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Effects of Web-based Instruction in High School Chemistry.

Description: The intent of this study is to identify correlations that might exist between Web-based instruction and higher assessment scores in secondary education. The study framework was held within the confines of a public high school chemistry classroom. Within this population there were students identified as gifted and talented (GT) as well as those without this designation. These two classifications were examined for statistically higher assessment scores using a two-tailed t-test. Results indicated that females outperformed males on pre- and post- instructional unit tests. All subgroups improved their logical-thinking skills and exhibited positive attitudes towards Web-based instruction. In general, Web-based instruction proved beneficial to improving classroom performance of all GT and non-GT groups as compared to traditional classroom instruction.
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Stratton, Eric W.

Electrochemical synthesis of CeO2 and CeO2/montmorillonite nanocomposites.

Description: Nanocrystalline cerium oxide thin films on metal and semiconductor substrates have been fabricated with a novel electrodeposition approach - anodic oxidation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that as-produced cerium oxide films are characteristic face-centered cubic fluorite structure with 5 ~ 20 nm crystal sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study probes the non-stoichiometry property of as-produced films. Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy have been applied to analyze the films as well. Deposition mode, current density, reaction temperature and pH have also been investigated and the deposition condition has been optimized for preferred oriented film formation: galvanostatic deposition with current density of -0.06 mA/cm2, T > 50oC and 7 < pH < 10. Generally, potentiostatic deposition results in random structured cerium oxide films. Sintering of potentiostatic deposited cerium oxide films leads to crystal growth and reach nearly full density at 1100oC. It is demonstrated that in-air heating favors the 1:2 stoichiometry of CeO2. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide powders (4 ~ 10 nm) have been produced with anodic electrochemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate lattice expansion phenomenon related to the nanoscale cerium oxide particles. The pH of reaction solution plays an important role in electrochemical synthesis of cerium oxide films and powder. Cyclic voltammetry and rotation disk electrode voltammetry have been used to study the reaction mechanisms. The results indicate that the film deposition and powder formation follow different reaction schemes. Ce(III)-L complexation is a reversible process, Ce3+ at medium basic pH region (7~10) is electrochemically oxidized to and then CeO2 film is deposited on the substrate. CE mechanism is suggested to be involved in the formation of films, free Ce3+ species is coordinated with OH- at high basic pH region (>10) to Ce2O3 immediately prior to electrochemically oxidation Ce2O3 to CeO2. CeO2 / montmorillonite nanocomposites were electrochemically produced. X-ray ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Wang, Qi

Investigation of the Pressure Dependence of SO3 Formation

Description: The kinetics of the pressure dependent O + SO2 + Ar reaction have been investigated using laser photolysis resonance fluorescence at temperatures of 289 K, 399 K, 581 K, 699 K, 842 K and 1040 K and at pressures from 30-665 torr. Falloff was observed for the first time in the pressure dependence. Application of Lindemann theory yielded an Arrhenius expression of k(T) = 3.3 x 10-32exp(-992/T) cm6 molecule-1 s-1 for the low pressure limit and k(T) = 8.47 x 10-14exp(-468/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for the high pressure limit at temperatures between 289 and 842 K. The reaction is unusual as it possesses a positive activation energy at low temperature, yet at higher temperatures the activation energy is negative, illustrating a reaction barrier.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Naidoo, Jacinth

Synthesis and characterization of 2-chloro-3-benzylthiopyrrolo[1,2-a]- benzimidazol-1-one and 2,3-di(benzylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one.

Description: The reaction between o-phenylenediamine and 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride has been probed and found to give 2,3-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]- benzimidazol-1-one as the major product. Chlorine substitution in 2,3-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one by added benzylthiol occurs in the presence of pyridine to provide the corresponding monosulfide and disulfide derivatives. The first benzylthiol ligand undergoes reaction at the C-3 position of the five-membered pyrrolo-1-one ring, with the addition of the second benzylthiol ligand occurring at the remaining chlorine-substituted carbon. The mono- and disulfide derivatives have been isolated and characterized in solution by NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, and the solid-state structure of 2,3-di(benzylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one has been established by X-ray crystallography.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Huang, Shih-Huang

Synthesis and host-guest interaction of cage-annulated podands, crown ethers, cryptands, cavitands and non-cage-annulated cryptands.

Description: Symmetrical cage-annulated podands were synthesized via highly efficient synthetic strategies. Mechanisms to account for the key reaction steps in the syntheses are proposed; the proposed mechanisms receive support from the intermediates that have been isolated and characterized. An unusual complexation-promoted elimination reaction was studied, and a mechanism is proposed to account for the course of this reaction. This unusual elimination may generalized to other rigid systems and thus may extend our understanding of the role played by the host molecules in "cation-capture, anion-activation" via complexation with guest molecules. Thus, host-guest interaction serves not only to activate the anion but also may activate the leaving groups that participate in the complexation. Complexation-promoted elimination provides a convenient method to desymmetrize the cage while avoiding protection/deprotection steps. In addition, it offers a convenient method to prepare a chiral cage spacer by introducing 10 chiral centers into the host system in a single synthetic step. Cage-annulated monocyclic hosts that contain a cage-butylenoxy spacer were synthesized. Comparison of their metal ion complexation behavior as revealed by the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), alkali metal picrate extraction, and pseudohydroxide extraction with those displayed by the corresponding hosts that contain cage-ethylenoxy or cage-propylenoxy spacers reveals the effect of the length of the cage spacer upon the host-guest behavior. A series of cage-annulated cryptands, cavitands and the corresponding non-cage-annulated model compounds have been synthesized. These host molecules display unusual behavior when examined by using ESI-MS techniques, i.e., they bind selectively to smaller alkali metal ions (i.e., Li+ and Na+), a result that deviates significantly from expectations based solely upon consideration of the size-fit principle. It seems likely that this behavior results from the effect of the host topology on host-guest behavior. A series of non-cage-annulated cryptands also have been synthesized. These compounds can serve as starting ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Chen, Zhibing

Synthesis and X-ray Diffraction Structure of 8,9-Dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one

Description: Treatment of dichloromaleic anhydride and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene in either benzene or toluene under refluxing conditions gives low yields of the new heterocyclic compound 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one. This product has been isolated and characterized in solution by NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopies, and the solid-state structure of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been established by X-ray crystallography. The nature of the HOMO and LUMO levels of 8,9-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]perimidin-10-one has been studied by extended Hückel molecular orbital calculations.
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Date: August 2003
Creator: Chen, Tao