UNT Libraries - 113 Matching Results

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The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of self-reported historical walking, running, and jogging (WRJ) activity. The criterion measure was concurrent performance on a maximal treadmill test. Subjects completed a medical exam and treadmill test between the years 1976 and 1985, and completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1986. Questionnaire included an item that assessed WRJ for each year from 1976 through 1985. Data analysis included Spearman correlations, partial correlations, ANOVA, and ANCOVA. Results indicated self-reported historical WRJ can be assessed with reasonable validity when compared with concurrently measured treadmill performance, and there is no decay in the accuracy of this reporting for up to ten years in the past.
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Date: May 2002
Creator: Bowles, Heather R.

The Relationship Among Gender, Gender Role Attitudes, and the Anticipated Commitment to Career, Marriage, Family, and Housework

Description: The relationships between gender, gender role attitudes, and participants' anticipation of future life roles (career, marriage, family, and homecare) were examined. Participants consisted of 297 single college students between the ages of 17-29 years (M = 20). Females reported significantly (p< .01) more egalitarian gender role attitudes than males. Significant results were found for the relationship between gender and anticipated life roles (p< .01) as well as between gender role attitudes and anticipated life roles (career role value, r = .14 and marital role value, r = - .18). The study findings suggest a possible gender conflict for females with more egalitarian gender role attitudes and behavior intentions and their male counterparts.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Hunter, Kate

Acculturation and Locus Of Control: Their Relationship to the Use of Inhalants

Description: This study analyzed the effects of acculturation, locus of control, and incidence of inhalant use on Mexican Americans. Information was collected from 275 subjects at three middle schools and one treatment center. The instrument consisted of Levenson's Locus of Control Scale, the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, and an incidence of use and family relationship questionnaire developed for this study. Statistical analysis indicated a relationship between acculturation and inhalant use. Further examination revealed relationships between a family members' use and subjects' inhalant use; subjects' alcohol use and inhalant use; and subjects' marijuana use and inhalant use. Information implied that prevention and intervention programs should focus on children of substance users and further research is needed surrounding the role of acculturation.
Date: July 1989
Creator: Davis, Lynn Matthew

Event Order in the Biathlon Does Not Have an Effect on Metabolic Response

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of event order on a cycling(C)/running(R) or R/C biathlon. Eight experienced male biathlete/triathletes with a mean age of 24.9 + 4.6 yr formed the sample of the study. Results show no significant interaction effects on oxygen consumption peak, oxygen consumption during steady-state, ventilation, and heart rate when C/R or R/C are performed at 70% oxygen consumption peak for subsequent R and C respectively. These results seem to indicate that the biathlete/triathlete is efficient in both C and R to the extent that event order does not significantly interact with metabolic response in submaximal cycling and running.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Ledbetter, John C.

The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self Talk on the Attentional Focus of High School Distance Runners.

Description: The purposes of this study were to examine the (a) attentional focus strategies used by high school distance runners, (b) changes in attentional focus across four laps in three 1.6 km runs, and (c) effects of a pre-performance intervention using motivational and instructional self talk on the attentional focus strategies used by and performance of high school distance runners. Participants (N = 42) completed a background and demographic questionnaire, the Cross Country Attentional Focus Inventory (CCAFI), a motivational and instructional statement survey, and the Self-Motivation Inventory. A series of oneway ANOVAs revealed significant differences in the types of attentional strategies used by each group, as well as fluctuations in use of strategies. The experimental group associated more during the each of the 1.6 km trials, whereas the control group dissociated more throughout each trial. A significant group by week interaction was found, with the experimental group maintaining their performance and the control group slowing from week one to week three.
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Date: May 2005
Creator: Burgess, Amber G.

Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation

Description: The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Prentice, Ray (Grant Ray)

Effects of Strength on Selected Psychomotor Performances of Healthy and Frail Elderly Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and psychomotor performance measures in healthy (n = 18) and frail (n = 21) groups of elderly women utilizing movements requiring various amounts of strength and ballistic action. Subjects were community-dwelling females ranging in age from 66-92 years. Evaluations of functional assessment of motor skills and grip strength occurred. Psychomotor performance was measured through production of aiming movements on a Digitizing Tablet. RT, MT, and movement kinematics (e.g., peak velocity, deceleration, movement adjustments) were evaluated. Differences between groups were apparent in quantity and quality of movement. Healthy subjects were stronger and faster than frail subjects, producing smoother movements with fewer adjustments. Strength appears to differentially affect healthy and frail samples and merits further exploration.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Meyer, Rhonda D. (Rhonda Dawn)

ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Aquatic Facilities in the North Texas Area

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which existing aquatic facilities in the North Texas metroplex complied with the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines: Recreation Facilities (ADAAG supplement). Fifty-two aquatic facilities were evaluated based on: parking lot, ticket counter, gate/entry, restroom, dressing area, drinking fountain, pathway, and pool entry method structural domains. Physical measurements and a few direct observations were recorded on the survey instrument. Surveys were then reviewed and facility scores were tabulated. No facility was found to be 100% compliant with ADAAG and the ADAAG supplement. Aquatic facilities are already struggling to catch up with the 1991 ADAAG, but when the United States Department of Justice approves the proposed ADAAG supplement, aquatic facilities will fall even further behind.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Pike, Hilary Eryn

Worker-initiated violence: Prevention strategies in park and recreation departments

Description: Workplace violence infects many organizations. This descriptive study assesses the extent to which Texas park and recreation departments institute policies and procedures for preventing worker-initiated violence. Thirty directors from local park and recreation departments were interviewed by telephone and asked to identify whether their departments used specific prevention strategies to thwart instances of worker-initiated violence. The findings reveal few prevention strategies being used and suggest a need for park and recreation managers to increase their awareness and take a more proactive approach to violence prevention.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Hutchinson, Tamara Germaine

Accuracy of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Calculated BMI and Resulting FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone Classification

Description: The determination of adiposity in adolescents is often assessed with calculations of body mass indices (BMI). Researchers often obtain these measurements from self-reported (SR) values. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of SR height, weight, and calculated BMI (from height and weight). SR and actual measured (ME) BMI values were compared with standards from the FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) classifications. SR height and calculated BMI were found to be accurate while SR weight was, on average, underreported by 4.77 lbs. Because of these errors in SR height and weight, accuracy of classification into the FITNESSGRAM® HFZ was compromised. Consequently, it is important that researchers ascertain actual values of height and weight when measuring adolescents rather than use those from self-reports.
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Date: May 2006
Creator: Rowell, Chelsie Joyce

Mechanisms Affecting Bench Press Throw Performance while Using a Counter-Balanced Smith Machine

Description: The use of a counter-balance weight system of a Smith machine affects measures of bench press throw performance. Twenty-four men performed bench press throws at 30% of their one-repetition maximum under four different conditions: 1) counter-balance and rebound movement (RC), 2) no counter-balance and rebound movement (RNC), 3) counter-balance and concentric only movement (CC), and 4) no counter-balance and concentric only movement (CNC). Peak power, force, and concentric and eccentric velocities were measured using a linear accelerometer; and peak ground reaction force (GRF) was measured using a forceplate. Peak measures for concentric and eccentric velocities showed that NCB> CB and RBT > CBT. Peak GRF measures showed CB > NCB and RBT > CBT. The lower performance measures for CB were likely due to an increase in the net external load when the barbell accelerates faster than the gravitational constant causing the counter-balance weight becomes ineffective.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Buddhadev, Harsh

Minimum levels of physical activity and perceived quality of life.

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between engaging in minimum levels of physical activity as defined by ACSM and perceived quality of life. A total of 43 college students were included in a repeated measures, quasi-experimental design research study that produced an overall retention rate of 65%, which resulted in 15 students being placed in the treatment group, and 28 students being placed in the control group. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare the quality of life mean scores over three administrations of the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), which resulted in no significant main effects for either the time measure or the group measure, but did produce a significant interaction effect. Post hoc analyses showed there was a significant difference between the treatment and control groups' quality of life mean scores only during the second administration of the instrument. Further analysis showed that the control group had significantly higher quality of life domain scores for six of the 16 quality of life domains. There were no significant differences between groups across any of the physiological measures. These findings did not support previous research that increasing individuals' level of physical activity will enhance their perceived quality of life. Instead, this study only provokes more questions about the connection between physical activity and perceived quality of life.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Carothers, Cathleen de Souza Lourenco

Identifying Changes in Resilience during Rehabilitation from a Spinal Cord Injury

Description: The study purposes were to identify changes in resilience, satisfaction with life (SWL), depression, spirituality, and functional independence (FI) and to examine the relationship between these variables, during the inpatient rehabilitation for a spinal cord injury (SCI). The sample included 42 individuals with a SCI, 33 males and 9 females, who were inpatients with a mean stay of 52 days (SD = 15.78). A repeated measures design was employed with questionnaires completed at three times during rehabilitation. Results indicated that there were significant changes in depression, satisfaction with life, spirituality, and FI during inpatient rehabilitation. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, SWL, spirituality, and depression. Future studies developing interventions, and examining factors that predict resilience could help build resilience and may improve rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2008
Creator: White, Brian Dale

The Influence of Psychological Momentum on Basketball Shooting Performance

Description: The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of fictitious scoring updates on psychological momentum (PM) and athletic performance in a competitive basketball setting. The participants included in this study were 50 male undergraduate students who reported having played basketball previously and qualified by being able to make more than 24% (12 out of 50) of their 3-point shots in a pre-trial session. Participants were told that they were competing in a 50 shot, 3-point shooting competition against another individual, equal in ability. After every 10 shots, participants were given a fabricated score update and answered four questions used to measure PM. Results showed that the fictitious score updates significantly (p < .01) influenced participants’ PM scores, where those who were told they led had higher PM scores than those who were told they trailed. As for shooting performance, no significant differences (p = .76) were found between positive and negative PM states for participants who reported experiencing both during the competition. Together, these findings suggest that manufactured score updates can influence PM, but resultant performance differences may not exist. Results of this study lend support to the notion that PM is experienced by athletes. However, when examining basketball shooting performance, the momentum-performance relationship is statistically unsupported. Thus, although PM is thought of by many as a game-changing factor, this study would suggest that PM plays a negligible role in changes to individual performance.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Harris, Connor

Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program

Description: Brain injury (i.e., traumatic brain injury, stroke) is a considerable public health issue due to complicated outcomes of the injury, increasing incidence, and high costs linked with medical treatment. Rehabilitation centers are challenged to help individuals manage the resultant associated conditions and prevent secondary and chronic conditions. Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, PA is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in the services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and implement a physical activity centered education (PACE) program within an outpatient rehabilitation program. PACE consisted of an 8-week (16 session) program which aimed to (1) increase PA self-efficacy, (2) increase intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increase amount of PA completed regularly, and (4) promote positive rehabilitation outcomes. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that participation in PACE would result in (1) increased PA self-efficacy, (2) forward progression in intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increased amount of PA completed, and (4) improved rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, participation). The PACE program resulted in an average increase of 16.1% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.41), an increase from three of nine participants at pre-test to six of nine participants at post-test reporting to be in a stage of change in which they are most likely to be successful in regular PA participation (i.e., action or maintenance), and a comparable improvement in MPAI-4 scores (rehabilitation outcomes) after discharge to a rehabilitation program without a PA education component. In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, intention to change PA behaviors, and short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Irwin, Kelley

Resilience and Health Outcomes in Patients with Traumatic Injury

Description: Due to the increasing healthcare costs and reduced length of hospital stay it is becoming increasingly important to identify individuals who are ‘at risk’ of experiencing long-term health issues. The purpose of the study was to: (1) determine if resilience, self efficacy and depression changed from inpatient to 3-month follow up; (2) examine the relationship between resilience, self efficacy, depression, and quality of life (social roles/activity limitations) at inpatient and 3-month follow up; and (3) identify if resilience at inpatient is related to change scores in selfefficacy and depression at 3-month follow up. Results from the paired sample t-test indicated that participants did not experience a significant change from inpatient to 3-month follow up in resilience or self-efficacy, but a significant decrease in depression was observed. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, self-efficacy, and depression during inpatient stay and resilience, self-efficacy, depression, and quality of life at 3-month follow up. However, there was no relationship found between resilience and change scores in self-efficacy and depression. Future resilience research should continue to identify the variables that are most strongly related to resilience so effective interventions can be developed that improve rehabilitation outcomes, decrease secondary and chronic conditions as well as aid in the successful reintegration of individuals into their lives after a traumatic injury.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Christensen, Megan Elizabeth

Implementing a Physical Activity Centered Education Program for Individuals with Brain Injury

Description: Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, education-based PA curriculum is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and deliver a physical activity centered education (PACE) program that supplemented the existing rehabilitation program for brain injury. PACE consists of an 8-week (16 session) program aimed to (1) increase self-efficacy for being physically active of PACE program participants, (2) increase PA stage of change in PACE program participants or the maintenance of adequate level of PA, and (3) improve the rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, participation, adjustment) of PACE program participants. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that participation in PACE will result in (1A) increased self-efficacy for PA, (1B) greater self-efficacy for PA than the standard of care group, (2A) increased readiness to be physically active, (2B) greater readiness to change their PA behavior than the standard of care group, (3A) improved rehabilitation outcomes, and (3B) greater rehabilitation outcomes than the standard of care group. the PACE program resulted in: (1) an average increase of 19.36% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.37), (2) 15 of the 22 PACE participants (68.18%) reported readiness to engage in regular PA , and (3) an increase in rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, and participation)In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, readiness for regular PA behavior, and improved short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Woolsey, Anne-Lorraine T.

Soul Line Dancing Among African American Women in the Church: an Expectancy-value Model Approach

Description: Guided by the expectancy value model of achievement choice, this study examined the relationships among expectancy value constructs (expectancy related beliefs and subjective task values), effort and intention for future participation in a culturally specific dance, soul line, among African American adult women in the church setting. Participants were 100 African American women who were members of the women’s ministries from four predominantly African American churches in the Dallas/Ft. Worth metropolitan area. Participants completed a 20-minute soul line session and responded to survey questions, validated in previous research, assessing their expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, effort, intention for future participation and physical activity. This was the first study to use the expectancy value model as a guide to determine motivations attached to physical activities among African American adult women. Usefulness, a component of subjective task values, emerged as a predictor of intention for future participation. Eighty-one percent of the women did not meet physical activity guidelines for aerobic activity. Of those inactive women 60% indicated an interest in doing soul line dancing often at their church after one short exposure to the activity as indicated by the strongest possible response to both intention questions. A slightly smaller percent of the active women provided with a strong positive response for future intention. These findings suggest that soul line dancing is a practical avenue to increase physical activity among African American women in the church. Future research should test this theoretical model on a wider variety of individuals who are sedentary to physically active, measure actual participation, and directly measure BMI and physical activity.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Rose, Melanie

Effects of a Single Bout of Exercise on Neurocognitive Function following Acute Sleep Loss

Description: Acute sleep loss may lead to elevated fatigue, decreased energy, and diminished cognitive performance. Traditionally, sleep extension is used to restore mood and cognitive function to baseline levels following insufficient sleep, yet this method may not be feasible or preferred. Acute exercise may serve as an affordable and relatively safe intervention to reduce detriments to daytime functioning following sleep loss. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on neurocognitive function following acute sleep restriction. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of exercise in subjective reports of fatigue, energy, and sleepiness following acute sleep restriction. Fifty-six participants, matched by sex, age, and chronotype, were randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or seated control (SC) condition. Following a 4-hour sleep restriction protocol, participants completed the oddball paradigm before and after 20 minutes of exercise or stationary sitting. P3 amplitude and latency, arousal, sleepiness, energy, and fatigue were assessed during the experiment. After controlling for pre-test differences, P3 latency was significantly faster following exercise relative to the control group. No significant P3 amplitude differences were observed between conditions. The EX group displayed significant improvements in arousal, sleepiness, energy, and fatigue compared to the SC group. Findings suggest that 20 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise following acute sleep restriction may improve cognitive processing speeds, as well as improve arousal, sleepiness, energy, and fatigue.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Carmichael, Kaitlyn E.

The Effects of Low-Intensity Exercise on Neurocognitive Function

Description: Acute aerobic exercise exerts a small beneficial effect on cognition. Much of the research to date has focused on cognitive changes following a bout of exercise, while little is currently known about changes in cognitive performance during exercise. The limited research that has been conducted suggests either positive, negative, or no effects on cognitive performance during exercise. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-intensity cycling on cognitive function in college-aged students, indexed by response accuracy, reaction time, P3 amplitude, and P3 latency. Twenty-seven (Mage = 22.9 ± 3.0 years old) college-aged individuals were counterbalanced into low-intensity exercise (EX) and seated control (SC) conditions. During each condition, participants completed a 10-minute resting baseline period, 20 minutes of either sustained cycling or seated rest, and a 20-minute recovery period. Primary outcomes were assessed at 10-minute intervals (5 blocks total) throughout each condition via a modified oddball task. Across time blocks, both conditions exhibited faster reaction times on frequent trials but reduced accuracy to rare trials, suggesting a speed-accuracy tradeoff. There were no differences between conditions in P3 latency whereas a significant reduction in P3 amplitude was observed during the 20-minute exercise period compared to the control condition. Taken together, the results suggest that exercise at lower doses may have minimal influence on behavioral outcomes of cognitive performance but may impact more basic measures of brain function. Information gathered from this study may aid in the development of appropriate exercise prescriptions for populations looking to specifically target cognitive function deficits.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Cleveland, David

Relationship between Males' Coaching Efficacy and Prior Exposure to Sport Psychology

Description: Coaching efficacy is largely influenced by mastery experiences such as formal education, coaching experience, and sport participation. Further examining specific experiences, such as exposure to sport psychology, may prove helpful in advancing our understanding of coaching efficacy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore male high school coaches' coaching experience to determine whether sport psychology education and interactions with sport psychology consultants relate to coaches' coaching efficacy. Participants, 585 males (Mage = 43.89 + 10.02), completed an online survey measuring coaching efficacy and coaching and sport psychology experience. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that after controlling for years of coaching experience and school size, sport psychology education and interactions with sport psychology consultants were associated with higher overall coaching efficacy scores (p < .001). Additionally, analysis of covariance revealed that those with extensive sport psychology education had statistically higher coaching efficacy scores than those reporting no sport psychology education (p < .05). Knowledge of these phenomena may be relevant for sport psychology consultants, coach educators, and researchers.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Villalon, Christina Ann

Identity and Career Maturity in Kinesiology Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore athletic identity, identity foreclosure, and career maturity in a sample of undergraduate college students currently enrolled in kinesiology and physical education classes at a university in the southern United States. Students were provided with an internet link that requested them to complete a demographic survey, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), the foreclosure subscale of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, and the Attitude Scale (Form A-2) of the Career Maturity Inventory. Examination of the Pearson moment correlations indicated that the higher the sport participation during high school, the greater the athletic identity and identity foreclosure, and lower the career maturity attitudes. ANOVAs were performed to examine differences between males (n = 123) and females (n = 183), kinesiology (n = 181) and non-kinesiology majors (n = 125), and white (n = 144) and non-white students (n = 162) on athletic identity, identity foreclosure, and career maturity. Results showed that males scored significantly higher on athletic identity and identity foreclosure, and significantly lower on career maturity than females. Kinesiology students had scores significantly higher on athletic identity and identity foreclosure, and lower on career maturity. Finally, individuals that identified their ethnicity as White had higher athletic identity, lower identity foreclosure, and significantly higher career maturity than individuals who identified as an ethnicity other than white. Although the relationships in this study are in line with what has been found in previous research, the relationships among this sample of undergraduate students were weak. Future research should replicate the study using a measurable level of sport skill level. Future research should also consider introducing an intervention with a career development program, and track participants' athletic identity, identity foreclosure, and career mature before, during, and after implementation of the program.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Johnson, Malia

Perceived Submaximal Leg Extension Forces of Young Adult Males

Description: The purpose was to examine actual force (AF) productions of males for accuracy during leg extensions when given a random desired force (DF) ranging from 10-90% of maximal force (MF). Thirty males ranging from 18 to 30 years of age (M = 21.99 + 3.04), who had no previous experience with the test equipment, went through 9 randomly ordered submaximal efforts followed by a maximal effort. Correlations between AF and DF were high (r > .79) and test-retest was consistent between AF (r = .87) and MF (r = .90). Participants consistently undershot DF on both test and retest from 20-90% and overshot DF only at 10%. Power functions revealed exponents of less than 1, indicating that AF grows slower then DF for both test .70 (.95 CI = .63 - .77) and retest .66 (.95 CI = .60 - .73). The results replicate a prior study by Jackson, Martin, Koziris, Ludtke, and Dishman (2001) that used incremental rather than random increases in DF.
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Ludke, Andrew William

The Effects of a College Human Sexuality Course on Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

Description: Using an experimental-comparison group design, data were collected at the beginning and end of a semester to assess the effect of a human sexuality course on students' sexual knowledge, sexual attitude, and sexual behaviors. Data analysis by t-tests showed statistical differences between the experimental and comparison group only on sexual knowledge scores ( p < .001), with the experimental group scoring higher. T-tests showed statistical difference between males and females in sexual attitude (p< .001) and sexual behavior (p< .001) with women scoring higher than men in the experimental group, and also when experimental and control groups were combined. Although not statistically significant, women scored higher in sexual knowledge than males.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Smith, Jolene A.