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Description: This psychobiography used the framework of Individual Psychology to examine the life style development of the Honorable Ann Richards in order to provide insight into the creation of a life style by a successful, contemporary female leader. This single case study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine from Ms. Richards' point of view the manner in which a highly visible and well-known individual created her particular style of life.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Pearson, Mary
Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy as a method of intervention with families with chronically ill children. Filial Therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing the parent-child relationship. Parents are trained to become the agents of change for their children's behaviors by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions. The purpose of this study was to a) determine the effectiveness in decreasing parental stress, b) determine the effectiveness in increasing parental acceptance, and c) determine the effectiveness in decreasing problematic behaviors in the chronically ill child as assessed by their parents.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Tew, Kristi L. (Kristi Lee)
Description: This study was designed to determine whether participation in an eight hour training program based on Adlerian theoretical principles would influence managerial attitudes. The effects of the training curriculum on three attitudinal dimensions were investigated: leadership style, acceptance of self and others and level of dogmatism. It was hypothesized that Adlerian training would increase the development of managerial human relations competence. Eighty-one managers participated in the study. The experimental group, comprised of 40 line managers, received eight hours of Adlerian training conducted in two one-half day sessions. The training was both didactic and experiential in content and contained modules on lifestyles/management styles, conflict resolution, effective communication strategies and understanding personality dynamics. The control group, comprised of 41 managers, did not receive training but participated in the pre-testing and post-testing process. Managers completed The Leadership Opinion Questionnaire, The Acceptance of Self and Others Questionnaire, and The Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, prior to the first training session and again two weeks after the final training session. A one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups on both the Consideration and Structure dimensions of the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire. This suggests that managers in the experimental group demonstrated a more participative and less authoritarian management style two weeks after training was completed. No significant differences were found between the two groups on managers' level of dogmatism or acceptance of self and others.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Preiss, Amy E.
A Critical Examination and Analysis of Differences in Perceived Levels of Marital Satisfaction among Nigerian Couples in the Dallas-Fort Worth Area
Description: The purpose of this investigation was to critically examine differences in the perceived levels of marital satisfaction among Nigerians living in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. A realistic appraisal of this group's perceived levels of marital satisfaction provided the basis for this pragmatic and academically useful study which is especially valuable to professionals involved in cross-cultural counseling.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Omoni, Johnson O. (Johnson Olaleran), 1945-
Description: The possibility of a relationship between Adlerian life style, as measured by the Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined by this research. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between these instruments to broaden the applicability of both instruments for both research and clinical endeavors. Life style is a concept which is vital to therapeutic intervention from an Adlerian frame of reference. Assessment of life style typically involves lengthy therapist interviews. Both the LSPI and the MBTI are questionnaires designed to measure personality variables. The 117 subjects for this study were solicited from individuals seeking counseling from an urban community counseling center. The individuals served by this agency are primarily those diagnosed with Adjustment Disorders. The LSPI and the MBTI were administered individually to each subject. Means and standard deviations were computed for the seven LSPI themes and the MBTI total. Due to a lack of research support for Theme 4 by the LSPI author, the data for this theme were disregarded. The same research indicated a strong bipolar relationship for Themes 7 and 8 (Displaying Inadequacy and Social Interest), which prompted the inclusion of Theme 8 in subsequent data analysis. A correlation analysis was developed. Using the correlation matrix, a factor analysis program was run using the SPSS-X statistical package. The principal components analysis extracted three factors which were refined by a factor rotation using the varimax rotation option. To clarify Factor 3, further analysis was performed with the MBTI data divided by continuum and a second factor analysis was run. Four factors emerged from the data with Factors 1 and 2 remaining unchanged. Factor 1 (Emotional Focusing) and Factor 2 (Confrontation) were loaded with the LSPI themes. Factor 3 (Temperament) and Factor 4 (External-Internal) were loaded with the ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Doss, Carol Rose
Ethical Knowledge of Counselors: A Survey of the Membership of the Texas Association for Counseling and Development
Description: This study was designed to measure ten demographic membership variables of the Texas Association for Counseling and Development (TACD) and the respective relationships of those variables to ethical knowledge. It was also an effort to conduct a global study of the most recent revision (1988) of the AACD Ethical Standards and to find the relative knowledge of these standards by a random sample of 357 counselors in one state counseling organization.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Zibert, Jack (Jack Charles)
A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families: a Replication
Description: The purpose of this study was to re-examine the issue of whether adult children of alcoholics experience more depression, anxiety, and lower self-esteem than do children of non-alcoholic families. This study is a replication of the study of David Dodd, entitled A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families. 1990. The measures used in this study were as follows: Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory, and a questionnaire developed by this writer designed to obtain family history regarding not only alcoholism, but other issues of family dysfunctionality as well. The subjects for this study were 231 students enrolled in the counselor education program at this university, all aged 19 or older. Of the 230 subjects, 31 were male and 199 were female. Eleven males identified themselves as children of alcoholics, as measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and 60 females identified themselves as children of alcoholics. Thus, a total of 71 subjects in this study were identified as children of alcoholics. T-tests were conducted to see whether any differences existed between the male and female groups. No significant differences were found. Results of this study showed that family dysfunctionality rather than parental alcoholism was the factor of variability regarding depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. There appears to be a strong relationship between parental alcoholism and family dysfunctionality, but dysfunctionality clearly has more impact upon depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in the adult children of these families than does alcoholism.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Dooley, Sandra Y.
The Effects of Raising Grandchildren on the Marital Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Parenting Stress of Grandparents
Description: This study examined the relationship among the variables of marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, and parenting stress of grandparents raising grandchildren and whether the sources and levels of marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, and parenting stress differed among grandparents raising grandchildren and grandparents not raising grandchildren.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Aaron, Larry M. (Larry Marion)
Description: The purpose of this study was to trace the development of the counseling movement in Hong Kong from its beginning to the present and to examine future directions confronting those who work in the counseling field in Hong Kong. Originating from social unrest in 1966 and 1967, the counseling movement began as an attempt to meet the society's developmental needs of self-expression and direction. Although not a formal program, the first known counseling service in Hong Kong was offered by Ben Fong in 1967 at the Yang Memorial Social Service Center. In 1969 the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups established the first formal counseling service in Hong Kong. Institutions of higher education and foreigners played a major role in the development of early counseling services in Hong Kong. In 197 0, Peter Whyte, an Australian, organized a counseling service at the University Hong Kong. In 1971, Ken Locke, an American, established a counseling service at the Hong Kong Baptist College. Counseling services grew rapidly in the early 1970s, and a 1975 survey identified fifty-five agencies which reported providing counseling services. In the mid-1970s, helping professionals were struggling with the issue of "What is counseling?" A significant developmental step was the establishment of a master's degree program in counseling at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1977. The first professional counseling organization, the Association of Psychological and Educational Counselors of Asia-Hong Kong Branch, was organized in 1979 and the first counseling journal was published in 1980. In 1984, the Education Department of the Hong Kong Government established guidance services in secondary schools. The challenge for the counselors of Hong Kong in the 1990s relates to two foreseeable changes in the Hong Kong community, the Chinese recovery of the sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997 and the aging of the ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Leung, Timothy Tin-ming
Description: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of group counseling with visually-impaired elderly adults, and (b) to provide information concerning the effectiveness of group counseling to practitioners in the field. The study reviewed the literature regarding aging and vision, psychosocial reactions to vision loss, and group counseling with the visually-impaired and the elderly. Twenty subjects, who were above age 65 and had recently experienced a severe loss of vision, were selected to participate in the study. Ten subjects were assigned to an experimental counseling group and 10 subjects were assigned to a no-treatment control group. The experimental group participated in 1-1/2 hour group sessions once a week for 10 weeks. Both the experimental group and the control subjects were administered pre- and post-tests. The tests measured depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Schor, Mark Melvin
Personality Strengths and Perceived Levels of Autonomy and Intimacy in the Family of Origin of Adult Children from Alcoholic Families
Description: The problem of this study was to assess the impact of growing up in an alcoholic family on adult personality strengths and to determine the perceived levels of autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin. The sample consisted of 115 volunteers, 84 women and 31 men, ages 22 years and older, who had at least one alcoholic parent. The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaires (16 PF) and the Family of Origin Scale (FOS) were administered. A 1 X 3 Chi Square Goodness of Fit analysis was used on each of the 16 personality factors to determine the personality strengths of adult children of alcoholics (ACA). A simple discriminate function analysis was used to determine the degree to which assessed strengths on the 16 PF discriminated self-reported levels of autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine which 16 PF were more closely related to perceived autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin as measured by the FOS.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Bachner-Schnorr, Harriet
Description: This study investigated whether behavior disordered children would decrease aggressive behavior if their social interest were developed. Three hypotheses that were tested predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on adjusted mean scores on aggressive behavior on post test scores. The measuring instruments used were the Child Behavior Checklist Parent Report Form, the Child Behavior Checklist Teacher Report Form, and the Child Behavior Checklist Director Observation Form. It was also predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on post test adjusted mean scores as measured on the Social Interest Scale. An analysis of covariance was employed to test the data. Behavior disordered students in the experimental group participated in three activities designed to develop their social interest. They participated in peer tutoring, socialization with nursing home residents, and group discussions. Data were collected from parents, teachers, and observers of behavior disordered students in an elementary school in Northwest Louisiana during the summer term of 1987. Teachers did report a statistically significant difference between the experimental and the control groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. These results are in accord with predictions generated by Adlerian theory and with naturalistic data. Parents and observers did not report a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. Significant differences were not found between the experimental and control groups in the development of social interest. Since the teachers did report statistically significant results in this study, it is recommended that these same activities to develop social interest be repeated, that counseling sessions be designed to be more therapeutic, and that additional modeling and role playing be included. It is further recommended that an instrument be developed to measure social interest ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Brown, Deborah D. (Deborah Dairy)
Description: A prevention-oriented telephone line intended as an intervention program for latchkey children was studied to determine its impact on the self-esteem, anxiety level, and in-school and at-home behavior of these children.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Padilla, Mary Lou
Description: Subjects were 2,950 patients who had previously received inpatient treatment for substance abuse at 40 treatment centers in 13 states and were followed up by the Chemical Abuse/Addiction Treatment Outcome Registry (CATOR) via telephone during the 2 years immediately following their treatment. All subjects were contacted every 6 months and asked a series of questions regarding their relapse status, medical utilization, illnesses, injuries, and arrests. Patient status was based on 3 categories: (1) abstinence from any abuse of a chemical, (2) brief relapse of less than 3 months abuse of any chemical, or (3) total relapse of longer than 3 months of any chemical. Findings showed that abstainers had fewer days in the hospital for emotional problems and detoxification. Abstainers also had fewer visits to the hospital for emergency reasons. Males in the brief relapse category had a greater number of injuries than abstainers or total relapsers. Regarding arrests and automobile accidents, no difference was discovered. However, regarding Drunk While Driving (DWI) arrests, abstainers had fewer arrests.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Jones, French Allan
Description: This study used a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine the perspective of five bulimic subjects about their lives in order to understand the bulimic individual's point of view and develop a clearer picture of the world of the bulimic. This approach involved three interviews for each of the five subjects totalling 22 1/2 hours. The three interviews dealt with the subjects' past and present experiences and their ideas about the future. The qualitative/phenomenological methodology created an in-depth view of each subject's relationship to the beginning of her bulimia and its subsequent development. During the period when the interviews were being transcribed, patterns and concepts emerged and were examined. Nine categories were developed from this data reflecting some of the characteristics of a bulimic's personality. Six research questions were formulated and then answered by evaluating them in the light of the nine categories as well as data and descriptions from the interviews. No one single category was found to be uniquely dominant, but rather the categories tended to appear in a cluster-like fashion depending on the individual personality of the bulimic. The data of this study revealed a distinction between the personality and the behavior of the bulimic. A form with a Likert-like response was developed by the researcher and given out to 11 raters in order to evaluate the presence or non-presence of the categories in selected passages. On the basis of the findings of this study, with its limited subject pool, certain recommendations are presented for the reader that might perhaps be of some use in understanding bulimia.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Schachtel, Bernard, 1943-
A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children From Non-Alcoholic Families on Depression, Self-Esteem, and Anxiety
Description: The problem of this study was to test the differences between adult children from alcoholic families with adult children from non-alcoholic families on levels of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety. The sample consisted of 203 volunteers, all from the Counselor Education Department, 150 females and 53 males, ages 19 and older. Volunteers who were noted as being adult children of alcoholic families numbered 60. Measures used were the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to test for differences between groups. In addition, a secondary analysis using a one-way MANOVA was used to test for differences between dysfunctional and functional family of origin status on the dependent variables of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Dodd, David T. (David Tennyson), 1957-
Love Attitudes and Marital Adjustment Through Five Stages of the Marital Life-Cycle in Protestant Nigerian Society
Description: This study examined the relationship between love attitude and marital adjustment across five stages of the marital life-cycle in Nigerian society. The subjects for this study were 202 volunteers from six protestant churches representing six cities in the southern part of Nigeria. An average of 20 couples were representatives of each of the five marital life-cycles. Each of the subjects completed the Love Attitude Inventory (LAI), and the Marital Adjustment Test (short form) (MAT). Wilk's multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences between husbands' and wives' love attitude and marital adjustment across the five stages of the marital life cycle. Multivariate analysis split-plot 5.2 with repeated measures revealed no significant difference for the total sample among the groups, but indicated a significant difference between love attitude and marital adjustment for the total sample using sex as a factor. A univariate test of the MAT and LAI indicated that the MAT accounted for the difference. A canonical correlation indicated a significant positive relationship between husbands1 and wives' marital adjustment and love attitude within each of the five groups. The findings suggest that husbands and wives included in this study have a good understanding of their roles in the marriage relationship and that the partners have general agreement regarding those roles. The marriage partners apparently have strong influences on each other's perceptions of love attitude and marital adjustment.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Acho, Onyebuchi S. (Onyebuchi Sunday)
Description: This study investigated the relationships among the variables of parental stress, parental attitude, and preschoolers' academic, social and emotional maturity. The purposes of the investigation were to measure the relationship between parental stress and parental attitude, and to determine whether parental attitude and parental stress differed in their ability to predict preschoolers' behavioral maturity.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Hwang, Ching-Hui
Description: Play therapy in a school setting was studied to determine its therapeutic effectiveness on students' reading achievement, self-concept, and locus of control. The sample consisted of 24 students in two first grade classes who had been retained because of low achievement in reading. Instruments used in the study were the Gates MacGinite Reading Test, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance, used to test the significance of the difference between the adjusted post-test means of the experimental and control groups, showed that participants in play therapy scored significantly higher in self-concept than did those who were not exposed to treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in reading achievement or locus of control. Since research has shown that low achievers in reading tend to have low self-concepts, it seems reasonable to assume that improved self-concept would be related to improved reading scores. The nature of such a possible relationship needs further study. Recommendations were made for integrating affective components into academic remediation programs, and suggestions for further research were made.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Crow, Judy C. (Judy Carolyn)
Description: This study presents a topical and chronological analysis of the published works of Fritz Perls with particular attention to specified theoretical continua. The theoretical continua specified are: 1. Determinism vs. Free Will, 2. Unconscious vs. Conscious, 3. Monism vs. Dualism, A. Physical vs. Mental, 5. Nativism vs. Environmental ism, 6. Elementalism vs. Holism, 7. Reactive vs. Proactive, 8. Subjective vs. Objective, 9. Responsibility vs. Helplessness, 10. Thinking vs. Feeling, and 11. Heterostasis vs. Homeostasis. Each continuum is analyzed in reference to Perls' published thought and his stated beliefs are described and reported. Large sections of the dissertation are devoted to the intellectual, philosophical, and emotional influences that led Perls to write the theory of Gestalt therapy. The dissertation concludes with the report of Perls' position on each defined continuum, with discussion of empirical studies, Gestalt therapy and other major theories of counseling that hold parallel theoretical positions, concluding with a discussion of the limitations of the theory of Gestalt therapy and of this dissertation.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Spillman, Craig W. (Craig Warren)
Description: In this study, a computerized marriage enrichment program that gave couples instruction on communication skills and problem-solving was developed and tested. Couples completed the marriage enrichment courseware together on a computer. Forty couples from a metropolitan area in North Texas volunteered to complete the marriage enrichment courseware. Ten couples were randomly assigned to each of the following four groups: an experimental group that received the pretest followed by treatment and a post-test, a control-wait group that completed pre- and post-tests, an experimental group that received treatment followed by a post-test, and a post-test only control-wait: group. Three hypotheses were generated predicting that experimental subjects would significantly increase their marital communication skills following the treatment and that wives in the pre-test and experimental groups would achieve higher marital communication scores than would husbands. The dependent variable was the score on the Marital Communication Inventory (Bienvenu, 1970). Analyses of variance did not reveal any differences between husbands, wives, and couples at the pre- or post-tests. A three way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for treatment (p < .04), but no interaction effects were found. In related findings, a t-test on the post-test minus pre-test difference for wife's scores was significant beyond the .005 level of confidence. Pearson product-moment correlations between the amount of time spent on the marriage enrichment courseware and posttest scores suggested that couples who spent more time completing the program were more likely to achieve higher scores. A regression analysis confirmed the significance of time spent on increased post-test scores (p < .0085). Based on these findings, it seems appropriate to conclude that computerized marriage enrichment courseware is a promising approach for couples who spend at least two hours completing the material.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Ramsay, Annetta
Description: Depression is believed to be the most prevalent mental dysfunction among older adults, and depression and anger are frequently linked in theory and in therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether participation in group counseling sessions would increase awareness and expression of anger and decrease depression levels in women aged 65 and older. Treatment group members were compared to a matching control group. Both groups completed the Anger Self Report Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison of the ASR subscale scores, Awareness of Anger, Expression of Anger, Guilt, Condemnation of Anger, and Mistrust, revealed no significant differences between the treatment and control groups. However, the treatment group scored significantly higher on the BDI than did the control group. Analysis of variance of the ASR and the BDI, and the variables upon which the treatment and control groups were matched revealed some significant differences, and comparison of the women in this study with the two groups upon whom the ASR was validated showed this study's older women scored significantly lower than the validation groups on the ASR. The author concluded that six sessions is not long enough to effect change in either anger awareness or expression in older women, and more time is needed to establish group cohesiveness in older populations than that generally thought to be needed for younger populations. Replication of the study with men and women, and replication of Khe study using a longitudinal design is recommended in order to determine whether awareness and expression of anger change with age, or whether differences between older and younger populations are due to historical and environmental influences.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Johnson, Wanda Y. (Wanda Yates)
Description: The initial session play therapy behaviors of maladjusted and adjusted children were compared to investigate the value of children's play for diagnostic purposes. The frequency and the intensity of 13 categories of play behaviors were considered as factors in discriminating maladjusted children from adjusted children. The 15 children in the maladjusted group had been referred by their parents for counseling but had not been in counseling previously, and their teachers had reported that they had exhibited two or more behaviors indicative of emotional disturbance. The 15 children in the adjusted group were rated by their teachers as exhibiting none of the behaviors Indicating emotional disturbance, and their parents recognized no need for counseling. All subjects were 5 to 9 years of age, and the two groups were matched for age and sex. The Play Behaviors Adjustment Rating Scale (PBARS) was used to rate each child's play behaviors in an initial videotaped 36-minute play therapy session. The frequency and the intensity were rated for thirteen play categories: exploratory, incidental, creative or coping, dramatic or role, relationship building, relationship testing, self-accepting, self-rejecting, acceptance of environment, nonacceptance of environment, positive attitudinal, ambivalent attitudinal, and negative attitudinal. The results of the chi-square analysis indicated that maladjusted children exhibited significantly more self-accepting and nonacceptance of environment behaviors as well as more intense dramatic or role behaviors and acceptance of environment behaviors than did adjusted children. Further investigation showed: (a) maladjusted girls expressed dramatic or role behaviors more often and more intensely than maladjusted boys, (b) maladjusted boys showed more self-accepting and nonacceptance of environment behaviors than maladjusted girls, (c) maladjusted boys exhibited more self-accepting behaviors than adjusted boys, (d) adjusted girls expressed more positive attitudinal behaviors than adjusted boys, and (e) adjusted boys engaged in more exploratory play and were more intense in negative attitudinal ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Oe, Emily Norene