapidly accumulating genomic data as a result of high-throughput sequencing has necessitated development of efficient computational methods to decode the biological information underlying these data. DNA composition varies across structurally or functionally different regions of a genome as well as those of distinct evolutionary origins. We adapted an integrative framework that combines a top-down, recursive segmentation algorithm with a bottom-up, agglomerative clustering algorithm to decipher compositionally distinct regions in genomes. The recursive segmentation procedure entails fragmenting a genome into compositionally distinct segments within a statistical hypothesis testing framework. This is followed by an agglomerative clustering procedure to group compositionally similar segments within the same framework. One of our main objectives was to decipher distinctive evolutionary patterns in sex chromosomes via unraveling the underlying compositional heterogeneity. Application of this approach to the human X-chromosome provided novel insights into the stratification of the X chromosome as a consequence of punctuated recombination suppressions between the X and Y from the distal long arm to the distal short arm. Novel "evolutionary strata" were identified particularly in the X conserved region (XCR) that is not amenable to the X-Y comparative analysis due to massive loss of the Y gametologs following recombination cessation. Our compositional based approach could circumvent the limitations of the current methods that depend on X-Y (or Z-W for ZW sex determination system) comparisons by deciphering the stratification even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available. These studies were extended to the plant sex chromosomes which are known to have a number of evolutionary strata that formed at the initial stage of their evolution, presenting an opportunity to examine the onset of stratum formation on the sex chromosomes. Further applications included detection of horizontally acquired DNAs in extremophilic eukaryote, Galdieria sulphuraria, which ...
"Developer"
A chapbook-length collection of poems.
Synthesis and Application of New Chiral Ligands for Enantioselectivity Tuning in Transition Metal Catalysis
A set of five new C3-symmetric phosphites were synthesized and tested in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric Suzuki coupling. The observed reactivity and selectivity were dependent upon several factors. One of the phosphites was able to achieve some of the highest levels of enantioselectivity in asymmetric Suzuki couplings with specific substrates. Different hypotheses have been made for understanding the ligand effects and reaction selectivities, and those hypotheses were tested via various methods including DOSY NMR experiments, X-ray crystallography, and correlation of catalyst selectivity with Tolman cone angles. Although only modest enantioselectivities were observed in most reactions, the ability to synthesis these phosphites in only three steps on gram scales and to readily tune their properties by simple modification of the binaphthyl 2´-substituents makes them promising candidates for determining structure-selectivity relationships in asymmetric transition metal catalysis, in which phosphites have been previously shown to be successful. A series of novel chiral oxazoline-based carbodicarbene ligands was targeted for synthesis. Unfortunately, the chosen synthetic route could not be completed due to unwanted reactivity of the oxazoline ring. However, a new and efficient route for Pd-catalyzed direct amination of aryl halides with oxazoline amine was developed and optimized during these studies. Chiral binaphthyl based Pd(II) ADC complexes with different substituent groups have been synthesized and tested in asymmetric Suzuki coupling reactions. Although only low enantioselectivities were observed in Suzuki coupling, this represents a new class of chiral metal-ADC catalysts that could be tested in further catalytic.
Stigma and Psychological Quality of Life in People Living with HIV: Self-Esteem as a Mediating Factor
Although the negative impact of HIV stigma is well documented, a gap exists in exploration of constructs that mediate the relationship between HIV stigma and psychological QOL (PQOL). Self-esteem is often conceptualized as a protective factor. We used PLS-SEM to explore the relationships between HIV stigma, PQOL and self-esteem, where PQOL and self-esteem are latent constructs represented by direct observations. Our hypotheses were supported - stigma is negatively related to self-esteem (as measured by self-blame, forgiveness of self, acceptance without judgment and self-esteem), self-esteem is positively related to PQOL (as measured by depression, mental health, QOL and perceived stress) and when the two aforementioned relationships are controlled for, a previously significant relation between stigma and PQOL changes its value significantly. These findings have implications for interventions designed to mitigate the negative psychosocial effects of stigma in PLH.
The Role of Cultural Self-Construal and Autonomy on Athlete Preference for Intervention
Self-construal (SC) refers to the way people perceive their identities in relation to self and others (Markus & Kitayama, 1991b). It has been found in the literature to influence thinking, decision-making, and preferences (e.g., Sung, Choi, & Tinkham, 2012) which suggests that a person's SC may affect her/his preference on psychological interventions. However, no empirical studies can be located that examined this relationship. The study examined the effects of independent SC, interdependent SC, general autonomy (GA), and sport autonomy (SA) on athletes' preferences and desire to use the interventions in the future, especially how these relations might vary as a function of the type of intervention. It was hypothesized that the relationship between each of the predictors and preference for and desire to use intervention would be moderated by the type of intervention received. Four hundred and thirty-one current and former athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire that measured SC, GA, and SA and were then randomly assigned to receive one of two self-talk interventions, representing either a self- or other-focused intervention. Participants were asked to rate their preference for and desire to use the given intervention in the future. Results found positive significant relationships with all predictors and intervention preference, in both self- and other-focused groups. Initial hierarchical multiple and logistic regression analyses did not support a significant moderation effect of intervention type on the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. However, a post-hoc analysis that conducted a hierarchical multiple regression with participants separated by gender found a significant moderation effect of intervention type on the relationship between independent SC and preference for intervention for females only. Additional post-hoc analyses were conducted to replicate Sung et al.'s (2012) analysis procedures in which the SC continuous variables were transformed into categorical ones, and ...
Design, Synthesis and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Coinage Metal-Based Functional Materials toward Potential Lighting, Display and Energy-Harvesting Devices
Groundbreaking progress in molecule-based optoelectronic devices for lighting, display and energy-harvesting technologies demands highly efficient and easily processable functional materials with tunable properties governed by their molecular/supramolecular structure variations. To date, functional coordination compounds whose function is governed by non-covalent weak forces (e.g., metallophilic, dπ-acid/dπ-base stacking, halogen/halogen and/or d/π interactions) remain limited. This is unlike the situation for metal-free organic semiconductors, as most metal complexes incorporated in optoelectronic devices have their function determined by the properties of the monomeric molecular unit (e.g., Ir(III)-phenylpyridine complexes in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)). This dissertation represents comprehensive results of both experimental and theoretical studies, descriptions of synthetic methods and possible application allied to monovalent coinage metal-based functional materials. The main emphasis is given to the design and synthesis of functional materials with preset material properties such as light-emitting materials, light-harvesting materials and conducting materials. In terms of advances in fundamental scientific phenomena, the major highlight of the work in this dissertation is the discovery of closed-shell polar-covalent metal-metal bonds manifested by ligand-unassisted d10-d10 covalent bonds between Cu(I) and Au(I) coinage metals in the ground electronic state (~2.87 Å; ~45 kcal/mol). Moreover, this dissertation also reports pairwise intermolecular aurophilic interactions of 3.066 Å for an Au(I) complex, representing the shortest ever reported pairwise intermolecular aurophilic distances among all coinage metal(I) cyclic trimetallic complexes to date; crystals of this complex also exhibit gigantic luminescence thermochromism of 10,200 cm-1 (violet to red). From applications prospective, the work herein presents monovalent coinage metal-based functional optoelectronic materials such as heterobimetallic complexes with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield, metallic or semiconducting integrated donor-acceptor stacks and a new class of Au(III)-based black absorbers with cooperative intermolecular iodophilic (I…I) interactions that sensitize the harvesting of all UV, all visible, and a broad spectrum of near-IR ...
Application of UV-Vis Spectroscopy to the Monitoring, Characterization and Analysis of Chemical Equilibria of Copper Etching Baths
The continuously increasing demand for innovation in the miniaturization of microelectronics has driven the need for ever more precise fabrication strategies for device packaging, especially for printed circuit boards (PCBs). Subtractive copper etching is a fundamental step in the fabrication process, requiring very precise control of etch rate and etch factor. Changes in the etching chemical equilibrium have significant effects on etching behavior, and CuCl2 / HCl etching baths are typically monitored with several parameters including oxidation-reduction potential, conductivity, and specific gravity. However, the etch rate and etch factor can be difficult to control even under strict engineering controls of those monitoring parameters. The mechanism of acidic cupric chloride etching, regeneration and recovery is complex, and the current monitoring strategies can have difficulty controlling the interlocking chemical equilibria. A complimentary tool, thin-film UV-Vis spectroscopy, can be utilized to improve the current monitoring strategies, as UV-Vis is capable of identifying and predicting etching behavior that the current standard methodologies have difficulty predicting. Furthermore, as a chemically-sensitive probe, UV-Vis can investigate the complex changes to the chemical equilibrium and speciation of the etch bath, and can contribute overall to significant improvements in the control of the copper etching system in order to meet the demands of next-level design strategies.
Narratives on College Access and Academic Undermatch: Understanding Latinx Students and Their Families
When students are academically qualified to attend a four-year college or university but instead enroll at a community college, they are considered academically undermatched. Research suggests that Latinx students are more likely to academically undermatch than their peers yet they remain the least likely to complete an upward transfer to a university and earn a baccalaureate degree. The purpose of this study was to explore the enrollment decisions of, and familial influences on, Latinx students who were admitted to a university but who initially enrolled at a community college. Using community cultural wealth and funds of knowledge as theoretical frameworks, I examined the narratives of 13 Latinx students and the parents of five of those students. Nine student participants were female and four were male, ranging from 19 to 31 years old. Parent participants were four females and two males, ranging from 43 to 52 years old. Findings from this study are divided into two parts. Student findings revealed navigating the pathway to college was fraught with limited information, even though students acknowledged they had access to resources and their high school counselors and teachers helped in the college search process. However, students still did not feel that crucial information they wanted or needed was available. Parent findings uncovered how parental aspirations and perceptions of opportunities in the United States served as a foundation for helping students aspire to attend college. Based on these findings, higher education practitioners would do well to use inclusive frameworks, such as community cultural wealth, to create programs that address Latinx students and their families, including providing materials in Spanish. Through use of inclusive frameworks, research on Latinx student college choice continues to elevate the complexities and realities these students encounter. Additionally, policymakers should continue to reevaluate the shifting burden of costs for higher education ...
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, Volume 48, Number 2, Summer 2017
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling is the official publication of the National Rehabilitation Counseling Association (NRCA). The JARC is published quarterly, Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter. JARC is a journal of opinion and research in professional rehabilitation counseling and addresses the needs of individuals employed in a wide variety of work settings and with wide-ranging professional interests. This edition of JARC sought to high light international trends and in the current issue (Vol. 48, No.2), the following articles were included: - Rehabilitation Needs of Refugees with Disabilities in the United States: Implications for Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors (Benson Kinyanjui, Veronica I. Umeasiegbu, and and Malachy L. Bishop), - Compassion and Self-compassion: Conceptualization of and Application to Adjustment to Disability (Susan Stuntzner), - Exploring the Costs of Providing Assistive Technology as a Reasonable Accommodation (Elisabeth B. Simpson, Beth Loy and Helen P. Hartnett), - Ecological Systems and Vocational Rehabilitation Service Provision for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Stephanie W. Cawthon, Bentley W. K. Fink, Rachel H. Tarantolo-Leppo, Erica M. Wendel, and Sarah J. Schoffstall), - Ethical Considerations for Working with Transition aged youth and Students with Disabilities Given the implications of WIOA (Mary-Anne M. Joseph, Kimberly Osmanu, and Kaylin Moss) . .
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, Volume 48, Number 1, Spring 2017
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling is the official publication of the National Rehabilitation Counseling Association (NRCA). The JARC is published quarterly, Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter. JARC is a journal of opinion and research in professional rehabilitation counseling and addresses the needs of individuals employed in a wide variety of work settings and with wide-ranging professional interests. This edition of JARC sought to high light international trends and in the current issue (Vol. 48, No.1), the following articles were included: - Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychiatric Rehabilitation: The Impact of Substance Use on Rehabilitation Consumer Success (Stephanie L. Lusk and and Jennifer Sánchez), - A Second Chance: Employers’ Perspectives in Hiring Individuals in Addiction Recovery (Alicia B. Becton, Roy K. Chen, and Teresia M. Paul), - Integrated Postsecondary Services and Supports for College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities (Lynn C. Koch, Ketevan Mamiseishvili, and Melissa Wilkins), - Rehabilitation Professionals’ Attitudes towards Medicinal Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study (Stephanie L. Lusk and Teresia M. Paul), - Exploring the Impact of Substance Use, Culture, and Trauma on American Indian Adolescents (Teresia M. Paul, Stephanie L. Lusk, Alicia Brown Becton, and Rachel Glade), - Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes Among Hispanics with Co-Occurring Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review (Jennifer Sánchez, Veronica Muller, Magdalena E. Garcia, Stephany N. Martinez, Scott T. Cool, and Elizabeth Gandarilla). .
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, Volume 47, Number 3, Fall 2016
Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling is the official publication of the National Rehabilitation Counseling Association (NRCA). The JARC is published quarterly, Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter. JARC is a journal of opinion and research in professional rehabilitation counseling and addresses the needs of individuals employed in a wide variety of work settings and with wide-ranging professional interests. This edition of JARC sought to high light international trends and in the current issue (Vol. 47, No.3), the following articles were included: - Assessing Community Functioning and Independent Living Skills of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness (Jennifer Sanchez, Fong Chan, Rana Yaghmaian, Ebonee T. Johnson, Joseph S. Pfaller, and Emre Umucu), - Physical and Mental Health Behaviors among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment (Jill L. Bezyak, Alena Clark, Chung-Yi Chiu, Fong Chan, and Nora Testerman) - Assessing Vocational Competency of People with Serious Mental Illness through Self-Report: A Brief Clinical Measure (Emre Umucu, Kanako Iwanaga, Sandra Fitzgerald, Kerry Thompson, Erin Moser, Jennifer Sanchez, Fong Chan, and Jessica Brooks), - Social Support and Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Cluster Analysis (Julie Chronister, Chih-Chin Chou, Sandra Fitzgerald, and Hsin-Ya Liao), - Measurement Structure of an Abbreviated and Modified Version of the Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Individuals with Severe Mental Illness (Jennifer Sanchez, Emre Umucu, Barbara Schoen, Erin F. Barnes, Fong Chan, and Jill L. Bezyak). .
Sustainable Ecofriendly Insulation Foams for Disaster Relief Housing
Natural disasters are affecting a significant number of people around the world. Sheltering is the first step in post-disaster activities towards the normalization of the affected people's lives. Temporary housing is being used in these cases until the construction of permanent houses are done. Disposal of temporary housing after use is leading to a significant environmental impact because most of them are filled with thermally insulative polymer foams that do not degrade in a short period. To reduce these problems this work proposes to use foams made with compostable thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) and degradable kenaf core as filler materials; these foams are made using CO2 as blowing agent for insulation purposes. Foams with PLA and 5%, 10% and 15% kenaf core were tested. Different properties and their relations were examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray μ-computed tomography (μ-CT) and building energy simulations were done using Energy Plus by NREL. The results show that mechanical properties are reduced with the introduction of kenaf core reinforcement while thermal conductivity display a noticeable improvement.
Effects of Student-Created Question Process on Learning Biomedical Statistics in a Specialized Master's in Medical Sciences
This study explored the effectiveness of a student question creation process engaging students actively in self, peer, and instructor interaction in development of affective, cognitive, and meta-cognitive skills. Employing a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design assigning both treatment and control activities sequentially in an alternating pattern over a six week period, students' performance on exams as well as their perceptions of various aspects of the student question creation process were used to evaluate the effectiveness of student-created questions (SCQs) activities as a cognitive strategy and to identify factors contributing to the effectiveness of question creation activities on students' learning. Subjects of this study were high performing and highly motivated graduate students in an 8-week online biomedical statistics course, part of a specialized master's program designed for medical school preparation. Survey findings and focus groups strongly supported the student question creation process as a facilitator of higher order thinking. However, the relatively short study duration, comparison of student question creation with another competing method for facilitating learning (discussion board) and not a pure control group, and availability of a common study guide course with student-created questions on all course topics may have muted assessment of the full impact of the strategy on learning. Although practically difficult in an education environment, further research to assess fully the impact of the student question creation strategy is desirable especially if these confounding factors can be greatly minimized, if not eliminated.
Case Studies to Learn Human Mapping Strategies in a Variety of Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures
Computer hardware and algorithm design have seen significant progress over the years. It is also seen that there are several domains in which humans are more efficient than computers. For example in image recognition, image tagging, natural language understanding and processing, humans often find complicated algorithms quite easy to grasp. This thesis presents the different case studies to learn human mapping strategy to solve the mapping problem in the area of coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs). To achieve optimum level performance and consume less energy in CGRAs, place and route problem has always been a major concern. Making use of human characteristics can be helpful in problems as such, through pattern recognition and experience. Therefore to conduct the case studies a computer mapping game called UNTANGLED was analyzed as a medium to convey insights of human mapping strategies in a variety of architectures. The purpose of this research was to learn from humans so that we can come up with better algorithms to outperform the existing algorithms. We observed how human strategies vary as we present them with different architectures, different architectures with constraints, different visualization as well as how the quality of solution changes with experience. In this work all the case studies obtained from exploiting human strategies provide useful feedback that can improve upon existing algorithms. These insights can be adapted to find the best architectural solution for a particular domain and for future research directions for mapping onto mesh-and- stripe based CGRAs.
"On the Precipice in the Dark": Maryland in the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861
This dissertation is a study of the State of Maryland in the secession crisis of 1860-1861. Previous historians have emphasized economic, political, societal, and geographical considerations as the reasons Maryland remained loyal to the Union. However, not adequately considered is the manner in which Maryland understood and reacted to the secession of the Lower South. Historians have tended to portray Maryland's inaction as inevitable and reasonable. This study offers another reason for Maryland's inaction by placing the state in time and space, following where the sources lead, and allowing for contingency. No one in Maryland could have known that their state would not secede in 1860-61. Seeing the crisis through their eyes is instructive. It becomes clear that Maryland was a state on the brink of secession, but its resentment, suspicion, and anger toward the Lower South isolated it from the larger secession movement. Marylanders regarded the Lower South's rush to separate as precipitous, dangerous, and coercive to the Old Line State. A focus on a single state like Maryland allows a deeper, richer understanding of the dynamics, forces, and characteristics of the secession movement and the federal government's response to it. It cuts through the larger debates about the causes of secession and instead focuses on the manner in which secession was carried out, the intended effect of it, the actual effect it generated in the vitally important state of Maryland, and what it all says about the nature of internal divisions in the South at large.
Characteristics of Mothers among Counselor Education Faculty
Pre-tenured faculty in higher education and as well as mothers have reportedly struggled with low wellness levels, high demands, little social support, and an imbalance of work and home life. Mothers in higher education and in counselor education have reported struggling with work-life balance, high scholarly productivity, and long hours as well as the emotional and physical energy demands of working with counselors-in-training. A search of the professional literature revealed a paucity of quantitative research regarding demographic characteristics, wellness levels, and social support levels of mothers among counselor education faculty (MCEs). Participants for this study were faculties of counselor education programs recruited from the Holland List of Counseling Programs and from the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs online directory. A total of 180 MCEs participated (aged 29-63, with mean age 40.6 years; 83% Caucasian, 8% other, 5% African American, 3% Hispanic, <1% Asian). Results showed that faculty rank did not account for a significant difference among wellness scores of MCEs and that reported social support, tenure or non-tenure track, number of children in the care of MCEs, number of children under age 8, number of publications, and teaching workload accounted for 14% of the variance in wellness levels of MCEs. Specifically, reported higher teaching workload (β = -.194, rs2 = .35, p = .012) and higher social support (β = -.258, rs2 = .36, p = <.001) were found to be significant predictors of lower wellness levels among MCEs, both with small effects. Based on these results, MCEs may benefit from advocating that their departments and universities adapt to their unique needs to improve their levels of wellness and social support through mentoring, which, in turn, may result in not only their own increased productivity but also their students' increased wellness levels.
Becoming Successful in Education: Beating the Odds, Despite a Background Entrenched in Poverty
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of three relationships on academic achievement in mathematics in students of poverty. The three factors that were examined included: teacher-student relationships, parent-student relationships and peer- student relationships. The driving question for the research was as follows: Do external factors such as teacher-student relationships, parent-student relationships and peer-student relationships lead to academic success for students of poverty? The study employed a non-experimental, quantitative approach and utilized longitudinal data from a national database High School Longitudinal Study (HSLS) used a sample of 944 public and private high schools across the USA. A total 0f 28,240 were represented in the survey. Of these 28,240 students, 2641 were used in this study as identified by parental income below the poverty threshold. The outcome of the study indicated that there was little or no correlation between the three relationships and mathematics achievement (academic success). Correlations between the dependent variable (math achievement) and the independent variables even though some were statistically significant their weights had no concrete significance. The study recommends that several initiatives can be instated in schools to support and enhance academic achievement in students of poverty.
Understanding Antecedents and Outcomes of Co-Creation in Service Innovation Setting
This dissertation uses service-dominant logic to understand customer value creation in service innovation context. Although co-creation became an interesting phenomenon among marketing scholars, the underlying mechanisms of co-creation process are still vague. To fill the gaps in the literature, we draw from S-D logic to understand antecedents and outcome of co-creation to service innovation context. The results of this study show that most of the hypotheses are supported, thus finding support for the overall model of value co-creation.
Structure Evolution and Nano-Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Multi-Principal Element Alloys
Bulk metallic glasses and multi-principal element alloys represent relatively new classes of multi-component engineering materials designed for satisfying multiple functionalities simultaneously. Correlating the microstructure with mechanical behavior (at the microstructural length-scales) in these materials is key to understanding their performance. In this study, the structure evolution and nano-mechanical behavior of these two classes of materials was investigated with the objective of fundamental scientific understanding of their properties. The structure evolution, high temperature nano-mechanical behavior, and creep of two Zr-based alloys was studied: Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22 (Vitreloy1) and Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6All0 (Vitreloy105). Devitrification was found to proceed via the formation of a metastable icosahedral phase with five-fold symmetry. The deformation mechanism changes from inhomogeneous or serrated flow to homogenous flow near 0.9Tg, where Tg is the glass transition temperature. The creep activation energy for Vitreloy1 and Vitreloy105 were 144 kJ/mol and 125 kJ/mol, respectively in the range of room temperature to 0.75Tg. The apparent activation energy increased drastically to 192 kJ/mol for Vitreloy1 and 215 kJ/mol for Vitreloy105 in the range of 0.9Tg to Tg, indicating a change in creep mechanism. Structure evolution in catalytic amorphous alloys, Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 and Pd43Cu27Ni10P20, was studied using 3D atom probe tomography and elemental segregation between different phases and the interface characteristics were identified. The structure evolution of three multi-principal element alloys were investigated namely CoCrNi, CoCrFeMnNi, and Al0.1CoCrFeNi. All three alloys formed a single-phase FCC structure in as-cast, cold worked and recrystallized state. No secondary phases precipitated after prolonged heat treatment or mechanical working. The multi-principal element alloys showed less strain gradient plasticity compared to pure metals like Ni during nano-indentation. This was attributed to the highly distorted lattice which resulted in lesser density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Dislocation nucleation was studied by low load indentation along with the evaluation of activation volume and activation energy. This was ...
Public Research Universities as Gendered Organizations: Institutional Rewards and the Faculty Salary Gap
Gendered organizational conditions create the context for persisting differences between men and women in the workplace. Within, higher education, this manifests as a salary gap between male and female faculty members. The academic capitalistic policy environment creates the conditions for increasing competition for external funding, especially in the areas of research and science and engineering. The change in the academic climate may sustain or intensify the gendering of universities as organizations. Universities with the highest level of research activity were chosen for this study and formed the 130 public institution sample. This study used fixed effects panel regression analysis to explore the relationship between the faculty gender salary gap and institutional emphasis on research as well as science and engineering. In addition, the relationship between institutional emphasis and the faculty gender salary gap was explored over time with the inclusion of a time trend and temporal interaction terms. Results showed that the higher the percentage of female faculty members, the greater the faculty gender salary gap for assistant professors. In addition, science and engineering emphasis over time had a significant impact on the professor salary gap with a decreasing effect both at the mean and one standard deviation above the mean, but with an increasing effect on the salary gap for institutions one standard deviation below the mean. When taking action to increase gender equity, it is important for universities to recognize that the faculty gender salary gap occurs in an organizational context impacted by institutional-level conditions.
The Impact of Causative Genes on Neuropsychological Functioning in Familial Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Mutations of three genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PSEN1), and presenilin-2 (PSEN2) have been shown to reliably result in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (FAD); a rare, but catastrophic, subtype of Alzheimer's disease (AD) marked by symptom emergence before age 65 as well as accelerated cognitive deterioration. The current study represents the first known meta-analysis on the association of APP, PSEN1 or PSEN2 on neurocognitive variables. A total of 278 FAD mutation-carriers (FAD-MC) and 284 cognitively healthy non-mutation-carriers (NC) across 10 independent investigations meeting inclusion criteria were chosen for the current meta-analysis (random effects design). Findings revealed an overarching trend of poorer performance by FAD-MC individuals compared to NC individuals across the majority of cognitive domains identified. Significant differences in effect sizes suggested FAD-MC individuals exhibited worse performance on measures of attention, explicit memory, fluency, primary memory, verbal, and visuospatial functioning. Findings indicative of differential sensitivity to cognitive domain impairments across FAD-MC and NC groups inform neuropsychological descriptions of individuals in preclinical phases of FAD.
Misrecognized and Misplaced: Race Performed in African American Literature, 1900-2015
In my dissertation, I explore the ways in which racial identity is made complex through various onlookers' misrecognition of race. This issue is particularly important considering the current state of race relations in the United States, as my project offers a literary perspective and account of the way black authors have discussed racial identity formation from the turn of the century through the start of the twenty-first century. I highlight many variations of misrecognition and racial performance as a response to America's obsession with race.
Reinforcing Variability Produces Stereotypic Behavior
Behaving in novel ways is essential to the development of the types of complex performances described by the term creativity, problem solving, and perseverance. Some research suggests that response variability is an operant and a critical component of novel behavior. However, other account of novel behavior may be more parsimonious. Topographical variability has rarely been examined, nor has operant variability with organisms with baselines featuring stereotypic responding. This study examined the effects of a variability-specifying contingency on the cumulative novel responses of undergraduate students. Using the PORTL apparatus, participants interacted with a ball with a single hand. When the variability-specifying contingency was in effect, novel topographies were reinforced. When a reinforce every response condition was implemented, the participants did not emit any novel responses. When variability-specifying contingencies were in effect, novel responses were rarely followed by subsequent novel responses. They were mostly followed by repeated emission of the same topography, or by other previously emitted topographies. Novel responding did not persist long, although the variability-specifying contingency remained in effect and the potential for novel responding was great. The variability-specifying contingency often resulted in stereotypic response chains. Each of these findings call into the question the assertion that variability is an operant and suggests other possible explanations for the observed novelty.
Exceptional Properties in Friction Stir Processed Beta Titanium Alloys and an Ultra High Strength Steel
The penchant towards development of high performance materials for light weighting engineering systems through various thermomechanical processing routes has been soaring vigorously. Friction stir processing (FSP) - a relatively new thermomechanical processing route had shown an excellent promise towards microstructural modification in many Al and Mg alloy systems. Nevertheless, the expansion of this process to high temperature materials like titanium alloys and steels is restricted by the limited availability of tool materials. Despite it challenges, the current thesis sets a tone for the usage of FSP to tailor the mechanical properties in titanium alloys and steels. FSP was carried out on three near beta titanium alloys, namely Ti6246, Ti185 and Tiβc with increasing β stability index, using various tool rotation rates and at a constant tool traverse speed. Microstructure and mechanical property relationship was studied using experimental techniques such as SEM, TEM, mini tensile testing and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Two step aging on Ti6246 had resulted in an UTS of 2.2GPa and a specific strength around 500 MPa m3/mg, which is about 40% greater than any commercially available metallic material. Similarly, FSP on an ultra-high strength steel―Eglin steel had resulted in a strength greater than 2GPa with a ductility close to 10% at around 4mm from the top surface of stir zone (SZ). Experimental techniques such as microhardness, mini-tensile testing and SEM were used to correlate the microstructure and properties observed inside SZ and HAZ's of the processed region. A 3D temperature modeling was used to predict the peak temperature and cooling rates during FSP. The exceptional strength ductility combinations inside the SZ is believed to be because of mixed microstructure comprised of various volume fractions of phases such as martensite, bainite and retained austenite.