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Academic Lineage and Student Performance in Medical School
This research investigated the association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine whether the Carnegie classifications of medical school applicants' institutions of origin are associated with academic performance in medical school; (2) consider the relationship between the admission selectivity of the schools of origin and the academic performance of medical school students; (3) compare the performance of medical students from institutions under public governing control with students from privately controlled institutions; and (4) establish a model by which the relative academic strengths of applicants from a variety of undergraduate institutions can be understood more clearly based on the previous performance of medical students from schools with similar institutional characteristics. A review of the literature on medical school admissions was completed and used to develop this research. Medical students from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who enrolled between the years 1990 and 1994 and graduated or were dismissed between the years 1994 and 1998 were selected as the sample for the study (n=933). The undergraduate institution of origin for each student was coded based on its Carnegie classification, admissions selectivity group, and whether its governing control was public or private. Because the sample was not randomly selected and the data likely would not meet the assumptions of equal means and variance with the population, nonparametric analyses of variance and multiple comparison tests were completed to compare the groups of the independent variables over each dependent variable. The analyses revealed that for the sample of medical students selected for this study there was an association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. Differences were found among Carnegie classifications on the dependent variables of cumulative medical school grade point average, class rank, failure rate, and score ...
Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse : Characteristics of the Mother-child Relationship
This qualitative study examined the characteristics of the mother-child relationship of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at the time of the abuse. The study consisted of data from the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Family of Origin Scale (FOS), and a set of structured interview questions designed by the researcher. Autonomy/intimacy concepts from the FOS examined constructs of clarity of expression, responsibility, respect, openness, acceptance of loss and separation, expression of a wide range of feelings, conflict resolution, mood and tone, and empathy.
Analyzing the Financial Condition of Higher Education Institutions Using Financial Ratio Analysis
The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institution’s financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any ...
The Association between Sense of Humor, Coping Ability and Burnout among Nursing Education Faculty
A nonexperimental descriptive study was conducted to determine the interrelatedness among coping strategies, humor and burnout among nursing education faculty. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the constructs of coping strategies and humor which were conceptualized as having a direct relationship to burnout. Areview of the literature concerning coping, humor and burnout supported this proposition and emphasized the need for empirical testing. Coping Humor Scale. Wavs of Coping Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory were the instruments used to measure the constructs. Academic history and demographic data sheets were also used. Hie instruments were mailed to 285 nursing faculty teaching in programs of nursing in the Dallas /Fort Worth, Texas area. The return rate for the mailing was 70.07%. Burnout among nursing education faculty showed a low degree of emotional exhaustion (54.8%), a low degree of depersonalization (84.7% and a low degree of personal accomplishment (60.7%). The findings did not reveal a high or low degree of burnout but rather a pattern of burnout suggestive of a different stage. Humor as a coping mechanism during stressful events was not frequently used. The highest proportion of nursing education faculty used distancing (46.53%) as a coping strategy. The second strategy used was planful problem solving (11.3%) with escape-avoidance used the least (3.34%). Multiple regression was used to test the research questions related to the predictor variables of coping, academic history and demographic data as they relate to each criterion variable of burnout. The use coping strategies (including humor) to predict various stages of burnout revealed only weak variable predictors. Academic history and demographic were also weak predictors for burnout.
The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators
This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual across the lifespan, with origins in childhood when the concepts of self, others, social convention and interpersonal relationships were forming. It is likely that the typical interest in sexual expression that occurs at the onset of puberty was a catalyst that facilitated molesting behavior. The lack of ability to interact successfully with age mates appeared to influence the perpetrators' selection of children as targets. Recommendations were presented for consideration by the mental health and criminal justice communities based on the findings. Also, preventative measures for the public sector were offered.
Benchmarks in American Higher Education: Selected Approaches for Distance Education Copyright and Intellectual Property Policies
An evaluation of American higher education distance education programs was conducted to explore how they approach intellectual property, copyright and information sharing/antitrust policy concerns for Internet-based programs. An evaluation of the current status of distance education and Internet-based training in higher education was conducted through a pilot study that included a random sample of 223 accredited institutions. Seventy-seven institutions responded to a survey, of which there were 14 Research I&II, 17 Doctorate I&II, and 46 Master's I&II institutions included in this study. A review of institutional policy approaches for these 77 institutions was conducted via Internet Web site and bulletin review. A multiple-case study was also conducted which included 10 of the top 30 accredited distance education institutions in America. Policy approaches were examined for all institutions and differences were discussed for public and private institutions as well as the following Carnegie Class institutions- Research I&II, Doctorate I&II and Master's I&II. Ten percent of all institutions that responded to the pilot study developed a written policy addressing antitrust/information-sharing concerns. Additionally, the data indicated that 22% of institutions in these Carnegie Class ranges published copyright and intellectual property policy on their institutions' Internet Web site. Ninety percent of the institutions in the case study advised of central control for the distance education program, as well as central control for copyright and intellectual property policy.
The Condition of the Southern Baptist Professoriate : A Comparison with the Carnegie Foundations 1989 National Survey of Faculty
Southern Baptist-Related college faculty attitudes and opinions on areas of higher education most important to the professoriate as identified by the Carnegie Foundation in its 1989 National Survey of Faculty are described in this study and compared with the data from the survey reported by the Carnegie Foundation in The Condition of the Professoriate: Attitudes and Trends, 1989 and Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. The data were compared in the eight areas: goals of collegiate education, academic standards, attitudes about student life, teaching, research, and service, status of the profession, views of the institution, participation in decision-making, and general observations of higher education.
Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students
Counselor education programs are charged with the responsibility to train students to be effective counselors. Despite relative consistency in academic and clinical experiences, some students are less effective than others. It was the intent of this research to investigate possible relationships which may exist between students' background and experiences and their levels of demonstrated counselor effectiveness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S) and the Supervisor Rated-Counselor Interaction Analysis (SR-CIA). It was hypothesized that counselor effectiveness would be negatively correlated with prior teaching experience and level of religious participation. Data was collected using a demographic survey from masters level counseling students participating in their practicum semester. Counseling tapes from each of the participants were collected towards the end of the semester. These tapes were then rated by doctoral students using the CRF-S and the SR-CIA. The total sample size was 28. Regression analysis was used to investigate the hypotheses. Three models were constructed. The dependent variables used were scores from the CRF-S, the SR-CIA and a third comprised of a normalized composite of CRF-S and SR-CIA termed COMPOSITE. Each model used, as the independent variables, years of teaching experience, and hours of religious participation. Results from regression analysis suggested that a negative correlation existed between counseling effectiveness and years of teaching experience and a positive correlation between counselor effectiveness and hours of religious participation. Statistically significant results were not achieved for any of the models tested. Further investigation was conducted using effect size analysis. Small to medium effect sizes were achieved, however, suggesting that the models were detecting a negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and years of teaching experience, and a positive correlation between hours of religious participation and counselor effectiveness.
A Criterion-Referenced Analysis of Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges
The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze subjects' responses from Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges by factor analysis and the Rasch measurement model and (b) determine dimensionality of Form F, determine the correlation to the Literal, Anti-literal, Mythological Scales, and determine the best criterion-referenced test design of Form F using Rasch measurement procedures. Volunteers from a purposefully selected sample of nine colleges from the American Association of Bible Colleges participated in the study. One research instrument with five demographic questions, the Standardized Bible Content Test Form F, and the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales was administered to 179 volunteer graduating seniors. Frequencies and percentages of responses were computed for the demographic questions. Mean scores on the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales were computed for gender and religious affiliation. Principal components analysis of Form F with varimax rotation and list-wise deletion of missing data was used to assess the dimensionality of Form F. Correlations between scores on the Literal, Anti-literal and Mythological Scales and scores from the principal components analysis of Form F were computed. Dunn's multiple comparison procedures were used to test for statistical significance. Rasch-Model measurement analysis of the scales extracted by principal components analysis was accomplished to obtain suggested target description, test design, variable definition, and item calibration.
Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study
By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test(ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels.
A Descriptive Study of Students Who Were Accepted for Admission at West Texas A&M University But Did Not Enroll
Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students’ decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living ...
The Development of a Model for a Provincial Science Museum in Thailand to Provide Education in Science and Technology
This study was designed to develop a provincial science museum model for expanding science museums to the provinces in Thailand.
The Effect of Quality and Color Visual Aids on Immediate Recall, Attitude Toward Speaker, and Attitude Toward Speech
Thirty years of empirical research on visual aids have produced inconsistent results--perhaps because the quality and color of those visuals were inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine what effects quality and color of instructional transparencies used in an informative speech have on listener recall and attitudes toward speaker and speech. A total of 709 community college and university students in 36 intact classes were randomly assigned to one of four visual treatment groups (poor-quality black/white, high-quality black/white, poor-quality color, or high-quality color) or one of two control groups (no-speech or no-visuals). A videotaped speech was projected onto a large screen at the right of the room; visual aids (each shown for approximately 30 seconds) were projected onto another screen set immediately to the left. Recall was measured by a 10-item multiple choice test; attitude toward speech and speaker were each measured by six seven-item semantic differential scales. Analysis of variance indicated that the type of transparencies used in an informative speech have a definite effect on immediate recall and attitude toward the speech, but no effect on attitude toward speaker. All four treatment groups scored significantly higher on recall than the no-speech and no-visual control groups. Log percent of change showed poor color to produce the lowest scores (still 13% better than control) and quality color to produce the highest scores (19.5'% better). Analysis found listeners to have a more positive attitude toward the speech when quality color, quality black/white, or poor black/white visuals were used. It appears that any visual (even a poor quality one) produces better recall than no visuals. Speakers with the time to produce quality visuals should add color; speakers who pay little attention to quality would be advised to use black/white visuals. Implications for future research are suggested.
The Effects of Brief Exposure to Non Traditional Media Messages on Female Body Image
Body image may be defined as the perception or attitude one has regarding the appearance of his or her body. Body image concerns are not only central to the diagnostic criteria of eating disorders, but also create distress for nonclinical populations. Females (n = 167) from three universities participated in a study by completing the Eating Disorder Inventory - 2 (Garner, 1991) and the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sorenson, & Schulsinger, 1983); watching a video; and then completing the instruments again. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 89) viewed a video designed to increase awareness of unrealistic body sizes and shapes seen in the media (Kilbourne, 1995). Subjects in the comparison group (n = 77) viewed a video unrelated to female body image.
Factors Influencing Freshmen Students' College Choice at the University of North Texas: a Focus Group Study
This study focused on factors that may influence freshmen students when choosing their colleges, specifically those who attend metropolitan universities such as the University of North Texas. In addition to identifying major characteristics of the institution that attract students, it also explored the sources of information that students considered important when making their choice about where to attend college. The primary instrument for gathering the data was focus groups. These informal, small groups provided a format for in-depth discussion and probing questioning about the needs, wants and influential factors driving freshmen college choice. Ten focus groups were held with between six and ten students in a specially designed room on the campus of the University of North Texas. A professional moderator was employed and sessions were observed via a two-way mirror and tape recorded for later transcription. The major questions addressed in the focus groups included: What factors influenced students the most to attend the University of North Texas? What did they consider the level of friendliness on campus? And how did the marketing materials that the university distributed impact their decision to attend? The study found that the factors that most influenced freshmen to attend the University of North Texas were low cost, convenient location and the good academic reputation of their field of study. Students believed North Texas to have a very friendly campus and were pleased with the overall academic environment. They were not, however, impressed or greatly influenced by the marketing materials currently being used by the University and suggested ways to improve the design and distribution of these materials to make them more effective. Additional observations were made concerning these and related questions. A partial transcription of the focus group sessions is included.
Faculty Attitudes toward Intercollegiate Athletics at Colleges and Universities Belonging to Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of faculty at: (1) Division I NCAA and NAIA institutions, (2) Division I and II NAIA institutions on selected issues related to intercollegiate athletics, and (3) Division I NCAA and NAIA institutions toward selected issues related to intercollegiate athletics when demographics variables are considered. The problem was to determine if there were significant differences between the attitudes of the faculties.
Faculty Preparation in American Higher Education: Academic Lineage as a Predictor of Career Success
The purposes of this research were to determine (1) the extent to which faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates in the United States, (2) the extent to which faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions tat are the same type of institutions as those from which they earned their doctorates, (3) the extent to which female faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates, (4) the extent to which female faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions that are the same type of institutions as those from which they received their doctorates, and (5) the extent of variability across academic disciplines in which faculty are employed by types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates. An exhaustive review of the literature on academic lineage was used to develop this research. All stratified random sample of 260 institutions from 2,873 colleges and universities was selected by Carnegie Foundation classification categories. Institutions were selected at random until the number of faculty members in each category corresponded to the estimated national distribution of faculty across Carnegie classification categories (n=3,940). The analyses revealed that the majority of faculty (74%) employed at all types of higher education institutions obtained their doctoral degrees fromresearch I institutions. Professional academic rank is an interaction between doctoral-granting institution and employing institution combined with gender. Male faculty are following the traditional "trickle down" theory of academic lineage while women faculty appear to be charting a different career path. Another unique finding was that there was not significant variability in the findings across academic disciplines. Academic success is a complex phenomenon that is not singularly explainable by academic lineage. As more women are entering into the academic ranks of higher education, changes in academic ...
Filial Therapy with Incarcerated Mothers
This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy with incarcerated mothers as a method of increasing empathic behaviors with their children, increasing attitudes of acceptance toward their children, and reducing stress related to parenting. Filial therapy, a method of training parents to respond and interact therapeutically with their children, focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship. The sample population of 22 volunteer subjects was drawn from a pool of incarcerated mothers in the Denton County Jail who had children between three and ten years of age. The experimental group parents, consisting of 12 incarcerated mothers, received 2-hour filial therapy training sessions biweekly for five weeks and participated in biweekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group parents, consisting of 10 incarcerated mothers, received no treatment during the five weeks. The three written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes by both groups were The Porter Parental Acceptance Scale, The Parenting Stress Index, and The Filial Problem Checklist. The parents were also videotaped in play sessions with their child before and after training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. Analysis of Covariance revealed that incarcerated mothers in the experimental group had significant change in 9 of 13 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children, (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children, and (c) a significant reduction in the number of reported problems with their children's behavior. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for enhancing the parent-child relationship with incarcerated mothers and their children. Utilizing instruction and practical application of positive therapeutic methods, filial therapy training empowers parents by increasing their parenting knowledge and skills, and indirectly empowers children who experience the parent-child relationship with an ...
The Historical Development of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science 1987-1992
This study is a historical analysis of the significant events that led to the creation and evolution of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS), from 1987 through 1992, and a description of the key individuals contributing to the development of the program. Included is a historical review of early college entrance and acceleration practices in the American educational system. In addition, the development of residential programs for mathematically and scientifically precocious high school-aged youths is offered. On June 23, 1987, the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science was established by the 70th Texas Legislature. Though fourth in a line of special programs created for mathematically and scientifically able high school-aged youths, the TAMS model significantly deviated from its predecessors. Only the accelerative TAMS model would offer a college curriculum taught by college faculty and the opportunity to concurrently complete the last two years of high school and the first two years of college. From the inception of the program in 1987 through 1992, changes would occur. From 1987 through the summer of 1988, the development of the curriculum, student life program, and admissions process took place. From 1988 through 1989 the inaugural class was introduced to the program, and legislative funding was approved in the 71st Texas Legislative Session. From 1989 through 1992, the program further expanded to an enrollment of 335 students who were assisted by more than thirty full and part-time staff members. The academic, admissions, and student life components further evolved to better identify, recruit, and nurture the intellectual and emotional development of these gifted adolescents. In 1992 the TAMS program was selected for the "Texas Excellence in Higher Education Award," for outstanding contributions to higher education within the state of Texas. In addition, one nationally acclaimed authority on programs for gifted youth, Julian Stanley, ...
The History, Modern Development, and Future of the Lutheran Theological Seminary (Hong Kong)
This study is an historical and institutional analysis of The Lutheran Theological Seminary (LTS) in Hong Kong. The study first traces the seminary's theological and missiological roots and its history from 1913 to 1948, from its founding in Hubei Province, China to its move to Hong Kong because of civil war. Next, it describes major events of the early years in Hong Kong and the factors which contributed to an institutional crisis in the late 1960's. The study then analyzes the modern development of the institution, specifically the years 1971 to 1993. During this period several regional church groups joined together to create a collaborative educational effort through LTS, the school gained regional accreditation, expanded the ranks of its Chinese faculty, developed Asian financial support, and constructed a new campus. The modern development of the institution cannot be understood apart from a comprehension of the twenty-two year administration of Andrew Hsiao, the first Chinese president of the school. A chapter is therefore included on Andrew Hsiao's personal and academic background, the distinctives of his administration, and the strengths and weaknesses of his presidency. A current profile of the school is provided including its purposes, theology, organizational structure, faculty, student body, programs, and facilities. Finally, the future of the school is discussed in light of the reversion of Hong Kong to the sovereignty of China in July 1997. This portion of the study contains an analysis of CCP religious policy, the structures which enforce religious policy in China, the current relationship between the China Christian Council and LTS, and the seminary's plans after the reversion of Hong Kong to China.
Identifying Perceived Indicators of Institutional Quality in Bible Colleges Accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges
The purpose of this study was to identify a selected set of perceived indicators of institutional quality for Bible colleges accredited by the Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges (AABC). From the literature, 67 indicators of institutional quality in higher education and Bible colleges were identified and collected in a questionnaire, the Inventory of Determinants of Quality for Bible Colleges (IDQBC). The IDQBC was mailed to Bible college presidents, faculty members, alumni, and alumnae representing all 73 Bible colleges in the United States accredited by the AABC. Of the 448 surveys mailed, 309 were returned for a response rate of 69%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure was executed for each of the 67 IDQBC indicators to determine if the group means of the four study groups were significantly different. Of the 67 indicators evaluated, 12 were found to have significant differences among the study groups at the .01 level. Therefore, the study groups were in agreement as to the relative weight they assigned to 55 of the 67 indicators. Of these 55 indicators, 46 were rated as important or very important when considering the quality of a Bible college, while 9 were rated as less important when considering the quality of a Bible college. The results of this study point to four conclusions regarding the study groups' assessment of quality in Bible colleges. First, there was a high degree of agreement reported as to the importance of indicators of institutional quality in Bible colleges. Second, student outcomes were reported to be the most important indicators of institutional quality in Bible colleges, especially outcomes related to Biblical values and ideals. Third, indicators related to the teaching mission of Bible colleges were reported to be the next most important determinants of institutional quality. Fourth, indicators related to institutional demographics, resources, and student ...
Implementation Characteristics of Effective Continuous Quality Improvement Training as Perceived by Selected Individuals at Two- and Four-Year Colleges in the United States
Within the last decade, continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been embraced by higher education management. An important component of the quality philosophy is to institute training for everyone: faculty, administrators, staff and students—in order to achieve a cultural transformation. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the implementation characteristics of CQI training programs and to determine whether or not and to what degree relationships exist between these characteristics and training program effectiveness, as perceived by selected individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. A survey instrument was designed to elicit the perceptions of both the chief administrators and those quality professionals who are charged with the training process as they relate to specific implementation characteristics such as training content needed to convey the appropriate philosophy, program implementation processes, and the perceived effectiveness of the respondents' quality training program. A 21-item questionnaire was used to gather the data from a sample of 524 individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. The dependent variables in the study related to items addressing program effectiveness based on four types of program evaluation, and the independent variables related to specific implementation characteristics. Spearman correlation matrices were executed to test the relationships between and among implementation characteristics and between the four levels of evaluation. Multiple regression analyses were computed to determine which and to what extent implementation characteristics accounted for variation in each of the four measures of effectiveness. Analyses revealed that using a variety of philosophies, tools and content segments, providing training in quality awareness, team leadership, management and leadership, and assessment, using internal trainers, and the extent of staff and faculty support accounted for the largest proportions of variance. The statistical results for the two hypotheses which were derived from the research questions were also ...
The Influence of an Interdisciplinary Course on Critical Thinking Skills
The effect of an interdisciplinary algebra/science course on students' critical thinking skills was examined. A traditional college algebra course was used as a comparison group. The students in the sample enrolled in college algebra and then half were randomly placed into the interdisciplinary course. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal was used to measure the students' critical thinking skills. This instrument consists of an overall critical thinking score as well as five subscores in the areas of Inference, Recognition of Assumptions, Deduction, Interpretation and Evaluation of Arguments. It was found that the students in the interdisciplinary course made greater gains in the overall critical thinking score as well as in four of the five subscores. However, the differences in the gains made in the two courses were not statistically significant. Disregarding course, other factors that were found to be closely related to critical thinking were Composite ACT, grade received in the course, Math ACT and grade point average. It was also found that students whose majors were in the Schools of Arts and Letters or Science and Technology scored higher on critical thinking than students whose majors were in the Schools of Business or Education. Factors found to have no relationship to critical thinking were ethnicity, gender and classification.
The Interrelationships of Leisure Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and Life Satisfaction among Selected Therapeutic Recreation Faculty in Higher Education Institutions
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction among selected faculty in higher education institutions whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. This study also investigated the relationship of specific demographic variables to leisure satisfaction, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. The variables included age, gender, education, income level, health, tenure, marital status, type of institution where employed, and participation in therapeutic recreation organizations. The population for this study consisted of 162 faculty whose specialty teaching subject area was therapeutic recreation. Subjects were selected from colleges and universities of the United States listed in the curriculum catalog published by the Recreation and Park Association, Society of Park and Recreation Education for the year 1993-1994.
An Investigation of the Efficacy of Play Therapy with Young Children
This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of play therapy as a method of intervention for children with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Specifically, the study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of play therapy in: (a) improving self-concepts of children with adjustment difficulties; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression; (c) reducing externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquent behaviors; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems of children with adjustment difficulties; and (e) reducing parenting stress of parents of children who were experiencing adjustment difficulties.The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and received play therapy once per week for 7 to 10 weeks. The control group consisted of 14 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and who were on a waiting list to receive intervention, and therefore, did not receive any treatment during the time of data collection. Experimental and control group children were administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test and parents of all participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Parenting Stress Index at pretest and posttest data collection times. A gain scores analysis revealed that children in the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement on internalizing behavior problems. Also, a reduction in externalizing behavior problems and parenting stress was observed. No improvement in self-concept was demonstrated. This study provides evidence that play therapy is a viable intervention for treating a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties in young children, particularly children who are experiencing internalizing behavior problems.
Learning Resource Center Characteristics of the 25 Most Profitable U.S. Industrial Corporations: Implications for Business and Higher Education
This study is a descriptive analysis of corporate learning resource centers. The study was designed to incorporate historical background and current status, organization and personnel, types and amount of alternate delivery instruction, and selected cost considerations in the establishment and maintenance of a learning resource center. A functional definition was furnished, with a deliberative attempt to encompass related synonyms. Discussion included training types or instructional delivery medium distinctions. A contribution of this study was the development, field testing, and enhancement of a survey instrument, which reflects the steps to be followed by those planning implementation of any learning resource center. Findings of this study indicated that learning resource centers were young and transitioning to increased on-line individualized and self-paced learning. Training and learning will become much less interdependent. Training types will increasingly become nontraditional and technology driven. Courseware will be received and managed remotely. Partnerships and cooperative efforts are mandates for business and higher education. Learner mobility will become normative, not the exception. Internet training will rapidly increase, most quickly among small business. Learning resource centers will continue to become more cost effective. This study proposed the redefinition of both learner and educator roles within a changing learning resource center environment. It was suggested that the learner role must become more active and that the corporate educator role, as a result of technology, will increase in passivity, tending toward that of facilitation. Implications and recommendations were specifically noted for both business and higher education. Specified nomenclature of "learner centers" or clearly "learner centered" has been advocated, reflecting the continuing evolution of the learning resource center. Technology, instructional media, mobility, availability and sharing of resources, less formalization, life-long learning, fiscal issues, Internet access, information and knowledge explosion, and downsizing, all combine to provide the view and demarcation of the new "learner ...
Mandatory Continuing Education in Nursing: a Texas Perspective
This study investigated Texas nurses' attitudes toward mandatory continuing education, and their perceptions of skill improvement, knowledge enrichment and improvement of health care to the public as a result of participation in twenty contact hours of continuing education programs as required by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas. This sample of Texas nurses felt that the goals set forth by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas had been met by participation in mandatory continuing education. However, given the small return rate, the attitudes of these nurses may not represent the attitudes of the majority of Texas nurses.
Marital and Social Changes in the Lives of Women who Complete the Ph.D. Degree at Midlife
The percentage of women who receive doctorates has increased by over 300 percent during the past three decades. The consequences of pursuing the Ph.D. degree have always been far reaching and profound, serving as an impetus and springboard for the reconfiguration of one's beliefs, values, and professional life. The purposes of this national study were to ascertain and describe marital and social changes that occurred in the lives of women who were awarded the Ph.D. degree at midlife. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of three-hundred women who hold the Ph.D. degree and were employed in institutions of higher education in the United States. The study sought to identify the effects of the Ph.D. experience upon the marital relationships, friendships, and social activities of women who completed the degree between the ages of thirty-five and forty-five. Demographic data were collected which were related to their marital status before, during, and after the Ph.D. experience. Both closed and open-ended questions were posed which solicited information pertaining to their post Ph.D. experience. This research reports both quantitative and qualitative findings. The majority of women who complete the Ph.D. experience at midlife undergo and initiate changes in their lives which impact their relationships and activities. Many of these changes are the result of employment which follows the award rather than the degree itself. While some women experience negative effects in some areas of their lives, overall, the findings of this study suggest that changes are perceived positively by the majority of women who receive the Ph.D. at midlife.
Mentoring in Nursing Doctoral Education: Processes, Perceptions, Problems and Prospects
This study described the mentoring relationship between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Twenty-two public university doctoral programs responded to a request for names and addresses of their doctoral candidates. The Major Professor Mentoring Scale was used to measure the mentoring relationship. The survey also included demographic and open-ended questions regarding the student-committee chair relationship. Surveys were mailed to 269 doctoral students with an 86% return rate. A principal components analysis was performed to identify the structure underpinning the relationship. The typical doctoral student in this sample was found to be a 44 year old Caucasian female, married with children, working full or part time while pursuing a PhD degree. Students traveled an average of 85 miles each way to campus and nearly half had selected their program based on its location. The typical committee chair was a Caucasian, tenured, associate or full professor between 46 and 69 years of age. The majority of chairs were married and had funded research projects. The students in the study reported knowing their chairs for an average of five years. The study revealed that mentoring is occurring in the majority of relationships between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Students identified many strengths and weaknesses in their relationships with their chairs although the relationship appears to be largely positive. The mentoring relationship is composed of four principal components, the largest of which is psychosocial support. Dissertation support, role modeling and scholarly collaboration comprise the other three components. The factor receiving the most positive rating was role modeling, suggesting that students see their chairs as intelligent and hard-working. Students also report positive feelings about both the psychosocial and dissertation support they have received from their chairs. Students reported more neutral feelings about scholarly collaboration suggesting that this is not a frequent occurrence ...
A Model Curriculum for the Graduate Preparation of Collegiate Basketball Coaches
The purposes of the study were (a) to examine selected areas of knowledge perceived by collegiate basketball coaches as essential for inclusion within a masters degree curriculum for collegiate basketball coaches, then (b) based upon these findings, to construct a model curriculum for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball coaches. A survey instrument, Questionnaire on the Areas of Knowledge Essential to Collegiate Basketball Coaches, was constructed and mailed for the purpose of collecting data from NCAA coaches. There were 252 instruments returned (58%). The coaches were asked to respond to topics which they perceived to belong within a graduate curriculum for intercollegiate coaches. The areas of knowledge were extrapolated from the 1995 National Association for Sport and Physical Education National Standards for Athletic Coaches. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests and paired t-tests were performed on the data. Major findings of the study led to the conclusion that the areas of knowledge (a) training, conditioning, and nutrition; (b) skills, tactics, and strategies; and (c) teaching and administration mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings from all other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (d) social/psychological aspects of coaching; and (e) professional preparation and development mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings of the other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (f) injuries: prevention, care, and management; and (g) growth, development, and learning mean rankings were significantly different from all other areas of knowledge mean rankings. Additional conclusions were that perceptions of collegiate coaches concerning the seven areas of knowledge were independent of coaching experience, division of NCAA affiliation, academic degree, gender, or the gender of the team they coach. A model curriculum was proposed for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball ...
Moral Judgment Development in Higher Education Administration
Patterns of moral judgment exhibited by institutional candidates and fellows in the American Council on Education Fellows Program in Leadership for Higher Education 1988/1989 and 1989/1990 were explored in this study. The fellowship program selection process produced a group of institutional candidates with the high level of moral judgment development necessary for successful leadership in higher education administration. The goals of the program may be best served by minor improvements which will enhance a sound process. The results indicate that moral judgment development was not a significant factor in the selection of fellows. Salary and years of administrative experience, however, were related to selection. Candidates with higher salaries were more likely to be selected as fellows and tended to have lower levels of moral judgment development. The study revealed that there are variables affecting the selection and further investigation is necessary to determine which variables affect the selection and if they contribute to the goals of the fellowship program. Participation in the fellowship program did not significantly affect the fellows' level of moral judgment development as a group. The fellowship program did, however, have a positive impact on the upper third subgroup of fellows and a negative impact on the lower third subgroup. The performance of the upper third indicated that they have the potential to make a significant contribution to higher education administration. The middle third subgroup's performance indicated it is in a position to benefit significantly from program adjustments which enhance the fellows' awareness and broaden their perspective of the social milieu, within which higher education functions. Performance of the lower third indicated that the fellowship program might be adapted to meet the needs of this subgroup. Further study of other variables separating these three subgroups is needed. A longitudinal study could be completed to determine if candidates ...
Nonverbal Immediacy as a Predictor of Student Retention Rates Among Full-time/part-time Community College Faculty
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nonverbal immediacy of community college teachers, both full-time and part-time, and their within-semester student retention rates.
Participation in Student Financial Aid Programs during the Freshman Year and Persistence in a Private University
The study determined the overall persistence rate of first-time full-time entrants into a mid-sized private university during the fall semesters 1989 to 1991 to the 2nd year (1990 to 1992). The study compared the retention rate of recipients and nonrecipients of a variety of financial aid programs. Included is a comparison of groups receiving various types of financial assistance and whether or not there are differences between the groups with respect to types of assistance, gender, ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, Anglo), high school grade point average, and national test scores (SAT, ACT). The types of assistance studied were categorized by academic scholarships, university-operated student employment, need-based grants, activity awards, entitlements, and loans. The question of whether renewal, elimination, or reduction in assistance relates to retention was also studied.
Pedagogical and Andragogical Principles of John Wesley's Anthology
This study is a historical and philosophical analysis of significant educational concepts John Wesley espoused during his lifetime from 1703-1791. Specifically this document examines Wesley's use of pedagogical and andragogical principles through the educational undertakings of the early Methodist movement.
Peer Education: Building Community Through Playback Theatre Action Methods
The primary purpose of this study was to use some of the action methods of playback theatre to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge through the experience of building community. The impact of action methods on group dynamics and the relationship among methods, individual perceptions, and the acquisition of knowledge were analyzed. The researcher suggested that playback theatre action methods provided a climate in which groups can improve the quality of their interactions. The Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) formed the basis for the study's analysis of interactions. Since the researcher concluded there were significantly more interactions coded in the "power quadrant" after training, the researcher assumed that playback theatre action methods are a catalyst for keeping the focus on persons in the group, encouraging risk-taking behaviors, and producing constructive feedback between members. Based on session summaries, individual interviews, and an analysis of the Group Environment Scale (GES), the training group became more cohesive, became more expressive, promoted independence, encouraged self-discovery, and adapted in innovative ways. The experience of an interconnected community created a space where positive growth could occur. The researcher concluded that the process of community building is intricately connected with a person's ability to make meaning out of experiences. Participants in the study noted several processes by which they acquired new knowledge: (a) knowledge through internal processes, (b) knowledge through modeling, (c) knowledge through experiences, (d) knowledge through acknowledgment and application. Acknowledging and applying knowledge were behaviors identified as risk-taking, communication and active listening, acceptance of diverse cultures and opinions, and building community relations. The study suggested further research in the effects of these methods compared to other learning methods, the effects of these methods on other types of groups, the effects of the leader's relationship to the group, and the long-term effects on group dynamics.
Personality Characteristics of Counselor Education Graduate Students as Measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Bem Sex Role Inventory
This study was designed to investigate the correlation of the variables of gender, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality preferences, and androgyny as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) in Counselor Education graduate students. Instruments were administered to Counselor Education graduate students at nine institutions in five national regions. A total of 172 participants (18 males and 154 females) who were enrolled in Master's level theories courses or practicum courses completed a student information sheet, informed consent, MBTI, and BSRI. Instruments were hand scored and chi-square test was used to determine significance of the hypotheses; the saturated model of log linear analysis was the statistic used for the research question. As predicted, of the sixteen MBTI types, the most common for Counselor Education graduate students emerged as ENFP: extraversion, intuition, feeling, and perception. Additionally, this MBTI type was found to be significantly more common among the population of Counselor Education graduate students than is found among the general population. The expectation that more male Counselor Education graduate students would score higher on the androgyny scale of the BSRI was unsupported; low sample size for male Counselor Education graduate students prevented use of chi-square; however, it was apparent through the use of the statistic of raw frequencies that males clustered around every other category except androgyny. The hypothesis that more female Counselor Education graduate students would score higher on the feminine scale was also unsupported, as equal distribution of the females occurred within all four categories of the BSRI. It was hypothesized that males with a sensing and thinking preference on the MBTI would tend toward the masculine dimension of the BSRI more than males with an intuitive and feeling preference. This was unsupported as well. Female Counselor Education graduate students with an intuitive and feeling preference did, however, demonstrate ...
A Qualitative Study of the Use and Value of Financial Performance Indicators in Selected Community Colleges in the State of Texas as Perceived by their Chief Executive Officers
Throughout the United States, colleges and universities are faced with an increasing need for financial funding, while at the same time resources continue to diminish. With the limitations of available funds, community colleges must exhibit efficiencies in the operations of their institutions. External interests, such as governing boards and legislatures, require demonstration of efficient financial management. This evidence is then used to make decisions concerning future financial support for the community college. This study determined if community college chief executive officers use financial performance indicators as provided by the State Auditor's Office and if the chief executive officers of the community colleges value the compilation and the distribution of the financial performance indicators. In the selected colleges, many of the chief executive officers depend on their chief financial officer for understanding and application of financial performance indicators. The performance indicators distributed by the Auditor's Office captured only a snapshot of the college's performance, and failed to fully describe the whole college performance or specific financial events captured by the indicators. Though the indicators had flaws, either through incorrect data or lack of explanation, the CEOs did value their compilation because they provided a means for ‘getting the community college story' to decision makers external to the college.The State Auditor's performance indicators were developed using a university model. Because of the distinct difference in mission between the community college and the university, several of the indicators were not applicable to the community colleges. The CEOs suggested that another set of indicators be developed, using community college input, that would better capture the financial performance of the colleges. The new set of indicators should be simplified and measure only those areas, such as revenues and expenditures, that are truly comparable from one institution to another.
Quality Indicators for Private Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities
The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of quality for liberal arts colleges and universities as defined by internal and external constituents, and to compare the results of this study with those of two-year public institutions. The internal constituents included college and university presidents and faculty, and the external constituents consisted of officers of Chambers of Commerce and the Kiwanis International, representing business and industry. A survey instrument of 70 items was sent to the constituents of 148 institutions accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. A total of 592 surveys were sent with an average response rate of 56.93%. The study was limited to Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges I and Baccalaureate (Liberal Arts) Colleges II according to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. There were 57 survey items identified as indicators of quality by agreement of all respondent group means. The highest ranked indicator of quality was faculty commitment to teaching. The Analysis of Variance revealed close agreement by constituents on 17 of the quality indicators. There was close agreement also that three of the survey items were not indicators of quality. Fisher's Multiple Comparison test revealed that various constituents rated some survey items significantly higher than all other groups. The items that presidents, faculty representatives, and Chamber of Commerce officers each rated significantly high indicated the unique perspective of each constituent group. The Kiwanis officers responded similarly to the Chamber officers but did not rate any survey items significantly higher than other groups. Internal constituents rated seven items significantly higher than external constituents. These items centered mainly on faculty characteristics. External constituents rated three items higher than internal constituents. These survey items focused mainly on curriculum issues that related to the community and real-world problems. Seventeen conclusions were drawn from the study ...
The Role of Contract Training by Academic Institutions in Corporate Education and Training Programs
This study explored the role of contract training provided by North Texas higher education institutions in the education and training programs administered by area businesses employing more than 100 people. A survey instrument was mailed to corporate trainers that were members of the Dallas Chapter of the American Society of Training and Development in businesses employing more than 100 people. A total list of 292 trainers generated 71 usable responses. The purposes of this study were to: (a) determine the extent to which corporations use academic institutions for contract training, (b) determine the academic institutions in North Texas that training managers in the Dallas area believe are suitable contract training partners, (c) identify what subject areas are perceived as top educational priorities by training managers and are perceived to be suitable for contract training by academic institutions, (d) determine educational and training subjects for which corporations would be willing or prefer to utilize contract training by academic institutions, and (e) identify the subjects in which corporations currently use contract training by academic institutions.
Service-learning in 4-year Public Colleges and Universities : Programs, Profiles, Problems, and Prospects
This study investigated the levels of involvement in service-learning programs and activities in 4-year public colleges and university that held membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS).
A Structural Equation Model of Contributing Factors to Adolescent Social Interest
The focus of the present study was to test through SEM the relationships between family influences (FI) and school influences (SI) on factors hypothesized to be associated with adolescent social interest: school belonging (SB), extracurricular participation (EP), and peer/romantic involvement (PRI). The final model consisted of FI and SI that contributed to the expression of adolescent social interest. FI included parental communication and parental caring. SI consisted of teacher fairness. SB consisted of a child's self-reported feelings of belonging at school, EP included self-reported involvement in sports or academic clubs, and PRI consisted of self-reported desire for romantic involvement or desire for participation with others. The proposed model suggested that FI contributed significantly to self-reported SB, EP, and PRI. Additionally, it was hypothesized that SI would contribute significantly to SB and EP, but not to PRI. The data used in the current study were part of an existing data set collected as part of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. The total sample size for the present study was 2,561 male and female adolescents aged 12-19 years. The data consisted of adolescent and parent self-report information. Results suggested a significant relationship between FI and self-reported SB and PRI. As expected, a significant relationship existed between SI and SB. Also as expected, no significant relationship existed between SI and PRI. Neither the relationship between FI and EP nor SI and EP were significant. When analyzed separately, a significant relationship existed between SB and PRI; however, no significant relationship was found between SB and EP. Results also indicated several of the fit indices, including the average off-diagonal absolute standardized residual, the comparative fit index (CFI), and the Bentler-Bonett non-normed fit index (BBNFI), were a low to moderate fit. However, the final model was highly skewed and the model chi-square and chi-square ...
Student Legal Issues Confronting Metropolitan Institutions of Higher Education
This study examined perceptions of student legal issues confronting metropolitan institutions of higher education. The data for the study were collected using a modified version of Bishop's (1993) legal survey. The sample for the study consisted of 44 chief student affairs officers and 44 chief legal affairs officers employed with the 44 institutions affiliated with the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Frequency counts and percentage distributions were employed to analyze the data. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers have very different perception as to the most likely student legal issues to be litigated in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers found few student legal issues highly likely to be litigated in the next 10 years. Affirmative action, sex/age discrimination, fraternities and sororities, and disabled students were the only student legal issues at least 20 percent of chief student affairs officers believed to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief legal affairs officers believed many student legal issues would be litigated in the next 10 years. At least 20 percent of the chief legal affairs officers believed admission criteria, affirmative action, reverse discrimination, sex/age discrimination, athletic tort liability, Title IX, defaulting student loans, defamation, negligence, academic dismissals, academic dishonesty, cyberspace issues, and disabled students to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers prepare very similarly for future student legal issues they may confront in the future. There is a large amount of crossover between professional conferences of chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers. Student affairs and legal affairs officers will attend professional conferences of both groups in order to stay abreast of student legal issues. It appears chief student affairs officers are not prepared to confront ...
Theological Distance Learning through Trinity College and Theological Seminary: Programs, Problems, Perceptions, and Prospects
An international survey was conducted to assess theological higher education via distance learning as perceived by graduates of Trinity College and Theological Seminary's (Trinity) doctoral programs. The purpose of the study was to determine student-perceived strengths and weaknesses of Trinity's doctoral-level distance education theology programs. Also, the future of distance-learning mediated programs of theological higher education was speculated. A random sample of 400 doctoral recipients was selected from the population of 802 doctoral recipients who graduated from Trinity between the years of 1969 and March 1998. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 203 (50.0%) were returned. Frequency counts, percentage distributions, and chi-square tests of goodness-of-fit were employed to analyze the data. A profile of the modal type of student who would participate in theological distance education at the doctoral level was developed from the demographic variables queried. Responses to questions regarding respondents' educational experiences and coursework were solicited as well. Respondents identified five primary strengths of Trinity's distance education doctoral programs as: the convenience of the program; the immediate application of course content to personal and professional endeavors; the quality of education provided; the Biblical groundedness of the curricula, the materials, and the faculty; and the required reading and research. The three predominant weaknesses of Trinity's distance education doctoral programs as identified by program graduates include: the lack of interaction between students and faculty; the lack of regional accreditation; and course repetitiveness meaning that some courses offered repeated content from prior studies at a lower educational level. It was concluded that the future of theological higher education via distance learning is promising. Trinity has emerged as a dominant distance learning institution as a result of its continued exploration and advancements. However, Trinity and other similar distance education institutions must continually and consistently evaluate their programs ...
Use of the College Student Inventory to Predict At-Risk Student Success and Persistence at a Metropolitan University
Using Tinto's longitudinal model of institutional departure as the theoretical basis for this research, the purpose was to determine what extent selected motivational factors measured by the College Student Inventory (CSI) predict academic success and persistence of at-risk students at the University of North Texas (UNT). The study focused on United States citizens and permanent residents entering UNT as at-risk first-time freshmen admitted via individual approval for the fall 1994 semester. The 409 subjects were enrolled in a developmental course titled Personal and Academic Effectiveness where the CSI was administered during the first 2 weeks of class. Selected predictor variables were tested in relation to the separate criterion variables of grade point average and enrolled status during the 2nd and 4th years of the study. Grade point averages and enrollment data for the 1995-96 and 1997-98 academic years were extracted from the student information management system. The research design employed appropriate multiple regressions, multiple correlations, multiple discriminant analyses, and bivariate correlations. Findings confirmed the ability of five CSI factors to predict grade point average (p < .05) of at-risk students over the time frames used in this study. Nine factors predicting enrolled status were also significant at the .05 level; however, results were not meaningful in the 2nd year as factors classified 95% of all subjects as persisters. By the end of the 4th year, the factors were able to predict correct classification of both persisters and nonpersisters approximately 24% better than chance. This research provides support for Tinto's institutional departure model, particularly associated with pre-entry attributes and goals/commitments over time. The CSI is a viable instrument for use with at-risk first-time freshmen at a metropolitan university; however, required enrollment in a developmental course likely confounded the ability of selected variables to meaningfully predict enrolled status during the 2nd year.