UNT Libraries - 42 Matching Results

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An Analysis of the Effect of Environmental and Systems Complexity on Information Systems Failures

Description: Companies have invested large amounts of money on information systems development. Unfortunately, not all information systems developments are successful. Software project failure is frequent and lamentable. Surveys and statistical analysis results underscore the severity and scope of software project failure. Limited research relates software structure to information systems failures. Systematic study of failure provides insights into the causes of IS failure. More importantly, it contributes to better monitoring and control of projects and enhancing the likelihood of the success of management information systems. The underlining theories and literature that contribute to the construction of theoretical framework come from general systems theory, complexity theory, and failure studies. One hundred COBOL programs from a single company are used in the analysis. The program log clearly documents the date, time, and the reasons for changes to the programs. In this study the relationships among the variables of business requirements change, software complexity, program size and the error rate in each phase of software development life cycle are tested. Interpretations of the hypotheses testing are provided as well. The data shows that analysis error and design error occur more often than programming error. Measurement criteria need to be developed at each stage of the software development cycle, especially in the early stage. The quality and reliability of software can be improved continuously. The findings from this study suggest that it is imperative to develop an adaptive system that can cope with the changes to the business environment. Further, management needs to focus on processes that improve the quality of the system design stage.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Zhang, Xiaoni

A Case Study of the Use of Activity-Based Analysis as an Information Resource Management Tool

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate a modification of a managerial accounting technique, Activity-Based Costing (ABC), as a tool for addressing Information Resource Management (IRM) concerns within business processes. To indicate that ABC has been adapted for the IRM context, this study called the tool "Activity-Based Analysis" (ABA). ABA includes ABC's costing methodology as well as additional methods to address broader issues. The research method was a single-site case study at a property and casualty insurance company. The unit of analysis was a business process consisting of activities needed to provide claims handling services for workers' compensation insurance. Four questions guided the study: 1. Did ABA identify management information required to monitor process effectiveness and efficiency? 2. Did ABA support outsourcing decision making by identifying IRM cost components within business processes? 3. Did ABA identify information resources; that are sharable? 4. Did ABA identify differences between Company organizational characteristics andIRM department organizational characteristics?
Date: December 1994
Creator: Arnett, Charles A. (Charles Augustus)

Classification by Neural Network and Statistical Models in Tandem: Does Integration Enhance Performance?

Description: The major purposes of the current research are twofold. The first purpose is to present a composite approach to the general classification problem by using outputs from various parametric statistical procedures and neural networks. The second purpose is to compare several parametric and neural network models on a transportation planning related classification problem and five simulated classification problems.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Mitchell, David

Client/Server Systems Performance Evaluation Measures Use and Importance: a Multi-Site Case Study of Traditional Performance Measures Applied to the Client/Server Environment

Description: This study examines the role of traditional computing performance measures when used in a client/server system (C/SS) environment. It also evaluates the effectiveness of traditional computing measures of mainframe systems for use in C/SS. The underlying problem was the lack of knowledge about how performance measures are aligned with key business goals and strategies. This research study has identified and evaluated client/server performance measurements' importance in establishing an effective performance evaluation system. More specifically, this research enables an organization to do the following: (1) compare the relative states of development or importance of performance measures, (2) identify performance measures with the highest priority for future development, (3) contrast the views of different organizations regarding the current or desired states of development or relative importance of these performance measures.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Posey, Orlando Guy

Comparing the Powers of Several Proposed Tests for Testing the Equality of the Means of Two Populations When Some Data Are Missing

Description: In comparing the means .of two normally distributed populations with unknown variance, two tests very often used are: the two independent sample and the paired sample t tests. There is a possible gain in the power of the significance test by using the paired sample design instead of the two independent samples design.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Dunu, Emeka Samuel

Computer-Supported Collaborative Work and Its Application to Software Engineering in a Case Environment

Description: This study investigated, in the context of a field-based case study, possibilities for formation of a synergistic union between CSCW and CASE tools. A major dimension of today's software challenge is in gearing up for large-scale system development necessitating large teams of systems engineers. The principal goal of this research was to advance the body of knowledge regarding the nature of collaborative technological support in the software development process. Specifically, the study was designed to evaluate the potential for using a CSCW tool as an effective front-end to a CASE tool in the furtherance of SDLC goals.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Bailey, Janet L.

Critical Success Factors in Data Mining Projects.

Description: The increasing awareness of data mining technology, along with the attendant increase in the capturing, warehousing, and utilization of historical data to support evidence-based decision making, is leading many organizations to recognize that the effective use of data is the key element in the next generation of client-server enterprise information technology. The concept of data mining is gaining acceptance in business as a means of seeking higher profits and lower costs. To deploy data mining projects successfully, organizations need to know the key factors for successful data mining. Implementing emerging information systems (IS) can be risky if the critical success factors (CSFs) have been researched insufficiently or documented inadequately. While numerous studies have listed the advantages and described the data mining process, there is little research on the success factors of data mining. This dissertation identifies CSFs in data mining projects. Chapter 1 introduces the history of the data mining process and states the problems, purposes, and significances of this dissertation. Chapter 2 reviews the literature, discusses general concepts of data mining and data mining project contexts, and reviews general concepts of CSF methodologies. It also describes the identification process for the various CSFs used to develop the research framework. Chapter 3 describes the research framework and methodology, detailing how the CSFs were identified and validated from more than 1,300 articles published on data mining and related topics. The validated CSFs, organized into a research framework using 7 factors, generate the research questions and hypotheses. Chapter 4 presents analysis and results, along with the chain of evidence for each research question, the quantitative instrument and survey results. In addition, it discusses how the data were collected and analyzed to answer the research questions. Chapter 5 concludes with a summary of the findings, describing assumptions and limitations and suggesting future research.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Sim, Jaesung

Derivation of Probability Density Functions for the Relative Differences in the Standard and Poor's 100 Stock Index Over Various Intervals of Time

Description: In this study a two-part mixed probability density function was derived which described the relative changes in the Standard and Poor's 100 Stock Index over various intervals of time. The density function is a mixture of two different halves of normal distributions. Optimal values for the standard deviations for the two halves and the mean are given. Also, a general form of the function is given which uses linear regression models to estimate the standard deviations and the means. The density functions allow stock market participants trading index options and futures contracts on the S & P 100 Stock Index to determine probabilities of success or failure of trades involving price movements of certain magnitudes in given lengths of time.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Bunger, R. C. (Robert Charles)

A Discrimination of Software Implementation Success Criteria

Description: Software implementation projects struggle with the delicate balance of low cost, on-time delivery and quality. The methodologies and processes used to create and maintain a quality software system are expensive to deploy and result in long development cycle-time. However, without their deployment into the software implementation life-cycle, a software system will be undependable, unsuccessful. The purpose of this research is to identify a succinct set of software implementation success criteria and assess the key independent constructs, activities, carried out to ensure a successful implementation project. The research will assess the success of a software implementation project as the dependent construct of interest and use the software process model (methodology) as the independent construct. This field research involved three phases: (1) criteria development, (2) data collection, and (3) testing of hypotheses and discriminant analysis. The first phase resulted in the development of the measurement instruments for the independent and dependent constructs. The measurement instrument for the independent construct was representative of the criteria from highly regarded software implementation process models and methodologies, e.g., ISO9000, Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (SEI CMM). The dependent construct was developed from the categories and criteria from the Delone and McLean (1992) MIS List of Success Measures. The data collection and assessment phase employed a field survey research strategy to 80 companies involved in internal software implementation. Both successful and unsuccessful software implementation projects (identified by the Delone/McLean model) participated. Results from 165 projects were collected, 28 unsuccessful and 137 successful. The third phase used ANOVA to test the first 11 hypotheses and employed discriminant analysis for the 12th hypothesis to identify the "best set" of variables, criteria, that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful software implementation projects. Twelve discriminating variables out of 67 were identified and supported as significant discriminators between successful and unsuccessful projects. ...
Date: August 1999
Creator: Pryor, Alan N.

The Effect of Certain Modifications to Mathematical Programming Models for the Two-Group Classification Problem

Description: This research examines certain modifications of the mathematical programming models to improve their classificatory performance. These modifications involve the inclusion of second-order terms and secondary goals in mathematical programming models. A Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to investigate the performance of two standard parametric models and various mathematical programming models, including the MSD (minimize sum of deviations) model, the MIP (mixed integer programming) model and the hybrid linear programming model.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Wanarat, Pradit

The Effects of Alternative Presentation Formats on Biases and Heuristics in Human Decision Making

Description: The purpose of this research was to determine whether changes in the presentation format of items in a computer display could be used to alter the impact of specific cognitive biases, and to add to the knowledge needed to construct theory-based guidelines for output design. The problem motivating this study is twofold. The first part of the problem is the sub-optimal decision making caused by the use of heuristics and their associated cognitive biases. The second part of the problem is the lack of a theoretical basis to guide the design of information presentation formats to counter the effects of such biases. An availability model of the impact of changes in presentation format on biases and heuristics was constructed based on the findings of a literature review. A six-part laboratory experiment was conducted utilizing a sample of 205 student subjects from the college of business. The independent variable was presentation format which was manipulated by altering the visual salience or visual recency of items of information in a visual computer display. The dependent variables included recall, perceived importance, and the subjects' responses to three judgment tasks. The results clearly demonstrate that changes in presentation format can be used to alter the impact of cognitive biases on human decision making. The results also provide support for the availability model, with the exception of the proposed influence of learning style. Learning style was found to have no significant impact on decision making whether alone or in combination with changes in presentation format. The results of this investigation demonstrate that by using our knowledge of cognitive processes (e.g., the visual salience effect, the visual recency effect, and the availability heuristic), presentation formats can be altered in order to moderate the effects of certain biases and heuristics in human decision making. An understanding of ...
Date: May 1996
Creator: Van Dyke, Thomas P. (Thomas Peter)

The Effects of Using Information Technology to Support Evaluation of Feedback and Implementation of Adjustments in an Organization's Strategic Planning Process

Description: Organizations that must respond quickly to environmental pressures look for tools to assist in that response. Information technology may be one tool to facilitate the response. In this study the possible effects of using information technology, specifically a decision support system, in the feedback segment of one organization's strategic management loop were examined. The organization was one region of the Board of Probation and Parole in a central state. Personnel included administrators, parole officers and clerical workers. The information technology was an off-the-shelf software product called PlanRight. This study is significant for two reasons: a new application for information technology was examined and the adequacy of a generic computerized tool designed to be suitable for various operations was explored. This study was a case study. Two months of data were taken prior to the implementation of the decision support system, and four months of data were taken after the system was implemented. Questionnaire data taken before system implementation provided descriptive characteristics of the organization. Follow-up surveys and interviews at the conclusion of the study were used to evaluate employee perceptions. The study was done in three phases. During phase one questionnaires were distributed and returned. During phase two, goals, plans and evaluation criteria were formulated and plans were implemented. Feedback was obtained and evaluated through the use of the decision support system enabling reaction to the feedback data. In phase three perceptions of administrators and parole officers were elicited using follow-up surveys and semi-structured interviews. Three propositions guided the evaluation of the study's outcomes. These propositions dealt with performance toward goal achievement, satisfaction with feedback processes and quality of plans formulated for the project. Performance was moderately successful. Satisfaction with processes was high. Speed of obtaining feedback was considered high by administrators and paroled officers. Quality of processes and outcomes ...
Date: May 1997
Creator: Kemm, Elizabeth

An Empirical Investigation of Detail Design Tools and Cognitive Style of Software Developers

Description: The purpose of this study is to identify what detail design tools are more productive for the different types of professional software developers. By establishing a match between the detail design tool and the cognitive style of the professional programmer, the end product (Information Systems) should be of a higher quality. Two laboratory experiments were conducted. The first experiment was with professional Software Developers; the second one was with students. The dependant variables considered in this study were the number of semantic errors and the time required to complete a design task for conditional logic. The independent variables were the cognitive style of the subject, the complexity of the task, and the detail design tools. Decision trees, flowcharts and pseudocode were used as detailed design tools. Field dependence was the only dimension of cognitive style that was tested.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Flores-Rosales, Oscar

An Empirical Investigation of Psychophysiological Characteristics and Psychological Variables in Information Systems Human Factors Research

Description: The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of several psychological instruments commonly used in Information Systems (IS) cognitive style research. The objective was to determine the limitations of: existing instruments in IS cognitive style research. The motivation for this research was the inconclusive findings reported in IS human information processing research. The study used a repeated measures design. Each individual completed the following cognitive style and personality instruments; the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Group Embedded-figures Test, the Learning Style Inventory, the Human Information Processing Survey, and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural Form A). The individual also completed a dichotic listening and tachistoscope task. Data was collected from business administration, BCIS, liberal arts majors, and IS professionals. The results of this study indicate IS researchers need to consider several factors in the use of these instruments. A direct relationship exists between cognitive ability and results on the GEFT. Cognitive ability should be considered a moderating variable in interpreting the results of the GEFT. Also, the hypothesis that the GEFT is a surrogate for analytical and low-analytical abilities is not supported by this study. Other reported results include the inappropriateness of using the TTCT with adult populations. Also, the MBTI appears to be an appropriate instrument for measuring cognitive styles in IS research. This study reported that gender is a moderating factor on the classification of MBTI types in that gender is not evenly divided among feeling and thinking types. This study reported no relationships between the cognitive style and personality instruments with the physiological measurements. The validity of the physiological measurements could be the underlying factor for not reporting any significant relationships. IS researchers will benefit from this study through an improved understanding of the appropriateness and applicability of these instruments. This benefits research through the ...
Date: December 1989
Creator: Corman, Lawrence S. (Lawrence Sanger)

Empirical Research of Decision-making Effectiveness When Using Differing Presentation Formats Under Varying Decision Tasks

Description: The purpose of this research was to determine if presentation format, given a particular task to be performed, would affect the decision-making process of financial decision makers. The problem motivating this study is the potential for managers to make inefficient decisions when they use reports which are presented inappropriately for a given task.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Hard, Nancy J. (Nancy Jean)

An Examination of the Effect of Decision Style on the Use of a Computerized Project Management Tool

Description: Managing a software development project presents many difficulties. Most software development projects are considered less than successful, and many are simply canceled. Ineffective project management has been cited as a major factor contributing to these failures. Project management tools can greatly assist managers in tracking and controlling their projects. However, project management tools are very structured and analytical in nature, which is not necessarily supported by decision-making styles of the managers. This research examined the influence that decision style has on a project manager's use of a project management tool.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Fox, Terry L., 1963-

An Experimental Investigation of Information Systems Project Escalation: An Examination of Contributory Factors in a Business Environment

Description: The purpose of this research is to continue examining the project management process. The management of projects is complicated. It is the complexity of the process that makes a project so difficult to control. This research examines the effect of particular facets of the project manager's skill set and operating environment on management decisions.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Huff, Richard A. (Richard Allen)

The Fixed v. Variable Sampling Interval Shewhart X-Bar Control Chart in the Presence of Positively Autocorrelated Data

Description: This study uses simulation to examine differences between fixed sampling interval (FSI) and variable sampling interval (VSI) Shewhart X-bar control charts for processes that produce positively autocorrelated data. The influence of sample size (1 and 5), autocorrelation parameter, shift in process mean, and length of time between samples is investigated by comparing average time (ATS) and average number of samples (ANSS) to produce an out of control signal for FSI and VSI Shewhart X-bar charts. These comparisons are conducted in two ways: control chart limits pre-set at ±3σ_x / √n and limits computed from the sampling process. Proper interpretation of the Shewhart X-bar chart requires the assumption that observations are statistically independent; however, process data are often autocorrelated over time. Results of this study indicate that increasing the time between samples decreases the effect of positive autocorrelation between samples. Thus, with sufficient time between samples the assumption of independence is essentially not violated. Samples of size 5 produce a faster signal than samples of size 1 with both the FSI and VSI Shewhart X-bar chart when positive autocorrelation is present. However, samples of size 5 require the same time when the data are independent, indicating that this effect is a result of autocorrelation. This research determined that the VSI Shewhart X-bar chart signals increasingly faster than the corresponding FSI chart as the shift in the process mean increases. If the process is likely to exhibit a large shift in the mean, then the VSI technique is recommended. But the faster signaling time of the VSI chart is undesirable when the process is operating on target. However, if the control limits are estimated from process samples, results show that when the process is in control the ARL for the FSI and the ANSS for the VSI are approximately the same, and ...
Date: May 1993
Creator: Harvey, Martha M. (Martha Mattern)

The Impact of Multimedia on Information Scanning Effectiveness: an Empirical Study in an Executive Support Systems Environment

Description: This study investigates the impact of multimedia on the effectiveness of information scanning. Information scanning is the act of seeking and receiving a wide variety of special information to develop a thorough understanding of the organization and the environment. The application domain of this study is Executive Support Systems. The experimental task is to identify potential threats and opportunities, a strategic information-scanning activity, based on the information stored in three ESS prototypes. Forty subjects from four organizations participated in the experiment. A random assignment process allocated them into three groups. The control group used the text-based ESS. The first experimental group used the visual multimedia ESS. The second experimental group used the audiovisual multimedia ESS. The experiment was carried out on the sites of the participating organizations. The investigator measured the effectiveness of information scanning based on the number of threats and opportunities each subject identifies. A close-ended questionnaire measured subjects' retention of information. The results of this study support the cognitive-fit theory. The findings indicate that multimedia is not an appropriate presentation format for analytical tasks. Subjects who use text-based ESS identify significantly more threats and opportunities than subjects who use audiovisual multimedia ESS. The cognitive style of subjects does not moderate the impact of multimedia. The results show that the use of multimedia does not necessarily improve retention of information. Further research is needed to determine the most effective combination of text, graphics, animation, video, and sound.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Huang, Hsin-Chih

Interactions of Presentation Formats and Decision-Maker Characteristics upon Multiple Decision-Making Tasks: an Experiment Using Multiple Cognitive Assessments

Description: Information systems research tends to ignore individual differences in users. This laboratory experiment sought to illuminate contributions of decision-makers' cognitive processes to decision outcome as reflected in four hypothesis sets: the impact of imagery preference and presentation format upon (HI) recall accuracy and upon hemispheric activation during (H2) encoding and (H3) recall, and (H4) to examine the relationship between hemispheric activation differences and accuracy differences. Point-value (specific values) and intraset-pattern (relationships between values) recall were considered. Thirty MBA students, grouped by imagery preference (cognitive style) as favoring verbal (textual) or visual (graphical) information presentation, performed computer-based recall tasks using tabular and graphical formats in a repeated measures design. Hemispheric activation (cognitive process) was assessed using ratios of EEG activity in six frequency bands captured from six pairs of homologous electrode sites during encoding and recall.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Henson, Kerry L. (Kerry Lynn)

An investigation of success metrics for the design of e-commerce Web sites.

Description: The majority of Web site design literature mainly concentrates on the technical and functional aspects of Web site design. There is a definite lack of literature, in the IS field, that concentrates on the visual and aesthetic aspects of Web design. Preliminary research into the relationship between visual design and successful electronic commerce Web sites was conducted. The emphasis of this research was to answer the following three questions. What role do visual design elements play in the success of electronic commerce Web sites? What role do visual design principles play in the success of electronic commerce Web sites? What role do the typographic variables of visual design play in the success of electronic commerce Web sites? Forty-three undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory level MIS course used a Likert-style survey instrument to evaluate aesthetic aspects of 501 electronic commerce Web pages. The instrument employed a taxonomy of visual design that focused on three dimensions: design elements, design principles, and typography. The data collected were correlated against Internet usage success metrics data provided by Nielsen/NetRatings. Results indicate that 22 of the 135 tested relationships were statistically significant. Positive relationships existed between four different aesthetic dimensions and one single success measure. The other 18 significant relationships were negatively correlated. The visual design elements of space, color as hue, and value were negatively correlated with three of the success measures. The visual design principles of contrast, emphasis radiated through contrast, and contrast shape were negatively correlated with three of the success measures. Finally, the typographic variables of placement and type size were both negatively correlated with two of the success measures. This research provides support to the importance of visual design theory in Web site design. This preliminary research should be viewed as a realization of the need for Web sites to ...
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Date: May 2004
Creator: Cutshall, Robert C.