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The Association between Sense of Humor, Coping Ability and Burnout among Nursing Education Faculty

Description: A nonexperimental descriptive study was conducted to determine the interrelatedness among coping strategies, humor and burnout among nursing education faculty. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the constructs of coping strategies and humor which were conceptualized as having a direct relationship to burnout. Areview of the literature concerning coping, humor and burnout supported this proposition and emphasized the need for empirical testing. Coping Humor Scale. Wavs of Coping Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory were the instruments used to measure the constructs. Academic history and demographic data sheets were also used. Hie instruments were mailed to 285 nursing faculty teaching in programs of nursing in the Dallas /Fort Worth, Texas area. The return rate for the mailing was 70.07%. Burnout among nursing education faculty showed a low degree of emotional exhaustion (54.8%), a low degree of depersonalization (84.7% and a low degree of personal accomplishment (60.7%). The findings did not reveal a high or low degree of burnout but rather a pattern of burnout suggestive of a different stage. Humor as a coping mechanism during stressful events was not frequently used. The highest proportion of nursing education faculty used distancing (46.53%) as a coping strategy. The second strategy used was planful problem solving (11.3%) with escape-avoidance used the least (3.34%). Multiple regression was used to test the research questions related to the predictor variables of coping, academic history and demographic data as they relate to each criterion variable of burnout. The use coping strategies (including humor) to predict various stages of burnout revealed only weak variable predictors. Academic history and demographic were also weak predictors for burnout.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Talbot, Laura A. (Laura Ann)

The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators

Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual across the lifespan, with origins in childhood when the concepts of self, others, social convention and interpersonal relationships were forming. It is likely that the typical interest in sexual expression that occurs at the onset of puberty was a catalyst that facilitated molesting behavior. The lack of ability to interact successfully with age mates appeared to influence the perpetrators' selection of children as targets. Recommendations were presented for consideration by the mental health and criminal justice communities based on the findings. Also, preventative measures for the public sector were offered.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Edmonds, Marilyn S. (Marilyn Sue)

Faculty Preparation in American Higher Education: Academic Lineage as a Predictor of Career Success

Description: The purposes of this research were to determine (1) the extent to which faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates in the United States, (2) the extent to which faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions tat are the same type of institutions as those from which they earned their doctorates, (3) the extent to which female faculty are employed by the types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates, (4) the extent to which female faculty have higher professional rank at employing institutions that are the same type of institutions as those from which they received their doctorates, and (5) the extent of variability across academic disciplines in which faculty are employed by types of institutions from which they earned their doctorates. An exhaustive review of the literature on academic lineage was used to develop this research. All stratified random sample of 260 institutions from 2,873 colleges and universities was selected by Carnegie Foundation classification categories. Institutions were selected at random until the number of faculty members in each category corresponded to the estimated national distribution of faculty across Carnegie classification categories (n=3,940). The analyses revealed that the majority of faculty (74%) employed at all types of higher education institutions obtained their doctoral degrees fromresearch I institutions. Professional academic rank is an interaction between doctoral-granting institution and employing institution combined with gender. Male faculty are following the traditional "trickle down" theory of academic lineage while women faculty appear to be charting a different career path. Another unique finding was that there was not significant variability in the findings across academic disciplines. Academic success is a complex phenomenon that is not singularly explainable by academic lineage. As more women are entering into the academic ranks of higher education, changes in academic ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Ellis, Martha M. (Martha McCracken)

The Historical Development of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science 1987-1992

Description: This study is a historical analysis of the significant events that led to the creation and evolution of the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS), from 1987 through 1992, and a description of the key individuals contributing to the development of the program. Included is a historical review of early college entrance and acceleration practices in the American educational system. In addition, the development of residential programs for mathematically and scientifically precocious high school-aged youths is offered. On June 23, 1987, the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science was established by the 70th Texas Legislature. Though fourth in a line of special programs created for mathematically and scientifically able high school-aged youths, the TAMS model significantly deviated from its predecessors. Only the accelerative TAMS model would offer a college curriculum taught by college faculty and the opportunity to concurrently complete the last two years of high school and the first two years of college. From the inception of the program in 1987 through 1992, changes would occur. From 1987 through the summer of 1988, the development of the curriculum, student life program, and admissions process took place. From 1988 through 1989 the inaugural class was introduced to the program, and legislative funding was approved in the 71st Texas Legislative Session. From 1989 through 1992, the program further expanded to an enrollment of 335 students who were assisted by more than thirty full and part-time staff members. The academic, admissions, and student life components further evolved to better identify, recruit, and nurture the intellectual and emotional development of these gifted adolescents. In 1992 the TAMS program was selected for the "Texas Excellence in Higher Education Award," for outstanding contributions to higher education within the state of Texas. In addition, one nationally acclaimed authority on programs for gifted youth, Julian Stanley, ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Stride, Cindy F. (Cindy Flanagan)

The History, Modern Development, and Future of the Lutheran Theological Seminary (Hong Kong)

Description: This study is an historical and institutional analysis of The Lutheran Theological Seminary (LTS) in Hong Kong. The study first traces the seminary's theological and missiological roots and its history from 1913 to 1948, from its founding in Hubei Province, China to its move to Hong Kong because of civil war. Next, it describes major events of the early years in Hong Kong and the factors which contributed to an institutional crisis in the late 1960's. The study then analyzes the modern development of the institution, specifically the years 1971 to 1993. During this period several regional church groups joined together to create a collaborative educational effort through LTS, the school gained regional accreditation, expanded the ranks of its Chinese faculty, developed Asian financial support, and constructed a new campus. The modern development of the institution cannot be understood apart from a comprehension of the twenty-two year administration of Andrew Hsiao, the first Chinese president of the school. A chapter is therefore included on Andrew Hsiao's personal and academic background, the distinctives of his administration, and the strengths and weaknesses of his presidency. A current profile of the school is provided including its purposes, theology, organizational structure, faculty, student body, programs, and facilities. Finally, the future of the school is discussed in light of the reversion of Hong Kong to the sovereignty of China in July 1997. This portion of the study contains an analysis of CCP religious policy, the structures which enforce religious policy in China, the current relationship between the China Christian Council and LTS, and the seminary's plans after the reversion of Hong Kong to China.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Lowder, Tom C. (Tom Charles)

Implementation Characteristics of Effective Continuous Quality Improvement Training as Perceived by Selected Individuals at Two- and Four-Year Colleges in the United States

Description: Within the last decade, continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been embraced by higher education management. An important component of the quality philosophy is to institute training for everyone: faculty, administrators, staff and students—in order to achieve a cultural transformation. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the implementation characteristics of CQI training programs and to determine whether or not and to what degree relationships exist between these characteristics and training program effectiveness, as perceived by selected individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. A survey instrument was designed to elicit the perceptions of both the chief administrators and those quality professionals who are charged with the training process as they relate to specific implementation characteristics such as training content needed to convey the appropriate philosophy, program implementation processes, and the perceived effectiveness of the respondents' quality training program. A 21-item questionnaire was used to gather the data from a sample of 524 individuals at two- and four-year colleges in the United States. The dependent variables in the study related to items addressing program effectiveness based on four types of program evaluation, and the independent variables related to specific implementation characteristics. Spearman correlation matrices were executed to test the relationships between and among implementation characteristics and between the four levels of evaluation. Multiple regression analyses were computed to determine which and to what extent implementation characteristics accounted for variation in each of the four measures of effectiveness. Analyses revealed that using a variety of philosophies, tools and content segments, providing training in quality awareness, team leadership, management and leadership, and assessment, using internal trainers, and the extent of staff and faculty support accounted for the largest proportions of variance. The statistical results for the two hypotheses which were derived from the research questions were also ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Miller, Katherine C.

Learning Resource Center Characteristics of the 25 Most Profitable U.S. Industrial Corporations: Implications for Business and Higher Education

Description: This study is a descriptive analysis of corporate learning resource centers. The study was designed to incorporate historical background and current status, organization and personnel, types and amount of alternate delivery instruction, and selected cost considerations in the establishment and maintenance of a learning resource center. A functional definition was furnished, with a deliberative attempt to encompass related synonyms. Discussion included training types or instructional delivery medium distinctions. A contribution of this study was the development, field testing, and enhancement of a survey instrument, which reflects the steps to be followed by those planning implementation of any learning resource center. Findings of this study indicated that learning resource centers were young and transitioning to increased on-line individualized and self-paced learning. Training and learning will become much less interdependent. Training types will increasingly become nontraditional and technology driven. Courseware will be received and managed remotely. Partnerships and cooperative efforts are mandates for business and higher education. Learner mobility will become normative, not the exception. Internet training will rapidly increase, most quickly among small business. Learning resource centers will continue to become more cost effective. This study proposed the redefinition of both learner and educator roles within a changing learning resource center environment. It was suggested that the learner role must become more active and that the corporate educator role, as a result of technology, will increase in passivity, tending toward that of facilitation. Implications and recommendations were specifically noted for both business and higher education. Specified nomenclature of "learner centers" or clearly "learner centered" has been advocated, reflecting the continuing evolution of the learning resource center. Technology, instructional media, mobility, availability and sharing of resources, less formalization, life-long learning, fiscal issues, Internet access, information and knowledge explosion, and downsizing, all combine to provide the view and demarcation of the new "learner ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Nyberg, James Ronald

A Model Curriculum for the Graduate Preparation of Collegiate Basketball Coaches

Description: The purposes of the study were (a) to examine selected areas of knowledge perceived by collegiate basketball coaches as essential for inclusion within a masters degree curriculum for collegiate basketball coaches, then (b) based upon these findings, to construct a model curriculum for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball coaches. A survey instrument, Questionnaire on the Areas of Knowledge Essential to Collegiate Basketball Coaches, was constructed and mailed for the purpose of collecting data from NCAA coaches. There were 252 instruments returned (58%). The coaches were asked to respond to topics which they perceived to belong within a graduate curriculum for intercollegiate coaches. The areas of knowledge were extrapolated from the 1995 National Association for Sport and Physical Education National Standards for Athletic Coaches. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests and paired t-tests were performed on the data. Major findings of the study led to the conclusion that the areas of knowledge (a) training, conditioning, and nutrition; (b) skills, tactics, and strategies; and (c) teaching and administration mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings from all other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (d) social/psychological aspects of coaching; and (e) professional preparation and development mean rankings were not significantly different from one another but were significantly different from mean rankings of the other areas of knowledge. The areas of knowledge (f) injuries: prevention, care, and management; and (g) growth, development, and learning mean rankings were significantly different from all other areas of knowledge mean rankings. Additional conclusions were that perceptions of collegiate coaches concerning the seven areas of knowledge were independent of coaching experience, division of NCAA affiliation, academic degree, gender, or the gender of the team they coach. A model curriculum was proposed for the masters degree preparation of collegiate basketball ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Evans, Marc S.

Student Legal Issues Confronting Metropolitan Institutions of Higher Education

Description: This study examined perceptions of student legal issues confronting metropolitan institutions of higher education. The data for the study were collected using a modified version of Bishop's (1993) legal survey. The sample for the study consisted of 44 chief student affairs officers and 44 chief legal affairs officers employed with the 44 institutions affiliated with the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Frequency counts and percentage distributions were employed to analyze the data. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers have very different perception as to the most likely student legal issues to be litigated in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers found few student legal issues highly likely to be litigated in the next 10 years. Affirmative action, sex/age discrimination, fraternities and sororities, and disabled students were the only student legal issues at least 20 percent of chief student affairs officers believed to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief legal affairs officers believed many student legal issues would be litigated in the next 10 years. At least 20 percent of the chief legal affairs officers believed admission criteria, affirmative action, reverse discrimination, sex/age discrimination, athletic tort liability, Title IX, defaulting student loans, defamation, negligence, academic dismissals, academic dishonesty, cyberspace issues, and disabled students to be highly likely of litigation in the next ten years. Chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers prepare very similarly for future student legal issues they may confront in the future. There is a large amount of crossover between professional conferences of chief student affairs officers and chief legal affairs officers. Student affairs and legal affairs officers will attend professional conferences of both groups in order to stay abreast of student legal issues. It appears chief student affairs officers are not prepared to confront ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Elleven, Russell K. (Russell Keith)