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Psychological Consequences of Causal Attributions of Social Success and Failure: An Analysis in Terms of Social Anxiety

Description: This study attempted to extend the concept of achievement motivation, as proposed by Weiner's attributional model, to social affiliative contexts. It was proposed that low social anxiety individuals behave like high achievement motivation individuals who make more self-attributions for success, but more external attributions for failure, whereas high social anxiety individuals take more personal responsibility for failure social outcomes, but make more external attributions when successful. Subjects were 243 undergraduate students, 143 females and 100 males. They completed the Leary Social Anxiety Scale, the Lefcourt Affiliation Locus of Control Scale, the Fenigstein Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Attribution Scale, and the Russell Causal Dimension Scale.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Sabogal, Fabio

Psychotherapy Pre-Training Using an Introductory Document Offering a Choice as to Therapeutic Framework

Description: Previous attempts to alter client expectancy and behavior using brief therapy introduction documents have yielded mixed results. This paper reports on the clinical evaluation of such a document which presented individual therapy clients with suggested in-therapy behaviors and offered them a choice as to therapeutic framework. The document told clients that they would be allowed to choose between short term and long term therapy, but woven into the descriptions of these alternatives were repetitions of suggestions for in-therapy behaviors which were intended to positively alter the therapy process and the clients' attitudes toward it. A third choice, no therapy at all, provided the opportunity to present information about what therapy would not offer (medical treatment, direct advise, etc.). Twenty-nine adult subjects (14 experimental, 15 control) were given either the experimental document or a control document (offering no suggested behaviors and no choices) immediately following their initial intake appointment at the North Texas State University Community Psychology Clinic.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Smith, Albert Hill

Race of Interviewer, Cultural Mistrust Level and Type of Problem on Ratings of Rapport Among Black Students

Description: This study was to explore the relationship between race of interviewer, cultural mistrust level and type of problem upon black students' ratings of an initial interview. It was hypothesized that the combination of interviewer's race, mistrust level and the type of problem discussed would significantly influence students' ratings of the interviewer. Initially, 12 4 black students were administered the Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI). Based upon CMI scores, participants were divided into groups of high and low cultural mistrust. Next, half of these participants were interviewed by one of five white interviewers and the remainder were interviewed by one of five black interviewers. Within each of these groups, half of the participants were asked to discuss problems with their racial identity and the others were asked to discuss their vocational aspirations. After the session, each subject rated the interviewer on the Counselor Evaluation Inventory, Counselor Rating Form and Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Stephens, Jacqualene J. (Jacqualene Jones)

Relationship of Self-Acutalization and Marital Models to Marital Adjustment

Description: The present study was an attempt to further investigate what factors contributed to whether married individuals defined their relationship as traditional or nontraditional. The project, moreover, explored what variables affected marital adjustment levels. The variables whose effects were assessed regarding whether married individuals defined their relationship as traditional or nontraditional included self-actualization and presence or absence of children. The factors examined thought to affect marital adjustment levels were self-actualization, subjective definition of the relationship as traditional or nontraditional, and presence or absence of children.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Caswell, Lucy

Relationships of Sex-Role Identification, Self-Esteem and Attitudes Toward Women to Responses on a Scale of Sexist Humor

Description: Theories and research in the field of disparaging humor were reviewed, and sexist humor was studied as representative of this field. The relationships of sex-role identification, self-esteem, and attitudes toward women to the judgement of humor in sexist material were investigated. The Scale of Sexist Humor, developed for this investigation, utilized a set of 50 cartoons and jokes devised to approximate overlapping standard curves on the dimensions of sexist content and humor. Subjects were 57 males and 70 female undergraduate students. Each subject performed a forced Q^-sort of the cartoons and jokes, thereby rating them on a five-point scale of funniness, then completed instruments designed to evaluate sex-role identification (the Personal Attributes Questionnaire), self-esteem (The Texas Social Behavior Inventory), and attitudes toward women (the Attitudes Toward Women Scale), A demographic information sheet was also obtained from each subject to utilize in ancillary analysis.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gravley, Norma J. (Norma Jean)

Rule Utilization and Rule Shift: A Developmental Study

Description: Current rule-utilization research indicated that subjects successively tested multiple conceptual rules, available from natural preexperimental experience, to solve a sorting task. Prior results suggested that older subjects were more efficient in utilizing rules and shifting to unused rules, possibly due to the availability of more conceptual rules at higher age levels. The experimental groups consisted of third, fourth, sixth, ninth graders, and college students. Each of the five groups contained 16 subjects. The rule-utilization procedure was applied to each group. The procedure contained a multitrial, card sorting task. The feedback given at the end of each trial was limited to the correctness of the entire card sort and did not provide information on the correctness of the sorting for any individual card. All subjects in each group were run until they used both bidimensional rules (the conjunctive and the inclusive-disjunctive rule), or until a limit of 30 trials was reached.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Rakowitz, Lambert William

Self-Disclosure: Structure and Measurement

Description: An attempt was made to determine empirically the structure of self-disclosure. Based on the literature, a list of statements relating to the rating of self-disclosure was assembled. This list was condensed into dimensions by two evaluators, working independently. The dimensions were then used to score transcripts of male undergraduate students' verbal self-disclosures. Factor analyses of these scores produced four factors relating to self-focus, intimacy or depth, risk taking, and amount. A tentative fifth factor, intimacy value of disclosure topic, was also found. Regression analysis of dimensions on the Doster (1971) Disclosure Rating Scale produced three tentative scales for measuring self-disclosure. The first scale utilized stepwise regression of all dimensions, the second used stepwise regression of mechanical dimensions, and the third regression used composite scales representing the factors of the orthogonal factor analysis. For each scale, only three dimensions were included in the regression equation.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Perl, Moshe B. (Moshe Benzion)

Separation-Individuation in Female Adult Development

Description: This study examined separation—individuation developmental issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between the mother-daughter bond and selfreported personality characteristics. Ninety-six women from 17 to 40 years of age volunteered to participate, and they were grouped into two age ranges. Life Stage 1 women were 17-22 years of age, while Life Stage 2 women ranged from 23-40. Within each Life Stage, the women were further categorized into clinical and non-clinical groups. All of the participants were college students and/or working women from clerical, managerial, and professional occupations who were recruited from their respective schools, jobs and outpatient clinics. Each woman completed the test packet which included a demographic data questionnare; the Identity vis-a-vis Mother Questionnaie (IVM-20) developed by Crastnopol (1980); the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ) and Rotter1s Locus of Control Scale. The IVM-20 contains four scales, each designed to measure a unique mother-daughter relationship: Individuated (Ind), Symbiosis (Syra), Practicing (Prac) and Distancing (Dist). Ind is supposed to reflect a healthy autonomy with a loving mother-daughter bond, while Prac should represent ambivalence toward mother. Sym represents an overly dependent relationship and Dist was designed to measure an angry rejection of mother.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Mullins, Deborah

Sex-Role and Self-Concept Among Prisoners

Description: This study was undertaken to examine possible relationships among sex-role types, self-concept, and length of incarceration in residents at a federal minimum security co-correctional prison. Twelve female and 53 male subjects completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, StateTrait Anxiety Scale, Bern Sex-Role Inventory, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Self-Concept Scale, and a Reaction to Imprisonment Q-sort. MMPI scores and demographic data for each subject were obtained from institution records. Subjects were divided into three groups (New, N = 25; Three Month, N = 20; and One Year, N = 20) on the basis of the length of time they had been incarcerated. Those in the New group were retested with all instruments except the MMPI after they had been imprisoned approximately three months. Instruments were administered only once to the other groups. On the basis of scores on the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, subjects were classified by sex—role type (masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated). Discriminant function analyses were used as an initial screen to determine which of the dependent variables might contribute to the "simple effects" factors of the main multivariate analysis of variance procedure.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Roberts, Dan H. (Dan Haynes)

Sexual Function in Women Following Treatment for Cervical Dysplasia and Microinvasive Cervical Carcinoma

Description: One hundred women aged 20 to 50 were asked to compare their sexual experience before diagnosis and following treatment for benign and malignant cervical disease. The subjects were divided into five groups: three groups had definite cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), (Class II or III). Two groups were treated with cryotherapy, and one with hysterectomy. One group had a provisional diagnosis of CIN I, but received no treatment. Subjects in the last group had microinvasive cervical carcinoma and were also treated with hysterectomy. All subjects had ovarian function; all were sexually active at the time of treatment. They were interviewed at least six months post-cryotherapy and 15 months post-hysterectomy. All subjects completed a variant version of the Derogatis Sexual Function Inventory (DSFI).
Date: August 1985
Creator: Burgess, Carolyn E.

The Social Judgement Scale of Body Composition

Description: Obesity has been referred to as a common and chronic medical condition in our society. It has been associated, directly or indirectly, with numerous medical complications. These have included increased risk of cardiovascular problems, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, problems during pregnancy and delivery, and low back pain. Psychological complications of obesity have included emotional problems, body image disturbances, and discrimination practices. The literature has utilized numerous methods to measure body composition, particularly according to the underweight overweight continuum. However, these methods have not taken into consideration the importance of social judgement. A scale was needed to further define desirable/undesirable body composition in a way more traditional definitions have not attempted.
Date: May 1984
Creator: DuBois, Keith Eric

A Stress-Inoculation Treatment Procedure for Test Anxiety in Elderly Students

Description: The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a stress-inoculation treatment and an equally credible attention-placebo control in alleviating self-reported test anxiety and in facilitating intellectual performance in nontraditional (aged 50 and over) college students. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral approaches in the treatment of test anxiety among young college students. The literature suggests that persons returning to school after a long absence who have subsequently enrolled as college students experience greater test anxiety and decrements in test performance in evaluative situations than their younger counterparts.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Kooken, Robert A. (Robert Andrews)

Test Anxiety and Exam-Taking Skills as Mediators of Information Processing in College Students

Description: Cognitive-attentional test anxiety theory posits that test-anxious individuals direct attention internally, thus interfering with task-relevant information processing. Nevertheless, working-memory deficits are often obscured by compensatory exertion of increased effort by anxious subjects on cognitive tasks. Failure to identify anxietyspecific performance decrements has led some authors to replace the test anxiety construct with one emphasizing skill deficiencies. This investigation examined whether information-processing deficits are inherent sequelae of test anxiety or merely reflect lowered exam-taking ability in test-anxious persons.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Paulman, Ronald George

Theoretical Orientation, Style, and Compatibility as Factors in Spouse Cotherapy

Description: Cotherapy has been advocated as an effective treatment mode, especially with groups, couples, and families. The relationship between the cotherapists has been identified as an important determinant in the success of this method. This relationship has been compared to the marital relationship between spouses, and the marriages of therapists have been viewed as offering advantages for cotherapy. Since not all therapists who are married to each other work as cotherapists, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not spouse cotherapists differ from other therapists who are also married to each other but who do not work together on a regular basis as cotherapists. The five dimensions measured for all subject couples include frequency of differing theoretical orientation, similarity of self-reported behavior in therapy, compatibility of needs for inclusion, compatibility of needs for control, and compatibility of needs for affection. Subjects for this study were 6 5 married couples in which both spouses were psychotherapists. The couples were divided into two groups according to whether or not they worked together as cotherapists on a regular basis. The group of spouse cotherapists included 29 couples who reported regular cotherapy together. The group of therapist couples included 37 couples who reported no regular cotherapy with their spouses. All subject couples were provided a packet of materials which included a letter explaining the general purpose of the study, two copies of the Therapist Personal Data Form, two copies of the Self-Description of Therapist's Behavior, two copies of the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior, and a stamped envelope addressed to the experimenter for the return of the materials.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Benningfield, Anna Beth

Type A Behavior and Social Support in Coronary Heart Patients

Description: There currently exists a large body of research associating the Type A behavior pattern with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Further, studies in the area of social support and health suggest that an absence of supportive relationships may result in a decreased resistance to disease in general, both physical and psychological. The present study sought to integrate the Type A research and social support literature through a correlational investigation of the relationship between Type A behavior and perceived quality of social support in 46 male subjects undergoing out-patient treatment for symptomatic coronary disease. It was hypothesized that the Type A pattern would show a significant inverse relationship with perceived quality of social support.
Date: August 1983
Creator: General, Dale A.

The Use of Imagery for the Control of Experimentally Induced Pain: Prescribed Versus Individualized Imagery

Description: Measures of pain tolerance and threshold were obtained for 100 male and female subjects in a pretest treatment posttest experiment using the cold pressor test. Subjects were divided into five treatment groups with an equal representation of males and females in each group. In addition each group was divided into high and low locus of control, resulting in a 2 X 5, locus of control-by—treatment, experimental design. Treatment groups received one of the following five sets of instructions: prescribed pleasant imagery, prescribed angry imagery, self-generated pleasant imagery, self-generated angry imagery, and expectancy control. Credibility checks were obtained on all groups, and an ANOVA revealed no significant differences in credibility ratings among the groups.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Winslow, Chester Douglas

The Use of Relaxation-Suggestions and Modeling-Instructions in Modifying Eating Behavior of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded

Description: Training programs designed to remediate eating deficits of higher level patients have involved some combination of verbal instructions, manual guidance, modeling, and reinforcement. Training methods which incorporate relaxation and imagery to facilitate behavior change have received little attention with this population. The current study was designed to explore the use of relaxation and suggestions as a training strategy to modify the shoveling behavior of moderately and mildly retarded institutionalized clients. Three treatment methods, relaxation-suggestion with reinforcement, modeling-instruction with reinforcement, and relaxation-suggestion alone, were compared. A greater reduction in shoveling behavior was hypothesized for the modeling-instruction with reinforcement group than for either of the relaxation-suggestion groups, and a greater reduction in shoveling behavior was hypothesized for the relaxation suggestion with reinforcement group than for the relaxation-suggestion alone group.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Polo, Linda Bridget.