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The Effect of Cognitive Development and Premarital Sexual Permissiveness on Adolescent Pregnancy

Description: A literature review revealed 15 variables as commonly studied as associated with adolescent pregnancy. The research showed conflicting results in many of these areas. Twenty-one pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adolescents were tested using the Arlin Test of Formal Reasoning (ATFR) and the Reiss's Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale. Pregnant participants were expected to score lower than non-pregnant participants on the ATFR; and, the low permissives (based on responses to the Reiss's Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale) were expected to score higher than high permissives on the ATFR. However, the results did not support the hypotheses. Several areas were examined for exploratory purposes. There was a significant difference between high permissives and low permissives for parent/peer orientation for sexual behavior attitudes. Additional exploratory demographic information was collected using a General Information Questionnaire.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Powers, Pamela Kay

Childbirth and Locus of Control: The Role of Perceived Control in the Choice and Utilization of Birthing Alternatives

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wives' perceptions of personal control over the process of childbirth were related to couples' choices and utilization of three birthing alternatives (home birth, unmedicated hospital birth, and medicated hospital birth). The wives' perceived control over the childbirth process was expected to vary inversely with the level of medical intervention in the birthing alternative chosen. The home birth mothers were expected to perceive themselves as having more control over childbirth than were the unmedicated hospital group mothers, and the unmedicated hospital group mothers more than the medicated hospital group mothers. The husbands' perception of their wives' perceived control in childbirth and their participation was also measured.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Dawson-Black, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann)

Sexual Function in Women Following Treatment for Cervical Dysplasia and Microinvasive Cervical Carcinoma

Description: One hundred women aged 20 to 50 were asked to compare their sexual experience before diagnosis and following treatment for benign and malignant cervical disease. The subjects were divided into five groups: three groups had definite cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), (Class II or III). Two groups were treated with cryotherapy, and one with hysterectomy. One group had a provisional diagnosis of CIN I, but received no treatment. Subjects in the last group had microinvasive cervical carcinoma and were also treated with hysterectomy. All subjects had ovarian function; all were sexually active at the time of treatment. They were interviewed at least six months post-cryotherapy and 15 months post-hysterectomy. All subjects completed a variant version of the Derogatis Sexual Function Inventory (DSFI).
Date: August 1985
Creator: Burgess, Carolyn E.

Allocation of Attention: Effects on Classical Conditioning

Description: According to Deikman (1966), meditation (defined as a training to sustain attention) has a deautomatizing effect. This ascertion was utilized in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A sample of 48 college students was selected and randomly assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning background situation. The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non—switching conditions.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Michel, Sergio B. (Sergio Barboza)

Environmental Effect: Activator of the Psychotic Process

Description: The purpose of the present study was to determine specific psychotic factors associated with environmental sensitivities, the changes in those tendencies occurring with ecological treatment and the extent to which those behaviors could be attributed to the chronicity of the illness. An inpatient group of 42 environmental patients was compared to an inpatient population of 20 chronic spinal pain patients. Instruments utilized in the study included the Bender Gestalt Test of Motor Ability, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with the Harris and Lingoe subscales, and three subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Digit Symbol, Object Assembly, and Block Design. Data was analyzed via multivariate analysis of covariance, analysis of covariance, canonical analysis, and t tests for related and independent means.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Milam, Melody J. (Melody Joy)

The Effects of Maternal Employment and Family Life Cycle Stage on Women's Psychological Well-Being

Description: The study examined the impact of maternal employment and family life cycle stage on the psychological well-being o£ middle socioeconomic status women. One hundred twenty eight mothers of children at the stages of birth to 6 years, 7 to 12 years and 13 to 17 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. To test the hypothesis of the study, a 3 X 3 (employment X family life cycle stage) analysis of covariance was conducted with age, income, time employed and psychological resources as covariates. Results indicated that middle socioeconomic status mothers employed full-time experienced significantly higher levels of role overload, occupational strain, spouse support and job commitment. A post hoc exploratory analysis using conflict level between commitment to work and parenting, yielded data which indicated that individuals with a large discrepancy between commitment to one role versus the other, experienced the greatest degree of difficulty. Results were evaluated in the light of selective characteristics of the sample. Recommendations for future research included the use of projective assessment to reduce the effect of defensive response styles. A life span approach using the concept of perceived conflict between roles was advanced, instead of the age specific developmental construct of family life cycle stage.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Marcus, Suzanne

Effects of Parenting on Marital Quality: A Causal Analysis

Description: A theoretical model of eleven antecedents of marital quality (education, family life cycle, sex, work status, sex role attitude, social network, role accumulation, role conflict, parental competence, parental strain, and marital strain) was developed and tested using Path Analysis. Subjects were 119 married couples (238 individuals) who had at least one child. They completed the Parental and Marital Interaction Questionnaire which had measures for each of the antecedent variables.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Otero de Sabogal, Regina

The Influence of Hypnotically-Induced Elevation of Mood on Learned Helplessness Deficits

Description: This study evaluated the efficacy of hypnoticallyinduced mood elevation techniques for individuals exposed previously to an experimental learned helplessness condition. The treatment conditions in this investigation included the mood elevation with hypnotic induction group as well as a mood elevation group without the benefit of hypnotic induction. As experimental controls, a group was exposed to hypnotic relaxation and an attention-only treatment group was used. Measures of treatment success included the administration of•the Depression Adjective Checklist, backward digit span, and five—letter anagrams. In a series of factorial analysis of variance procedures no significant interaction was noted although the main effect for the presence of hypnotic induction was significant with the Depression Adjective Checklist. Post hoc analysis to examine gender differences demonstrated no significant performance discrepancy between the sexes. Limitations of the study were explored and avenues of further research discussed.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Tassey, John Richard

A Comparison of the MMPI, Faschingbauer's Abbreviated MMPI and the MMPI-168 with Selected Medical Patients and Medical School Applicants

Description: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is often used for evaluating candidates for gastric bypass surgery, chronic pain patients, head trauma victims, and medical school applicants. However, due to the considerable time involved in completing and scoring the standard MMPI, researchers have attempted to devise short versions of this instrument to reduce the time required while providing similar results. In recent years, the Faschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI (FAM) and the MMPI-16 8 have been proposed as viable MMPI substitutes. The present study examined the comparability between profiles using these short versions of the MMPI with the patterns obtained using the entire measure. Participants consisted of equal numbers of gastric bypass candidates, chronic pain patients, head trauma victims, and medical school applicants. Scores on the FAM tended to be similar to scores on the complete MMPI for gastric bypass, chronic pain and head trauma patients. In contrast, the MMPI-16 8 yielded profiles which were similar to complete MMPI profiles with chronic pain and head trauma patients.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Martin-Cannici, Cynthia Elaine

The Differential Effects of Left Ear Versus Right Ear Versus Both Ears Input Under Biofeedback or Relaxation Tape Conditions in Lowering Frontales Electromyographic Levels

Description: This investigation focused on two major areas of investigation, (a) the differentiation of functions between the two cerebral hemispheres and (b) the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback versus relaxation tape input as methods of lowering levels of arousal. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of EMG biofeedback and relaxation tape input to the right ear only, to the left ear only and to both ears in a strongly lateralized population. Subjects were 56 students recruited from undergraduate psychology classes. To be included in the study, subjects had to score at minimum, and Edinburgh Handedness Inventory Laterality Quotient of 68, Declie = Right 3, and had to demonstrate a right ear advantage on the Dichotic Listening Task for Words.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Ginn, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

Post-Traumatic Changes in Perceptions of Purpose in Life and Three Dimensions of Locus of Control in Stroke and Hip Surgery Patients

Description: A survey of stress and crisis literature indicated traumatic events tend to initially overwhelm individual coping resources. The adjustment process following such events appears to be characterized by phases in which gradual perceptual and cognitive reorganization occurs. Emotional shock, denial processes, and intrusive ideation accompany initial phases. A survey of stress and crisis literature indicated traumatic events tend to initially overwhelm individual coping resources. The adjustment process following such events appears to be characterized by phases in which gradual perceptual and cognitive reorganization occurs. Emotional shock, denial processes, and intrusive ideation accompany initial phases.
Date: May 1984
Creator: McGraw, Richard Michael

The Social Judgement Scale of Body Composition

Description: Obesity has been referred to as a common and chronic medical condition in our society. It has been associated, directly or indirectly, with numerous medical complications. These have included increased risk of cardiovascular problems, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, problems during pregnancy and delivery, and low back pain. Psychological complications of obesity have included emotional problems, body image disturbances, and discrimination practices. The literature has utilized numerous methods to measure body composition, particularly according to the underweight overweight continuum. However, these methods have not taken into consideration the importance of social judgement. A scale was needed to further define desirable/undesirable body composition in a way more traditional definitions have not attempted.
Date: May 1984
Creator: DuBois, Keith Eric

Indices of Criminal Thinking: Criminals v. Noncriminals, Males v. Females, and Anglos v. Chicanas/Chicanos

Description: Assessment research of forensic populations has largely dealt with finding differences within criminal types. Fourteen of the studies reviewed found no significant differences between types of criminals on test performance. Two of these fourteen found no differences between criminals and noncriminals . The Criminal Thinking Model developed by Yochelson and Samenow proposed a continuum of criminality with every person falling somewhere between the two poles of responsibility and irresponsibility. Perhaps one reason previous research failed to discriminate differences was because they had failed to first establish if criminals differed from noncriminals.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Diaz, Petra Alvarez

Pregnancy-Resolution Correlates: An Exploratory Study into Demographic and Personality Variables

Description: This study was designed to explore possible demographic and personality correlates of pregnancy-resolution alternatives. A total of 146 female college students were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Intrinsic Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale, a demographic questionnaire, and a Pregnancy-Resolution Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of the chi-square statistic and discriminant analysis.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Nystrom, Bruce D. (Bruce David)

Psychological Consequences of Causal Attributions of Social Success and Failure: An Analysis in Terms of Social Anxiety

Description: This study attempted to extend the concept of achievement motivation, as proposed by Weiner's attributional model, to social affiliative contexts. It was proposed that low social anxiety individuals behave like high achievement motivation individuals who make more self-attributions for success, but more external attributions for failure, whereas high social anxiety individuals take more personal responsibility for failure social outcomes, but make more external attributions when successful. Subjects were 243 undergraduate students, 143 females and 100 males. They completed the Leary Social Anxiety Scale, the Lefcourt Affiliation Locus of Control Scale, the Fenigstein Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Attribution Scale, and the Russell Causal Dimension Scale.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Sabogal, Fabio

Assessment of Visual Memory and Learning by Selective Reminding

Description: A test of free recall visual memory and learning was developed for the present study. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of the Visual Selective Reminding Test and the Verbal Selective Reminding Test for differentiating among groups of patients having memory impairments with organic etiologies. It was hypothesized that neurologically impaired patients would perform differently on the Visual and Verbal Selective Reminding Tests, the difference depending on the location of the underlying brain damage. Forty right handed male patients at a Veterans Administration hospital served as subjects. The patients were grouped according to the location of their brain damage; left hemisphere, right hemisphere, diffuse damage, and no brain damage. There were 10 patients in each group. Each patient was given the verbal and the visual memory tests in counterbalanced order and the Shipley estimate of intelligence.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cummins, Shirley Jean

A Comparison of Homosexual and Heterosexual Attitudes Toward the Etiology and the Public Practice of Homosexuality

Description: One purpose of this primarily exploratory study was to explore whether differences in beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality exist between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals. Another purpose was to investigate whether differences exist between groups in the extent to which they feel that it is appropriate to manifest homosexual behaviors in public. Finally, this study examined the question of whether a relationship exists between one's perception of the cause of homosexuality and the degree to which that person felt it was appropriate to manifest homosexual behaviors.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Myers, Emilie J. (Emilie Joyner)

Computer Games: Psychomotor Sequelae and Personological Covariates

Description: This study investigated the relationship between the degree of involvement with video games of 72 male university students with performance on pilot screening tests of psychomotor abilities, perceptual abilities, and cognitive style, and also with several personological variables, school performance, locus of control, sociability, and social presence. Additionally, the effects of experience with a video game on the learning of perceptual and psychomotor skills was examined for different levels of previous computer game involvement. It was found that those students who began playing at earlier ages and who more recently played the most demonstrated increased psychomotor abilities, and those abilities appeared to be enhanced by video game play. Greater amounts of time per week spent with computer games were found to correlate with increased facility in learning perceptual skills on computerized instrumentation, and with relative underachievement in school. No systematic relationship was found between degree of video game involvement and measures of sociability, social presence, and field dependence-independence. The study concluded that computer games may have effects upon those individuals who play them, but the effects may not be as negative as many people believe.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cordes, Dale S. (Dale Sheryl)

Determinants of Coping Strategies and Seeking Counseling Among Older Adults

Description: This study investigated older persons' perception of the negative impact of ill health, retirement, and widowhood in relation to the mobilization of relevant coping mechanisms. In addition, the relationship of coping mechanisms and dissatisfaction with current gender-role identity to seeking counseling was studied. A distributed questionnaire package provided demographic data as well as information pertaining to satisfaction in various areas of life, impact of live events, and coping style. Subjects were 54 males and 67 females aged 50 to 92. Safeguards were taken to ensure complete confidentiality and anonymity of response. Stepwise multiple regression (listwise deletion of data), multivariate and univariate analysis of variance and bivariate correlational analyses of the data were performed, suggesting that perception of negative impact of the events measured (ill health, widowhood, retirement) was related a) to employing numerous useful coping strategies, b) to low dyadic satisfaction, and c) to low life satisfaction. Analyses also suggested that variables which distinguished those in the sample who sought counseling were a) identity discrepancy (wherein Ideal exceeded Real) on the Masculine and Androgynous dimensions, b) employing fewer Coping with Health strategies, and c) employing more Coping with Retirement strategies. These variables also distinguished males who sought counseling, but only the variable Age, distinguished females, who sought counseling from those who do not.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cole, Carolyn Fillis

Effect of Anterior or Ventromedial Hypothalamic Stimulation on Immunoglobulin G

Description: Although research has linked central nervous system activity with changes in immunoresponsivity, research on the possible role of the central nervous system in altering a specific class of antibody is lacking. This study was an investigation of the possible relationship between anterior or medial hypothalamic functions on Immunoglobulin G. concentrations in rat serum. Thirty-six male albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups of equal size. Animals within the anterior hypothalamic group received bilateral electrode implants in the anterior hypothalamus while animals in the medial hypothalamic group received electrode implants within the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus. A control group received bilateral electrode implants within the lateral hypothalamus. Electrical brain stimulation was administered to animals in both experimental groups. Control animals spent a comparable time in an operant chamber but did not receive electrical brain stimulation. Following brain stimulation of animals within the experimental groups, Immunoglobulin G. concentrations were determined for all groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-stimulation sessions.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Lambert, Paul L. (Paul Louis)

The Effects of Reframing and Self-Control Statements on Loneliness, Depression and Controllability

Description: Reframing, a therapy technique which allows the therapist to restate a situation or problem so that it is perceived in a new way, has received considerable attention recently because of its purported positive effects on the therapeutic process. The increase in the use of reframing has taken place despite an absence of empirical confirmation of its effectiveness. Proponents of reframing comment on its usefulness early in the therapeutic process as a means for helping clients to more positively view their symptomatic behavior, to experience some affective relief, to shift toward an increased sense of control regarding their symptoms, and to view their counselor and their expectations for counseling more positively. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of reframing and selfcontrol responses on the subjects' expressed degree of loneliness, depression, and perceived control of loneliness. In addition, effects of these interventions on the subjects' ratings of the interviewers and the subjects' expectations regarding counseling were explored.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Garber, Ronald Alan

The Irritable Bowel Syndrome a Dietary and Multi-Element Psychological Approach to Its Treatment

Description: The present study sought to determine whether a dietary and multi-element psychological treatment (DMPT) approach in combination with standard medical treatment would offer a more efficacious therapeutic package to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients than would standard medical treatment (SMT) employed alone. The DMPT group (N = 19) received a stress management training package for a 2 week period consisting of relaxation training, imagery, and bowel sound biofeedback training via a stethoscope, in addition to instructions to increase their daily consumption of dietary fiber. They also were to continue the implementation of whatever standard medical treatment they were currently receiving, be it a bulking agent, or anti-anxiety, anti-cholinergic, or anti-depressant medications, etc. The SMT group (N = 19) simply received whatever conventional medical treatment they had been prescribed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gray, Steven Garland

Olfactory Preferences in Human Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between olfactory preferences and sexual orientation in Heterosexual, Entire Life lesbian, and Adopted Lifestyle lesbian women. Research in the area of olfaction and sexual behavior was reviewed and, on the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that Heterosexual women would prefer male odors, Entire Life lesbian women would prefer female odors, and Adopted Lifestyle lesbian women would prefer male odors more than Entire Life lesbians. The design involved having female subjects sniff male and female odors and indicate a preference for either the male or female odor. The odor samples were human apocrine gland secretions obtained by having odor donors wear gauze pads in their armpits. The odor collected on the pads was then stabilized through applications of alcohol and subsequent freezing.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Stange, Judy L. (Judy Lynne)

Psychotherapy Pre-Training Using an Introductory Document Offering a Choice as to Therapeutic Framework

Description: Previous attempts to alter client expectancy and behavior using brief therapy introduction documents have yielded mixed results. This paper reports on the clinical evaluation of such a document which presented individual therapy clients with suggested in-therapy behaviors and offered them a choice as to therapeutic framework. The document told clients that they would be allowed to choose between short term and long term therapy, but woven into the descriptions of these alternatives were repetitions of suggestions for in-therapy behaviors which were intended to positively alter the therapy process and the clients' attitudes toward it. A third choice, no therapy at all, provided the opportunity to present information about what therapy would not offer (medical treatment, direct advise, etc.). Twenty-nine adult subjects (14 experimental, 15 control) were given either the experimental document or a control document (offering no suggested behaviors and no choices) immediately following their initial intake appointment at the North Texas State University Community Psychology Clinic.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Smith, Albert Hill