UNT Libraries - 65 Matching Results

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Genotypic Handedness, Memory, and Cerebral Lateralization

Description: The relationship of current manual preference (phenotypic handedness) and family history of handedness (genotypic handedness) to memory for imageable stimuli was studied. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that genotypic handedness was related to lessened cerebral lateralization of Paivio's (1969) dual memory systems. The structure of memory was not at issue, but the mediation of storage and retrieval in memory has been explained with reference to verbal or imaginal processes. Verbal mediation theories and supporting data were reviewed along with imaginal theories and supporting data for these latter theories. Paivio's (1969) dual coding and processing theory was considered a conceptual bridge between the competing positions.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Perotti, Laurence Peter

Group Rational Emotive Therapy Versus Usual Group Therapy in Residential Treatment of Alcoholism

Description: The goal of this experiment was to determine whether group rational emotive therapy would prove superior to usual group therapy in improving the psychological functioning of male alcoholics in an inpatient treatment facility and to determine if memory dysfunction would impede therapeutic progress. Four areas of psychological functioning were discussed for their relevance to etiology, recidivism, and treatment evaluation; they were depression, self-conception, social anxiety, and cognitive functioning. Further, rational emotive therapy as a potentially superior treatment for alcoholism was discussed and outcome research was reviewed.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Whitley, Michael D.

Haptic Visual Sensory Integration: A Comparison Between Normal, Schizophrenic, and Brain Damaged Groups

Description: Neuropsychological tests have been used in differentially diagnosing schizophrenic and brain damaged populations. Research indicated some subgroups of schizophrenia exhibit certain symptoms of brain damage; and that schizophrenia involves difficulty in sensory integration. The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test (HVDT) designed to test tactilevisual integration, Bender Gestalt, and Information and Digit Symbol subtests of the WAIS were used to test performance abilities of forty schizophrenic subjects, forty subjects medically diagnosed as brain damaged (10 right hemisphere, 10 left hemisphere, and 20 diffuse), and normals as defined by the standardized age norm scores.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Wigodsky, Ann

Holistic Stress Management Training: A Burnout Strategy for Mental Health Workers

Description: This study investigated the effects of an individually administered versus a group-administered stress management training program on various measures of stress, job satisfaction, and burnout among mental health workers. A total of 36 subjects, who were employed in Texas community mental health facilities, participated in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: an experimental group (N = 12) which received training on an individual basis, an experimental group (N = 12) which received training in small groups of four to six subjects, and a control group (N = 12) which did not receive training. Both didactic and experimental modes were utilized during the six-week training program. All experimental subjects practiced relaxation daily and were exposed to a broad range of coping skills for stress management.This study investigated the effects of an individually administered versus a group-administered stress management training program on various measures of stress, job satisfaction, and burnout among mental health workers. A total of 36 subjects, who were employed in Texas community mental health facilities, participated in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: an experimental group (N = 12) which received training on an individual basis, an experimental group (N = 12) which received training in small groups of four to six subjects, and a control group (N = 12) which did not receive training. Both didactic and experimental modes were utilized during the six-week training program. All experimental subjects practiced relaxation daily and were exposed to a broad range of coping skills for stress management.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Ray, Cathy Anne

Hypnotic Susceptibility as a Function of Information Processing

Description: Hypnotic susceptibility, often regarded as a relatively stable individual characteristic, has been found to be related to the personality dimension of absorption. To test the hypothesis that this relationship is a function of the nature of the sensory response to stimulus events and the development of cognitive models pursuant to the processing of that information, a group of hospitalized, chronic pain patients were assessed on the following dimensions: absorption, clinical hypnotic responsiveness, cognitive resistance to interference, and visual automatization.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Magnavito, Frederick J. (Frederick James)

Indices of Criminal Thinking: Criminals v. Noncriminals, Males v. Females, and Anglos v. Chicanas/Chicanos

Description: Assessment research of forensic populations has largely dealt with finding differences within criminal types. Fourteen of the studies reviewed found no significant differences between types of criminals on test performance. Two of these fourteen found no differences between criminals and noncriminals . The Criminal Thinking Model developed by Yochelson and Samenow proposed a continuum of criminality with every person falling somewhere between the two poles of responsibility and irresponsibility. Perhaps one reason previous research failed to discriminate differences was because they had failed to first establish if criminals differed from noncriminals.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Diaz, Petra Alvarez

The Influence of Hypnotically-Induced Elevation of Mood on Learned Helplessness Deficits

Description: This study evaluated the efficacy of hypnoticallyinduced mood elevation techniques for individuals exposed previously to an experimental learned helplessness condition. The treatment conditions in this investigation included the mood elevation with hypnotic induction group as well as a mood elevation group without the benefit of hypnotic induction. As experimental controls, a group was exposed to hypnotic relaxation and an attention-only treatment group was used. Measures of treatment success included the administration of•the Depression Adjective Checklist, backward digit span, and five—letter anagrams. In a series of factorial analysis of variance procedures no significant interaction was noted although the main effect for the presence of hypnotic induction was significant with the Depression Adjective Checklist. Post hoc analysis to examine gender differences demonstrated no significant performance discrepancy between the sexes. Limitations of the study were explored and avenues of further research discussed.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Tassey, John Richard

Internal vs. External Imagery as a Mental Preparation When Applied by Intermediate League Bowlers

Description: Mental preparation is an important component in athletic performance. Mental preparation often involves imagery of the actual execution of the physical act. Imagery may be either "external" or "internal." External imagery occurs when people view themselves performing an act from the perspective of an external observer. Internal imagery requires that the person feel those sensations that are involved while participating in a physical act. The assumption that internal imagery will be more likely to improve athletic performance was tested using intermediate league bowlers for a period of ten weeks.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Barnes, Patrick Richard

Interpersonal Versus Impersonal Problem Solving Skills in a Public and Private Context: An Examination of the Parameters of the Learned Helplessness Model with Clinically Depressed Males

Description: Forty volunteer patients from a Veteran's Administration Hospital served as subjects for this study. On the basis of Beck Depression Inventory scores, the subjects were divided into depressed (11 and above) and nondepressed (7 and below) groups. Subjects were assigned randomly to either public condition (experimenter present with the subject during experimental procedures) or a private condition (subject performed the procedures alone). Subjects in each condition were asked to perform three tasks which varied in the amount of interpersonal involvement each required ranging from low through medium to high. The low interpersonal involvement task consisted of an anagram-solving procedure. Both the medium and high interpersonal involvement tasks employed modification of the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure (MEPDS) (a measure of interpersonal problem solving ability).
Date: August 1982
Creator: Logsdon, Steven Alan

The Irritable Bowel Syndrome a Dietary and Multi-Element Psychological Approach to Its Treatment

Description: The present study sought to determine whether a dietary and multi-element psychological treatment (DMPT) approach in combination with standard medical treatment would offer a more efficacious therapeutic package to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients than would standard medical treatment (SMT) employed alone. The DMPT group (N = 19) received a stress management training package for a 2 week period consisting of relaxation training, imagery, and bowel sound biofeedback training via a stethoscope, in addition to instructions to increase their daily consumption of dietary fiber. They also were to continue the implementation of whatever standard medical treatment they were currently receiving, be it a bulking agent, or anti-anxiety, anti-cholinergic, or anti-depressant medications, etc. The SMT group (N = 19) simply received whatever conventional medical treatment they had been prescribed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gray, Steven Garland

Learned Helplessness and Attentional Focus

Description: Ninety undergraduate students who scored as high or low on the Snyder Self-monitoring Scale participated in an experiment designed to determine the joint effects of self-monitoring and controllable or uncontrollable outcomes upon subsequent performance on three short-term memory tests. High and low self-monitoring subjects were assigned to one of three conditions: (1) controllable feedback, in which subjects received response contingent positive, "correct," and negative, "incorrect," feedback on a word association task; (2) uncontrollable feedback, in which subjects were given noncontingent feedback (70% negative and 30% positive); and (3) no-treatment. Measures of attentional focus were included in order to examine the role of attentional processes in the obtained results. In addition, the joint effects of treatment and self-monitoring on subjects' attributions were investigated. As predicted, the performance of high selfmonitors was significantly impaired by uncontrollability (learned helplessness), while that of low self-monitors was facilitated by controllability (learned competence). Results were discussed as supporting the contention that high self-monitors rely heavily on knowledge of environmental contingencies in order to control their environment. When their typically effective strategy is unsuccessful, "helplessness" is induced. Low self-monitors, who are less concerned with exercising control over environmental events, evidence diminished attention to and utilization of external stimuli. However, when these stimuli are made salient and the low self-monitor is positively reinforced for processing these stimuli, "competence" is induced. Results also suggest that high self-monitors, as compared with low self-monitors, are more likely to employ self-enhancing, defensive strategies. Such strategies may protect self-esteem and decrease the likelihood of long term negative effects.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Rahaim, Sara

Lecithin Therapy for Tardive Dyskinesia

Description: Drug-induced tardive dyskinesia, an irreversible involuntary movement disorder caused by neuroleptic drugs, may reflect cholinergic hypofunction in the corpus striatum. Therapeutic results have been reported in trials of choline and lecithin, nutritional substrates which may enhance cholinergic neurotransmission. Lecithin's effects on dyskinetic symptoms were examined in 50 male patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups; 31 patients were retained in the analytic cohort. Experimental patients were treated with 60 gm/day lecithin (55% phosphatidyl choline) for 11 days. Symptom frequency was rated from videotapes made at baseline, 3 and 11 days of treatment, and 1 week follow-up.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Beckham, Barbara

A Multifaceted Treatment for Myofascial-Pain Dysfunction: A Comparison of Treatment Components

Description: This study compared the clinical effectiveness of cognitively oriented stress-coping training with and without biofeedback training to biofeedback training only in the treatment of myofascial pain dysfunction (MPDS). These groups were also compared to a fourth treatment consisting of pseudo-biofeedback plus stress-coping training. Subjects were 32 adults suffering from MPDS who had failed to previously profit from other treatments. Subjects averaged 33.5 years of age and 58.7 months of myofascial pain. Treatement consisted of 10 individual sessions over a five-week period. Stress-coping training was designed to teach subjects to monitor their congitive responses to stress-eliciting situations and to learn cognitive coping skills. Biofeedback training was designed to provide relaxation skills that would enable subjects to reduce masseter muscle tension (EMG). Subjects receiving pseudo-biofeedback training did not receive veridical feedback training.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Waid, Lewis R. (Lewis Randolph)

Muscle Tension and Locus Of Pain in Subjects With and Without Chronic Backpain

Description: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the location of the initial onset of back pain as revealed by the subject's pain drawing and the site of maximum muscle tension at rest, while jaw-clenching and during a cold stressor, in men and women. Subjects were 30 males and 30 females divided into three groups of 10 males and 10 females each and designated according to back pain history as no back pain (NBP), upper back pain onset (UBP) and lower back pain onset (LBP). Six bipolar, bilateral electromyographic (EMG) recording sites were instrumented on each subject. EMG levels were recorded from the forehead, forearm, upper back, lower back, thighs and ankles under conditions of rest, jaw-clenching and a cold stressor. Seven hypotheses predicted that EMG levels would distinguish groups and gender of the subjects and that interactions would exist between site of pain onset and EMG elevations.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Montgomery, Penelope Sandra

Neuropsychological Assessment of Brain Damage: A Validation Study of the McCarron-Dial System

Description: The present study investigates the effect of brain damage on verbal-spatial-cognitive (VSC) and sensorimotor (SM) measures included in the McCarron-Dial System (MDS). The subjects include 141 brain damaged adults and 42 psychiatric controls. The following research questions are addressed: (a) Does the brain damaged group differ significantly from controls? (b) Are there significant differences among left, right, anterior, posterior, and diffuse brain damaged groups? (c) Do early onset, late onset, acute, and chronic damaged groups differ significantly? and (d) Does a cerebral palsy group differ significantly from a non-CP brain damaged group?
Date: August 1982
Creator: Dial, Jack Grady

Olfactory Preferences in Human Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between olfactory preferences and sexual orientation in Heterosexual, Entire Life lesbian, and Adopted Lifestyle lesbian women. Research in the area of olfaction and sexual behavior was reviewed and, on the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that Heterosexual women would prefer male odors, Entire Life lesbian women would prefer female odors, and Adopted Lifestyle lesbian women would prefer male odors more than Entire Life lesbians. The design involved having female subjects sniff male and female odors and indicate a preference for either the male or female odor. The odor samples were human apocrine gland secretions obtained by having odor donors wear gauze pads in their armpits. The odor collected on the pads was then stabilized through applications of alcohol and subsequent freezing.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Stange, Judy L. (Judy Lynne)

A Paradoxical Treatment Technique Versus a Behavioral Approach in Treatment of Procrastination of Studying

Description: The present study investigated the relative efficacy of paradoxical, behavioral, and reflection-support treatments among college students who complained about procrastination of studying. Although there is much literature describing successful use of paradoxical treatment, there has been little substantive research. Paradoxical techniques offer more complex theoretical explanations than behavioral therapy even though in practice the procedure of each are often quite similar. Subjects were selected by their response to an ad in the school newspaper that offered free treatment for students who had problems with procrastination. Further screening of participants was done through clinical interviews. Thirty-three subjects were selected for treatment of procrastination with three clients randomly assigned to each of 11 advanced psychology graduate students who served as therapists. Each therapist provided all three types of treatment, one type of treatment to each of their three assigned clients.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Young, James Robert

Physiological Responses to Affective Stimuli of Obese and Nonobese Females Differing in Dietary Restraint

Description: The present study translated the major theories of obesity into physiological terms, then tested for the ways these theories might find physiological expression. Theoretical positions included the psychoanalytic perspective, emphasizing intrapsychic processes; psychosomatic perspective, emphasizing food as an anxiolytic agent; and Schachterian perspective, emphasizing heightened sensitivity to external stimuli. Additionally, two classificatory distinctions, age at onset of obesity and extent of dietary restraint, were examined. The later distinction suggested that Schachterian findings on obese behavior were due not to obesity, but to a dieting life style.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Framer, Edward Marc

Post-Traumatic Changes in Perceptions of Purpose in Life and Three Dimensions of Locus of Control in Stroke and Hip Surgery Patients

Description: A survey of stress and crisis literature indicated traumatic events tend to initially overwhelm individual coping resources. The adjustment process following such events appears to be characterized by phases in which gradual perceptual and cognitive reorganization occurs. Emotional shock, denial processes, and intrusive ideation accompany initial phases. A survey of stress and crisis literature indicated traumatic events tend to initially overwhelm individual coping resources. The adjustment process following such events appears to be characterized by phases in which gradual perceptual and cognitive reorganization occurs. Emotional shock, denial processes, and intrusive ideation accompany initial phases.
Date: May 1984
Creator: McGraw, Richard Michael

Pregnancy-Resolution Correlates: An Exploratory Study into Demographic and Personality Variables

Description: This study was designed to explore possible demographic and personality correlates of pregnancy-resolution alternatives. A total of 146 female college students were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Intrinsic Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale, a demographic questionnaire, and a Pregnancy-Resolution Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by means of the chi-square statistic and discriminant analysis.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Nystrom, Bruce D. (Bruce David)

Programmed Instruction as a Means of Enhancing Group Intelligence Test Performance of Externalizing Children

Description: This study focused on two major areas of investigation: (1) locus of control and (2) the influence on test performance of anxiety and motivation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of programmed instruction dealing with motivation, anxiety, and test-wiseness as a means of enhancing group intelligence test performance of externalizing children. While earlier research demonstrated the viability of this technique x^ith a heterogeneous sample, no studies have utilized any kind of instruction to facilitate the performance of externalizers on standardized tests. It was hypothesized that intelligence test performance would be enhanced by programmed instruction. Furthermore, externalizers were expected to demonstrate greater gains than internalizers, which would thereby suggest that locus of control provides a source of variance in intellectual assessment.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Petty, Nancy Elizabeth

Programming Generalization: A Comparison of Behavioral and Cognitive Response Transfer Operations in Assertive Training

Description: The assertive training literature has documented the effectiveness of both behavioral and cognitive methods to increase individual's assertiveness. However, the ability for such methods to enhance the generalization of treatment effects to untrained assertive response classes and the natural environment has been poor. In addition, little notice has been paid to the durability of these changes. Although the past several years have witnessed more intensive efforts by investigators to program generalization as part of their interventions, results have continued to be disappointing. A specific generalization-enhancing treatment strategy, self-directed practice, has been utilized with much success in phobic populations. This strategy, and the theoretical orientation it reflects, has been proposed for use in assertive training. The present study sought to examine the effectiveness of this method as compared to the traditional assertive training procedures and investigate the role of self-efficacy expectations in mediating initial behavior change and its subsequent generalization.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Lefebvre, Richard Craig

Psychiatric Diagnosis: Rater Reliability and Prediction Using Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic Classification

Description: This study was designed to assess the reliability of the "Psychological Rating Scale for Diagnostic classification as an instrument for determining diagnoses consistent with DSM-III criteria and nomenclature. Pairs of raters jointly interviewed a total of 50 hospital patients and then independently completed the 70-item rating scale to arrive at Axis I and Axis II diagnoses which were subsequently correlated with diagnoses obtained by standard psychometric methods, interrater agreement was 88 per cent for Axis I and 62 per cent for Axis II, with correlations of .94 and .79 respectively.
Date: August 1982
Creator: McDowell, DeLena Jean

A Psychoanalytic Developmental Psychology Approach to the Classification of Separation-Individuation in the Adult

Description: A diagnostic classification of Borderline subgroups was developed for the purpose of reducing the current ambiguities existing in the range of pathologies between the psychoses and neuroses. This classification is a questionnaire of forty items and is intended to be used in treatment settings as a measure of object relations, i.e., of ego development and arrest. The criteria which define the Borderline subgroups were derived from the normative developmental data of Mahler, Pine, and Bergman (1975). In Experiment I, raters used the Mahler criteria as operational definitions of the developmental stages and sorted 180 items taken from Benjamin's structural Analysis Social Behavior (SASB) into the four Mahler substages. Those items which were reliably sorted eight out of nine times into the same Mahler stage or substage were retained as critical items to be administered in Experiment II to three groups of subjects. These groups consisted of nineteen schizophrenic inpatients, eighteen outpatients, and twenty nonpsychiatric volunteers. These subjects rated each item of the SASB questionnaire on a scale of 0 to 100; means for each type of psychiatric group according to sex were submitted to a repeated measures 2 (sex) X 3 (group) X 4 (Mahler substage) Analysis of Variance.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Little, Myrna M. (Myrna Marie)