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Acculturation, Parental Control, and Adjustment among Asian Indian Women

Description: The present study examines the relationship between acculturation, parental control, and psychological adjustment among adult first and second-generation Asian Indian women who have immigrated, or whose parents have immigrated to the United States, from the Indian state of Kerala. Data from 73 participants indicate second-generation immigrants report poorer psychological adjustment than do their counterparts. Additionally, regression analyses reveal discomfort towards Kerala culture significantly predicts depressive symptoms, while high maternal control predicts self-esteem. Qualitative data were collected to provide richer understanding of immigrants' adaptation to the U.S. Implications of this research may impact mental health practitioners' ability to improve quality of life with Asian Indian women from Kerala.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Varghese, Anitha

Antecedents of the Psychological Adjustment of Children and Grandparent Caregivers in Grandparent-Headed Families

Description: Grandparent-headed families are diverse in nature and represent a rapidly growing family type. While challenges facing grandparent caregivers are well documented, less is known about the well-being of their grandchildren, with many early studies relying on small samples of convenience. This study used an existing large national database, the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), to compare differences in well-being of both children and grandparent caregivers across the independent variables of family type, ethnicity, gender, and age. Findings suggested better mental health and less parental aggravation for caregivers in traditional two parent intact families as compared to grandparents co-parenting in a multi-generation home, skipped generation grandparents (raising their grandchild with no parent present) or single parents. Skipped generation grandparents in particular reported most caregiver aggravation. Child physical health was reported to be worse by skipped generation grandparent caregivers. Behavior problems were reported to be worse for children in grandparent headed households than those in traditional families, particularly for teenagers raised in skipped generation households by their grandmothers. Specific results, limitations and future directions for research on grandparent-headed households were discussed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Jooste, Jane Louise

Boston Naming Test with Latencies (BNT-L)

Description: Although most people have experienced word-finding difficulty at one time or another, there are no clinical instruments able to reliably distinguish normal age-related effects from pathology in word-finding impairment. Two experiments were conducted to establish a modified version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) that includes latency times, the Boston Naming Test of Latencies (BNT-L), in order to improve the instrument's sensitivity to mild to moderate word-finding impairment. Experiment 1: Latency times on the 60-item BNT (Goodglass et al., 2001) for 235 healthy adults' ages 18-89 years were collected on a representative sample. Qualitative features of the BNT items, statistical analyses, IRT, and demographic considerations of age, gender, education, vocabulary, race and culture, helped create a reduced BNT-L version with 15 of the most discriminating items. Statistically sound and sophisticated normative tables are provided that adjust for unseen covariates. Response latencies did not indicate earlier age-related decline in an optimally healthy sample. Experiment 2: Twenty-three patients referred for neuropsychological testing were administered the BNT-L. Patients referred for evaluation of mild cognitive impairment or possible dementia produced significantly different response BNT-L latencies from the healthy sample whereas patients referred for mild brain injury evaluation did not. Normal word-finding problems were discussed in terms of serial stage models of lexical access, as well as in terms of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in younger and older adults. Statistical process for creating a psychometric instrument using latencies is illustrated.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Budd, Margaret Anne

Cultural Implications of Self-Other Agreement in Multisource Feedback: Comparing Samples from US, China, and Globally Dispersed Teams.

Description: Application of multisource feedback (MSF) increased dramatically and became widespread globally in the past two decades, but there was little conceptual work regarding self-other agreement and few empirical studies investigated self-other agreement in other cultural settings. This study developed a new conceptual framework of self-other agreement and used three samples to illustrate how national culture affected self-other agreement. These three samples included 428 participants from China, 818 participants from the US, and 871 participants from globally dispersed teams (GDTs). An EQS procedure and a polynomial regression procedure were used to examine whether the covariance matrices were equal across samples and whether the relationships between self-other agreement and performance would be different across cultures, respectively. The results indicated MSF could be applied to China and GDTs, but the pattern of relationships between self-other agreement and performance was different across samples, suggesting that the results found in the U.S. sample were the exception rather than rule. Demographics also affected self-other agreement disparately across perspectives and cultures, indicating self-concept was susceptible to cultural influences. The proposed framework only received partial support but showed great promise to guide future studies. This study contributed to the literature by: (a) developing a new framework of self-other agreement that could be used to study various contextual factors; (b) examining the relationship between self-other agreement and performance in three vastly different samples; (c) providing some important insights about consensus between raters and self-other agreement; (d) offering some practical guidelines regarding how to apply MSF to other cultures more effectively.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Lin, Yue

Culture and Mental Health Help-Seeking Attitudes in Mexico.

Description: This study was designed to investigate 1) the cultural factors involved with Mexican citizens' attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and 2) Mexican citizens' explanatory models of mental distress. Questionnaire data from 110 Mexican college students indicate that those who report a higher tolerance for stigma report lower endorsement of both the construct of personalismo and the machismo. Respondents who reported more interpersonal openness also reported a lower endorsement of the machismo construct. Participants from a large city reported significantly more stigma tolerance than those from a small city. Regression analyses reveal machismo as a significant predictor of stigma tolerance. Qualitative data was collected to provide additional in-depth information. Study results could be used to provide culturally appropriate mental health services.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Gomez, Steven David

Educational Attainment among High-Risk Teenage Mothers

Description: Decreased educational attainment has been associated with numerous factors such as teenage pregnancy, repeat pregnancy, risky sexual behavior, substance use, depression, and parental distress. Educational attainment was examined among a group of predominantly Mexican American teenage mothers who were considered at high risk to have a repeat pregnancy, contract sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and use substances. Project Success Longitudinal Study is part of a national study funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Participants were recruited from eight traditional high schools in a large South Texas school district, an area with a high rate of teenage pregnancy and substance use. The treatment intervention included a multidimensional curriculum that was implemented in the participants' high schools in addition to home- and school-based case management services. It was hypothesized that participants who received the intervention would be more likely to attain their high school degree or equivalent and that amount of treatment received would be associated with educational attainment. Additionally, it was hypothesized that profiles of participants who attained their high school degree or equivalent would differ in the areas of parental distress, social support, symptoms of depression, and substance use when compared to participants who did not attain their high school degree or equivalent. Results indicated that participants who received the intervention reported increased educational attainment during the first two years of the study. Additionally, all participants experienced positive changes on various psychosocial measures.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Ortiz, Lisa M.

The Effectiveness of a Learning Strategies Course on College Student-Athletes' and Non-Athletes' Adjustment, Academic Performance, and Retention after the First Two Years of College

Description: This study replicated and extended previous research I had performed that suggested that a student success course is an effective intervention to assist student-athletes in the adjustment to college. Participants in the current study included 4 groups of students, including (1) non-athletes and (2) student-athletes who were mandated and enrolled in the student success course, and (3) non-athletes and (4) student-athletes who were not mandated and did not enroll in the student success course. Overall, results from the current study suggested that the student success course was effective in helping non-athletes and student-athletes learn key cognitive strategies that are necessary for college success. In addition, results indicated that after taking the student success course, academically at-risk students earned equivalent grades, percentage of hours passed, and retention rates compared to their peers who were not classified as being academically underprepared. Finally, adjustment patterns of all groups were examined, with particular emphasis on the decrease in adjustment over the course of the semester that was demonstrated by the student-athletes. Intervention implications and future research directions are discussed, specifically in terms of how to address the unique needs of college freshmen student-athletes.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Tebbe, Carmen M.

The evaluation of Project SCORE: A life skills program for an inner city high school.

Description: Project SCORE: Life Skills for Future Success, is a structured, 20-lesson curriculum, designed to help students develop academic and life skills, as well as self-responsibility, commitment, optimism, respect, and excellence. The curriculum was presented during 36, 90-minute class periods over the fall semester of the students' freshmen year. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Project SCORE at improving grades, learning strategies, self esteem and coping skills with freshmen students at an inner-city high school. In order to evaluate the program, students completed paper-pencil surveys at the beginning and end of the semester in which they were enrolled in the Project SCORE class. In addition, teachers completed evaluations on their perceptions of each student's peer relationships, classroom behavior, mood, and activity level. All teachers and students involved in the course were asked to complete an evaluation to determine their level of satisfaction with the course and areas in need of improvement. Lastly, information pertaining to grades, discipline and standardized test scores were used to determine the impact of SCORE. Participants were 333 9th grade students at a large 4A high school in Texas. Findings suggest that SCORE had a positive effect on coping resources, study skills and grades during the semester students were enrolled in the course. Specifically, students reported significantly higher levels of school self concept and improved coping resources at the end of the semester long course. Lastly, students and teachers believed SCORE to be helpful in easing the transition into high school and at teaching the various life and study skills.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Jones, Gretchen M.

Evaluation of the Situational Judgment Test

Description: This research attempts to confirm the reliability and construct validity of a personnel selection instrument called a Situational Judgment Test (SJT) through reliability analysis and factor analysis. The existing literature on SJTs is reviewed, including the advantages of using SJTs in personnel selection as well as the debate on whether SJTs measure a single construct or whether they can be multidimensional depending on the content. The specific SJT in this research was theoretically developed and received expert ratings to assess four general constructs: problem solving, planning, priority setting, and leadership. No support from alpha internal consistency reliability analysis was found for the assembly of these items into the four a priori subscales, thus assembly of these items into the theoretical subscales and scales was not supported.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Conner, Lane A.

Examining the relationship between employee-superior conflict and voluntary turnover in the workplace: A comparison of companies across industries.

Description: Employee turnover is a topic of concern for a multitude of organizations. A variety of work-related factors play into why an individual chooses to change jobs, but these are often symptoms of underlying issues, such as conflict. This study set out to determine if conflict between employees and their superiors has an impact on the level of turnover in an organization, and if manufacturing versus non-manufacturing industry type makes a difference. The generated data were based on 141 selected cases from the ethnographic cases in the Workplace Ethnography Project. Linear and logistic regressions were performed, finding that there is a significant relationship between conflict with superiors and the level of turnover.
Date: August 2007
Creator: West, Lindsey Straka

The Facet Satisfaction Scale: Enhancing the measurement of job satisfaction.

Description: Job satisfaction is an important job-related attitude that has been linked to various outcomes for both the organization and its employees. In spite of this, researchers of the construct disagree about how job satisfaction is defined and measured. This study proposes the use of the Facet Satisfaction Scale, a new scale of measurement for job satisfaction that is based on more recent definitions of the construct. Reliability and preliminary predictive validity studies were conducted in order to determine the utility of this scale. Next steps in scale development are discussed.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Yeoh, Terence Eng Siong

Factor Structure of the Neurocognitive Battery in a Geriatric Sample with Cognitive Impairments

Description: The present study was designed to empirically validate six theoretically derived cognitive domains (verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, attention-concentration, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities) assessed by a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests used in the Geriatric Memory Clinic at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in Fort Worth, Texas. The study examined the extent to which various cognitive dimensions are tapped by this battery in a heterogeneous geriatric sample of 114 patients with cognitive impairments. The proposed six-factor model of cognitive functioning has not been supported. Further exploratory factor analysis arrived at a five-factor solution. Factor pattern of the 23 tests supported the following five dimensions: memory, executive control, attention, visuospatial abilities, and cognitive flexibility.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Serova, Svetlana

Hierarchical neuropsychological functioning in pediatric survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Description: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common types of pediatric cancers. Improvements in treatment within the last 20 years have resulted in reduced mortality and a greater focus upon quality of life. Several researchers have documented neuropsychological impairments in children following treatment for ALL; however, there have not been any comparative studies documenting differences in neuropsychological functioning based upon treatment modality despite the documented effects of radiation therapy and combined radiation/chemotherapy upon the developing brain. In addition, past studies have focused on unitary measures, ignoring the hierarchical relationship between basic cognitive functions and more abstract skills. This study examined the neuropsychological functioning of 81 children who were treated for ALL at a metropolitan children's hospital. All children were tested a minimum of two years after the final treatment session and were administered the NEPSY. Results do not support any interactions or main effects with the exception of the age of the child at diagnosis. Children diagnosed prior to the age of 5 showed greater impairments on tasks measuring attention, memory, and visuospatial reasoning in comparison to peers diagnosed after age 6.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Larery, Angela R. D.

How does personality relate to contextual performance, turnover, and customer service?

Description: Personality measures are often used by organizations to select and develop employees in a way that maximizes their performance. Studies examining the relationship between personality and job performance have found some evidence for their utility in a variety of situations. Data was collected from a large restaurant company (N=9,800) in which hourly employees took a personality test for selection. Supervisory performance ratings and turnover data were also included for some employees. A three factor model of contextual performance consisting of personal support, organizational support, and conscientiousness initiative was tested and supported. The personality scales with the strongest relationship to performance, included drive and energy, friendliness, and emotional consistency. Effect sizes were relatively similar to previous meta-analytic studies, with the exception of a facet of conscientiousness which revealed a lower correlation with performance than expected. A differential pattern of correlations between the personality scales and performance dimensions was observed that supported some of the theoretically aligned constructs. The correlations between the personality variables and performance were unexpectedly higher among customer facing employees than team-based employees. No hypothesized interaction effects were supported, but some nonlinear relationships were found among some of the personality scales and performance. Drive and energy was a statistically significant predictor in decreasing the rate of turnover, however no support was found for any personality scale predicting job abandonment or involuntary turnover. Finally, a path model was tested that provided marginal support for performance mediating the relationship between personality and customer service ratings at the store level. Implications for human resource practices and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Impelman, Kevin

The impact of organizational learning and training on multiple job satisfaction factors.

Description: This study explored benefits of providing employee training and development beyond the specific content covered in such interventions. The relationship between training and development opportunities, and associated factors (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent) were significant among participants. Implications for training and development investment returns are considered. Previous research has identified training and development as an antecedent to perceived organizational support. Results failed to confirm perceived organizational support as mediating the relationship between training and organizational commitment. Age was found to be significantly correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent, while education level was not found to have an impact. Limitations of this study, practical implications and recommendations for further study are discussed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Barcus, Sydney Anne

Males' Support Toward Females After Sexual Assault

Description: The current study explored the relations among rape myths, attitudes toward rape victims, perceived social support, sex role, and social reactions in a male undergraduate sample (N = 205). Males who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to those who have not provided support to a sexual assault victim on several measures. Social reactions of those who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to hypothetical reactions provided by individuals who have not previously provided support. Results indicated that rape related attitudes and beliefs did not differ between those who have and have not provided support to a sexual assault victim. In addition, individuals who were responding to a hypothetical situation reported that they would provide more positive social support than individuals who were responding to an actual situation. Implications for clinical work and future research in this area are discussed.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Reck, Jennifer K.

Parental bonding, adult romantic attachment, fear of intimacy, and cognitive distortions among child molesters.

Description: Path models assessed different models of influential order for parental bonding; adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; the fear of intimacy; and cognitive distortions among child molesters and non-offending controls. Child molesters receiving sex offender treatment reported more problematic parental bonding; insecure adult romantic attachment; negative views of self, world/others, and the future; a greater fear of intimacy, and more cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. The predicted path models were not established as the models did not adequately fit the data. However, post hoc logistic regressions indicated that Maternal Optimal Bonding, Preoccupied attachment, and cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex significantly predicted child molester status. Overall, the findings provide support for a multi-factorial model of child molestation derived from attachment theory. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are also discussed.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Wood, Eric

Personality and Rater Leniency: Comparison of Broad and Narrow Measures of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness

Description: Performance appraisal ratings provide the basis for numerous employment decisions, including retention, promotion, and salary increases. Thus, understanding the factors affecting the accuracy of these ratings is important to organizations and employees. Leniency, one rater error, is a tendency to assign higher ratings in appraisal than is warranted by actual performance. The proposed study examined how personality factors Agreeableness and Conscientiousness relate to rater leniency. The ability of narrower facets of personality to account for more variance in rater leniency than will the broad factors was also examined. The study used undergraduates' (n = 226) evaluations of instructor performance to test the study's hypotheses. In addition to personality variables, students' social desirability tendency and attitudes toward instructor were predicted to be related to rater leniency. Partial support for the study's hypotheses were found. The Agreeableness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Trust, Altruism and Tender-Mindedness) were positively related to rater leniency as predicted. The hypotheses that the Conscientiousness factor and three of the corresponding facets (Order, Dutifulness, and Deliberation) would be negatively related to rater leniency were not supported. In the current sample the single narrow facet Altruism accounted for more variance in rater leniency than the broad Agreeableness factor. While social desirability did not account for a significant amount of variance in rater leniency, attitude toward instructor was found to have a significant positive relationship accounting for the largest amount of variance in rater leniency.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Grahek, Myranda

Predicting long term job performance using a cognitive ability test.

Description: This study focuses on the relationship of one cognitive ability test on long-term job performance as measured by personnel data. Archival data from over 3,000 employees at an international technology company were used to assess how aptitude test scores relate to both objective and subjective job performance measures. Supervisory performance ratings, level of promotion, and salary increase significantly contributed to variance in test scores; however, these results were inconsistent. Number of training courses did not have a significant relationship with test scores. Additionally, type of turnover did not moderate the relationship between aptitude test scores and job performance. These results indicate that although aptitude test score is related to long term job performance factors, other factors account for the majority of the variance. The implication is that aptitude should not be the sole consideration when predicting long term job success.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Alexander, Sandra G.

Predicting Weight Loss in Post Surgical Laparoscopic Banding Patients

Description: The present study was a retrospective chart review (N=128) that investigated the efficacy of profiles derived from the three factors of the Eating Inventory® test (EI) - cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger - to predict successful weight loss in post surgical laparoscopic banding patients at 6 and 9 months post surgery. Although the EI is commonly used in bariatric presurgical assessment, few studies have found consistent relationships between presurgical factor scores and subsequent weight loss in this population. Based on restraint theory, 7 profiles (high CR, super high CR, high D, super high D, high H, super high H, and null) were derived from the raw scores on the subscales of the EI and tested for weight loss predictive ability using direct logistic regression. Results were mixed with high CR, super high CR, and null profiles accurately predicting successful weight loss. Raw scores on the three factors (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger) were tested individually for predictive ability using direct logistic regression. Overall results indicated that the profile model accurately predicted more cases than the general factor model. This study significantly contributes to both the bariatric presurgical assessment literature and the restraint theory literature. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Frensley, Susan J.

Predictors of Successful Aging: Associations between Social Network Patterns, Life Satisfaction, Depression, Subjective Health, and Leisure Time Activity for Older Adults in India

Description: Aging in the new millennium is greatly influenced by both global and region-specific factors. In Asia, the aged population is increasing at a faster rate than both Europe and North America, making issues related to older adults needing immediate attention of researchers & planners. This study aims at identifying the predictors of successful aging. Successful aging as a construct often has an integration of good social engagement, sense of purpose in life, maintaining cognitive capacity and functional autonomy. One hundred fifty participants in India completed the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale, Health Awareness Schedule, and the Leisure Time Activity Record. Firstly, it is mainly evident that social support network is larger for older adults residing in a joint family as compared to a nuclear family setup. Further, married males in a joint family have the largest network size compared to all the other groups. The study however, reveals an interesting reverse trend of widowed females having a larger network size compared to widowed males. Statistical analysis found measures of successful aging to be highly correlated with each other, with subjective health and depression being significant predictors of life satisfaction. Further, life satisfaction, depression levels, and leisure time activities were all significant predictors of subjective health. Significant gender differences were found on life satisfaction and subjective health with married males living in joint families reporting the highest scores on all the above measures. In addition, widowed women showed the highest levels of depression, which relates to their lower life satisfaction, poor ratings of health and low involvement in leisure activities. The study achieved a higher understanding of successful aging and presented a novel finding of educational level being significantly correlated with all measures of successful aging. This study is the first of its kind to measure successful aging in an ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Varshney, Swati

Proctored versus unproctored online testing using a personality measure: Are there any differences?

Description: Impetus in recruiting and testing candidates via the Internet results from the popularity of the World Wide Web. There has been a transition from paper-pencil to online testing because of large number of benefits afforded by online testing. Though the benefits of online testing are many, there may be serious implications of testing job applicants in unproctored settings. The focus of this field study was two-fold: (1) to examine differences between the proctored and unproctored online test administrations of the ipsative version of Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i and (2) to extend online testing research using OPQ32i with a U.S population. A large sample (N = 5223) of archival selection data from a financial company was used, one group was tested in proctored and the other in unproctored settings. Although some statistical differences were found, very small to small effect sizes indicate negligible differences between the proctored and unproctored groups. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted. The scales not only loaded differently from the Great Eight factor model suggested by SHL, but also differently for the two groups, limiting their interpretability. In addition to the limitations and future directions of the study, the practical implications of the results for companies considering unproctored, online personality testing as a part of their selection process are discussed.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Gupta, Dipti

Psychological Abuse and Health: What Role Does Forgiveness Play?

Description: Existent literature suggests forgiveness could lead to either greater psychological abuse (reinforcement theory), or lower psychological abuse (interpersonal theory). Questionnaires were completed by 291 participants who were dating at least 2 months. More forgiveness-particularly Absence of Negativity-was related to less abuse received from their partner, and this effect was stronger for females than for males. Absence of Negativity (AN) was predictive of health variables (psychosomatic symptoms, mental and physical health), although Presence of Positive forgiveness did not predict health beyond the impact of AN. Abuse-forgiveness and assertiveness-forgiveness interaction terms were not significant predictors of health. Results indicate interpersonal theory describes the link between forgiveness and psychological abuse. Results suggest that focus on AN could be sufficient for mental or physical health change
Date: August 2007
Creator: Scherbarth, Andrew J.

Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Description: Recent research has suggested that the effects of sport on well-being are mediated by psychological characteristics such as physical self-concept, instrumentality and positive body images; in addition, sport was found to be related to these psychological benefits for high school girls. However, physical self-concept played a central role by mediating the sport -body image and sport instrumentality relationships. Positive body image and instrumentality, in turn, predicted greater psychological well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate earlier studies, and to examine these relationships with non-sport physical activity. Sport and physical activity were expected to contribute to higher physical self-concept, which in turn, would contribute positively to instrumentality and body image. Further, instrumentality and body image would be positively related to psychological well-being. Participants were 355 9th (n = 170) and 10th (n = 193) graders and they completed measures of involvement in sport/physical activities, physical self-concept, instrumentality, body satisfaction, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, depression, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the data. Overall, for both sport and physical activity, the models fit the data well (sport model: NNFI=.95, CFI=.96, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09, physical activity model: NNFI=.96, CFI=.97, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09). Specifically, sport participation was positively related to physical self-concept (R2 = .47); physical self-concept related to body image (R2 = .30) and instrumentality (R2 = .23); Physical activity was positively related to physical self-concept (R2 = .61); physical self-concept related to body image (R2 = .30) and instrumentality (R2 = .26). For both models, positive body image and higher levels of instrumentality contributed to greater psychological well-being (R2 = 66). These results highlight the importance of developing physical competence for high school girls through sport participation and physical activity.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Boyer, Elizabeth M.