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Allocation of Attention: Effects on Classical Conditioning

Description: According to Deikman (1966), meditation (defined as a training to sustain attention) has a deautomatizing effect. This ascertion was utilized in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A sample of 48 college students was selected and randomly assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning background situation. The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non—switching conditions.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Michel, Sergio B. (Sergio Barboza)

Assessment Center Ratings as a Function of Personality Factors, Sex and Rating System

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between the traditional global rating scale and a new behavioral rating scale in a university-based assessment center. It was hypothesized that personality factors, as measured by the 16PF and associated with the global ratings of performance would differ from those associated with the behavioral ratings of performance. It was further hypothesized that the associated personality factors would also differ for males and females. These hypotheses were ^confirmed. Pearson correlations were computed for ratings of males, females, and all subjects combined on both global and behavioral rating scales.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Brennan, Mary Maureen

Assessment of Visual Memory and Learning by Selective Reminding

Description: A test of free recall visual memory and learning was developed for the present study. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of the Visual Selective Reminding Test and the Verbal Selective Reminding Test for differentiating among groups of patients having memory impairments with organic etiologies. It was hypothesized that neurologically impaired patients would perform differently on the Visual and Verbal Selective Reminding Tests, the difference depending on the location of the underlying brain damage. Forty right handed male patients at a Veterans Administration hospital served as subjects. The patients were grouped according to the location of their brain damage; left hemisphere, right hemisphere, diffuse damage, and no brain damage. There were 10 patients in each group. Each patient was given the verbal and the visual memory tests in counterbalanced order and the Shipley estimate of intelligence.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cummins, Shirley Jean

Biofeedback Training During Stress Stimulation

Description: The assumption that EMG biofeedback cultivates an antistress response was tested under stress conditions while investigating the comparative efficacy of low versus high arousal treatment strategies. Biofeedback-assisted, cue-controlled relaxation training was used as the low arousal treatment strategy for half of the 20 normal subjects used in the study. The other half received a high arousal treatment strategy which used the same training in combination with an avoidance conditioning procedure. In this procedure mild electric shock was used as contingent aversive stimulation designed to reinforce relaxation responses. Both groups received four in-lab training sessions with a 4-day interim of home practice of cuecontrolled relaxation prior to the last in-lab training session. Pretraining assessment consisted of four 10-minute periods of alternating no-stress and stress conditions. Mild electric shock and loud tones were used as stressors. Posttraining assessment was identical to pre training except subjects employed self-directed, cue-controlled relaxation rather than self-directed relaxation based on instructions without training. Frontal EMG, subjective mental and muscle tension ratings, and behavioral observations of relaxation behavior served as dependent measures during pre- and posttraining assessment. EMG readings were used during in-lab training and the two subjective rating scales were used during home practice.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Spurgin, Raymon David

Childbirth and Locus of Control: The Role of Perceived Control in the Choice and Utilization of Birthing Alternatives

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wives' perceptions of personal control over the process of childbirth were related to couples' choices and utilization of three birthing alternatives (home birth, unmedicated hospital birth, and medicated hospital birth). The wives' perceived control over the childbirth process was expected to vary inversely with the level of medical intervention in the birthing alternative chosen. The home birth mothers were expected to perceive themselves as having more control over childbirth than were the unmedicated hospital group mothers, and the unmedicated hospital group mothers more than the medicated hospital group mothers. The husbands' perception of their wives' perceived control in childbirth and their participation was also measured.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Dawson-Black, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann)

Cognitive Strategies for the Control of Experimentally Induced Pain: The Role of Pleasantness and Relevance of Content in Imagery

Description: This study compared the relative efficacy of four imagery techniques in increasing tolerance to cold pressor pain. Relevant pleasant, relevant unpleasant, irrelevant pleasant, and irrelevant unpleasant imagery strategies were compared in a two-way factorial design. Prior research suggested that pleasantness and relevance both affect imagery potency. This study attempted to assess the relative contribution of these two variables to increases in pain tolerance. Also investigated were the roles of several hypothesized mediating variables; namely, contextual valence, self-efficacy, treatment credibility, and involvement in imagery. The subjects were 60 female undergraduates who were randomly assigned to the four imagery groups. Two-way analysis of covariance were performed on all dependent variables, using pain threshold as the covariate. Pearons r.'s were used to test correlational hypotheses.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Geary, Thomas Dennis

A Comparison of Biofeedback and Cognitive Therapy in the Control of Blood Pressure Under Stress and No-Stress Conditions

Description: This study evaluated the efficacy of cognitive therapy and biofeedback training in lowering Dlood pressures of normotensives under no-stress and stress conditions. A cognitive therapy group was compared to biofeedback and habituation control groups with 32 normotensives. Subjects were taught to use the electronic sphygmomanometer that served as the device to measure blood pressure during pretreatment and posttreatment phases of the study. These measurement phases each consisted of three 19 minute periods. Trie first period consisted of no-stress, and then a stress period followed. Return-to-no-stress was the final period. Subjects in the cognitive therapy and biofeedbacK groups received five sessions of self-control training of 66 minutes each between the pre- and posttreatment phases. The cold pressor was the analogue stressor used to induce bxood pressure elevations,
Date: August 1982
Creator: Dafter, Roger E. (Roger Edwin)

A Comparison of Homosexual and Heterosexual Attitudes Toward the Etiology and the Public Practice of Homosexuality

Description: One purpose of this primarily exploratory study was to explore whether differences in beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality exist between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals. Another purpose was to investigate whether differences exist between groups in the extent to which they feel that it is appropriate to manifest homosexual behaviors in public. Finally, this study examined the question of whether a relationship exists between one's perception of the cause of homosexuality and the degree to which that person felt it was appropriate to manifest homosexual behaviors.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Myers, Emilie J. (Emilie Joyner)

A Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Components of Migraine and Combination Headaches

Description: To aid in understanding headache etiology and symptomatology, psychological and physiological variables were examined in patients with migraine and combination headaches (combined migraine and muscle-contraction headaches). One hundred patients being evaluated for treatment of their headaches at The New England Center for Headache participated in this study. They were assigned to the migraine or combination group, based on diagnoses made by three headache specialists—a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a nuerologist. Personality data from the MMPI and frontalis electromyographic readings reflecting muscle tensions across three stimulus conditions were compared between the two groups. Subjects were also asked to rate the perceived level of stress elicited by the three conditions.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Weeks, Randall E.

A Comparison of the MMPI, Faschingbauer's Abbreviated MMPI and the MMPI-168 with Selected Medical Patients and Medical School Applicants

Description: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is often used for evaluating candidates for gastric bypass surgery, chronic pain patients, head trauma victims, and medical school applicants. However, due to the considerable time involved in completing and scoring the standard MMPI, researchers have attempted to devise short versions of this instrument to reduce the time required while providing similar results. In recent years, the Faschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI (FAM) and the MMPI-16 8 have been proposed as viable MMPI substitutes. The present study examined the comparability between profiles using these short versions of the MMPI with the patterns obtained using the entire measure. Participants consisted of equal numbers of gastric bypass candidates, chronic pain patients, head trauma victims, and medical school applicants. Scores on the FAM tended to be similar to scores on the complete MMPI for gastric bypass, chronic pain and head trauma patients. In contrast, the MMPI-16 8 yielded profiles which were similar to complete MMPI profiles with chronic pain and head trauma patients.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Martin-Cannici, Cynthia Elaine

Computer Games: Psychomotor Sequelae and Personological Covariates

Description: This study investigated the relationship between the degree of involvement with video games of 72 male university students with performance on pilot screening tests of psychomotor abilities, perceptual abilities, and cognitive style, and also with several personological variables, school performance, locus of control, sociability, and social presence. Additionally, the effects of experience with a video game on the learning of perceptual and psychomotor skills was examined for different levels of previous computer game involvement. It was found that those students who began playing at earlier ages and who more recently played the most demonstrated increased psychomotor abilities, and those abilities appeared to be enhanced by video game play. Greater amounts of time per week spent with computer games were found to correlate with increased facility in learning perceptual skills on computerized instrumentation, and with relative underachievement in school. No systematic relationship was found between degree of video game involvement and measures of sociability, social presence, and field dependence-independence. The study concluded that computer games may have effects upon those individuals who play them, but the effects may not be as negative as many people believe.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cordes, Dale S. (Dale Sheryl)

Counseling Outcomes and Perceived Counselor Social Influence: Validity of the Counselor Rating Form Extended

Description: This study investigated predictor variables of the Counselor Rating Form dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness using the predicted variable of therapy outcome, measured by Goal Attainment Scaling and postcounseling scores on the Counselor Rating Form. One hundred-fifteen mental health center outpatients agreed to participate. Forty subjects (25 females and 15 males) met all criteria and were labeled "completors." An additional 30 subjects, labeled "dropouts," enrolled but did not meet criteria. These subjects' data were considered in a separate analysis for prediction of treatment continuation. All subjects rated their own need for therapy before their initial interview. After the initial and final interviews, both the subject and the counselor completed the Counselor Rating Form, rating their perceptions of the counselor1s behavior during that session. The Goal Attainment Scaling was used to generate both pre- and postcounseling outcome scores on each subject's individual, personalized goals.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Rucker, Iris Elaine Votaw

Determinants of Coping Strategies and Seeking Counseling Among Older Adults

Description: This study investigated older persons' perception of the negative impact of ill health, retirement, and widowhood in relation to the mobilization of relevant coping mechanisms. In addition, the relationship of coping mechanisms and dissatisfaction with current gender-role identity to seeking counseling was studied. A distributed questionnaire package provided demographic data as well as information pertaining to satisfaction in various areas of life, impact of live events, and coping style. Subjects were 54 males and 67 females aged 50 to 92. Safeguards were taken to ensure complete confidentiality and anonymity of response. Stepwise multiple regression (listwise deletion of data), multivariate and univariate analysis of variance and bivariate correlational analyses of the data were performed, suggesting that perception of negative impact of the events measured (ill health, widowhood, retirement) was related a) to employing numerous useful coping strategies, b) to low dyadic satisfaction, and c) to low life satisfaction. Analyses also suggested that variables which distinguished those in the sample who sought counseling were a) identity discrepancy (wherein Ideal exceeded Real) on the Masculine and Androgynous dimensions, b) employing fewer Coping with Health strategies, and c) employing more Coping with Retirement strategies. These variables also distinguished males who sought counseling, but only the variable Age, distinguished females, who sought counseling from those who do not.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Cole, Carolyn Fillis

The Differential Effects of Left Ear Versus Right Ear Versus Both Ears Input Under Biofeedback or Relaxation Tape Conditions in Lowering Frontales Electromyographic Levels

Description: This investigation focused on two major areas of investigation, (a) the differentiation of functions between the two cerebral hemispheres and (b) the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback versus relaxation tape input as methods of lowering levels of arousal. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of EMG biofeedback and relaxation tape input to the right ear only, to the left ear only and to both ears in a strongly lateralized population. Subjects were 56 students recruited from undergraduate psychology classes. To be included in the study, subjects had to score at minimum, and Edinburgh Handedness Inventory Laterality Quotient of 68, Declie = Right 3, and had to demonstrate a right ear advantage on the Dichotic Listening Task for Words.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Ginn, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

Effect of Anterior or Ventromedial Hypothalamic Stimulation on Immunoglobulin G

Description: Although research has linked central nervous system activity with changes in immunoresponsivity, research on the possible role of the central nervous system in altering a specific class of antibody is lacking. This study was an investigation of the possible relationship between anterior or medial hypothalamic functions on Immunoglobulin G. concentrations in rat serum. Thirty-six male albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups of equal size. Animals within the anterior hypothalamic group received bilateral electrode implants in the anterior hypothalamus while animals in the medial hypothalamic group received electrode implants within the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus. A control group received bilateral electrode implants within the lateral hypothalamus. Electrical brain stimulation was administered to animals in both experimental groups. Control animals spent a comparable time in an operant chamber but did not receive electrical brain stimulation. Following brain stimulation of animals within the experimental groups, Immunoglobulin G. concentrations were determined for all groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-stimulation sessions.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Lambert, Paul L. (Paul Louis)

The Effects of Maternal Employment and Family Life Cycle Stage on Women's Psychological Well-Being

Description: The study examined the impact of maternal employment and family life cycle stage on the psychological well-being o£ middle socioeconomic status women. One hundred twenty eight mothers of children at the stages of birth to 6 years, 7 to 12 years and 13 to 17 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. To test the hypothesis of the study, a 3 X 3 (employment X family life cycle stage) analysis of covariance was conducted with age, income, time employed and psychological resources as covariates. Results indicated that middle socioeconomic status mothers employed full-time experienced significantly higher levels of role overload, occupational strain, spouse support and job commitment. A post hoc exploratory analysis using conflict level between commitment to work and parenting, yielded data which indicated that individuals with a large discrepancy between commitment to one role versus the other, experienced the greatest degree of difficulty. Results were evaluated in the light of selective characteristics of the sample. Recommendations for future research included the use of projective assessment to reduce the effect of defensive response styles. A life span approach using the concept of perceived conflict between roles was advanced, instead of the age specific developmental construct of family life cycle stage.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Marcus, Suzanne

Effects of Monitoring Positive and Negative Events on Measures of Depression

Description: This study examined psychoanalytic, physiological, and social learning models of depression in terms of etiology and symptomatology. Emphasis was placed on social learning theories of depression. First, Beck's cognitive approach stated that the root of depression was a negative cognitive set. Depressive episodes might be externally precipitated, but it was the individual's perception and appraisal of the event that rendered it depression inducing. Secondly, Seligman's learned helplessness model explained reactive depression in terms of a belief in one's own helplessness. Specifically, Seligman stated belief in the uncontrollability of outcomes resulted in depression, irrespective of the correspondence of such beliefs to objective circumstances. Additionally, depression resulted from noncontingent aversive stimulation and noncontingent positive reinforcement. Thirdly, Lewinsohn's model was based on these assumptions: a low rate of response-contingent positive reinforcement which acted as an eliciting stimulus for depressive behaviors. This low rate of response-contingent positive reinforcement constituted an explanation for the low rate of behaviors observed in the depressive. Total amount of response—contingent positive reinforcement is a function of a number of events reinforcing for the individual, availability of reinforcement in the environment, and social skills of the individual that are necessary to elicit reinforcement.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Ellis, Janet Koch

Effects of Nondirective and Paradoxical Therapist Communication on Core Therapeutic Conditions and Perceived Client Influence

Description: The purpose of this study was first to determine whether or not paradoxical communication could be designed to contain therapeutic levels of the core therapeutic conditions, and, second, to determine how paradoxical counselor communication compared to nondirective communication on the social influence dimensions of attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness. For the first phase, four judges rated audiotapes on the level of the core therapeutic conditions on one of four counseling conditions (paradox high or low on core conditions, and nondirective high or low on core conditions). For the second phase, 133 undergraduate college students were asked to listen to the four counseling conditions on audiotapes and to rate the counselor on the social influence dimensions
Date: August 1982
Creator: Beard, Myron Joseph

Effects of Parenting on Marital Quality: A Causal Analysis

Description: A theoretical model of eleven antecedents of marital quality (education, family life cycle, sex, work status, sex role attitude, social network, role accumulation, role conflict, parental competence, parental strain, and marital strain) was developed and tested using Path Analysis. Subjects were 119 married couples (238 individuals) who had at least one child. They completed the Parental and Marital Interaction Questionnaire which had measures for each of the antecedent variables.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Otero de Sabogal, Regina

The Effects of Reframing and Self-Control Statements on Loneliness, Depression and Controllability

Description: Reframing, a therapy technique which allows the therapist to restate a situation or problem so that it is perceived in a new way, has received considerable attention recently because of its purported positive effects on the therapeutic process. The increase in the use of reframing has taken place despite an absence of empirical confirmation of its effectiveness. Proponents of reframing comment on its usefulness early in the therapeutic process as a means for helping clients to more positively view their symptomatic behavior, to experience some affective relief, to shift toward an increased sense of control regarding their symptoms, and to view their counselor and their expectations for counseling more positively. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of reframing and selfcontrol responses on the subjects' expressed degree of loneliness, depression, and perceived control of loneliness. In addition, effects of these interventions on the subjects' ratings of the interviewers and the subjects' expectations regarding counseling were explored.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Garber, Ronald Alan

Environmental Effect: Activator of the Psychotic Process

Description: The purpose of the present study was to determine specific psychotic factors associated with environmental sensitivities, the changes in those tendencies occurring with ecological treatment and the extent to which those behaviors could be attributed to the chronicity of the illness. An inpatient group of 42 environmental patients was compared to an inpatient population of 20 chronic spinal pain patients. Instruments utilized in the study included the Bender Gestalt Test of Motor Ability, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with the Harris and Lingoe subscales, and three subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, Digit Symbol, Object Assembly, and Block Design. Data was analyzed via multivariate analysis of covariance, analysis of covariance, canonical analysis, and t tests for related and independent means.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Milam, Melody J. (Melody Joy)

Expertness and Similarity as Factors of Influence in the Preferences of Deaf College Students for Therapists

Description: This study utilized Strong's (1963) theory of counseling as a social influence process to investigate the effect of therapist's training, experience, and similarity on hearingimpaired subjects' perceptions of the therapist's expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and their willingness to see the therapist. Increasing levels of therapists' training and work experience was hypothesized to increase subjects' perception of expertness and their willingness to see the therapist. Increasing levels of therapists' similarity to the client was hypothesized to increase subjects' perceptions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness and their willingness to see the therapist. Subjects' ratings of the therapist were hypothesized to change when therapists with different levels of similarity were seen in different orders of presentation.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Thigpen, Sally Elizabeth

The Generalization of Problem Identification and Remedial Plan Skills in Client-Centered Case Consultation

Description: An analogue study examines the acquisition and generalization of problem identification and remedial plan skills following client-centered, school case consultation. Nine trained consultants interacted with 35 undergraduate female consultees in one of three intervention conditions. Conditions involved the consultants either viewing the same problem as consultees, not viewing the problem, or attention control. Consultees viewed ten minute video tapes of a problem student in a classroom, then provided written problem descriptions and remedial plans. They then received twenty minutes of consultation or control, and again wrote descriptions of the problem and remedial plans. The same procedure was repeated two day later. One week later, subjects viewed another video tape of a problem student, provided written problem descriptions and remedial plans, but received no interventions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Eubanks, Ron R. (Ron Ray)

Genotypic Handedness, Memory, and Cerebral Lateralization

Description: The relationship of current manual preference (phenotypic handedness) and family history of handedness (genotypic handedness) to memory for imageable stimuli was studied. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that genotypic handedness was related to lessened cerebral lateralization of Paivio's (1969) dual memory systems. The structure of memory was not at issue, but the mediation of storage and retrieval in memory has been explained with reference to verbal or imaginal processes. Verbal mediation theories and supporting data were reviewed along with imaginal theories and supporting data for these latter theories. Paivio's (1969) dual coding and processing theory was considered a conceptual bridge between the competing positions.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Perotti, Laurence Peter