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Comparing Five Empirical Biodata Scoring Methods for Personnel Selection

Description: A biodata based personnel selection measure was created to improve the retention rate of Catalog Telemarketing Representatives at a major U.S. retail company. Five separate empirical biodata scoring methods were compared to examine their usefulness in predicting retention and reducing adverse impact. The Mean Standardized Criterion Method, the Option Criterion Correlation Method, Horizontal Percentage Method, Vertical Percentage Method, and Weighted Application Blank Method using England's (1971) Assigned Weights were employed. The study showed that when using generalizable biodata items, all methods, except the Weighted Application Blank Method, were similar in their ability to discriminate between low and high retention employees and produced similar low adverse impact effects. The Weighted Application Blank Method did not discriminate between the low and high retention employees.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Ramsay, Mark J.

Concurrent Validation of the Computer Programmer Aptitude Battery

Description: Subjects were 34 computer programmers employed in a major computerized tax processing company. Scores in the Computer Programmer Aptitude Battery (CPAB) and ratings of each programmer's job performance by his immediate supervisor were obtained. The purpose of the study was to validate a selection test. The relationship between the aptitude battery and performance evaluations was examined to evaluate the test's ability in predicting programming performance. Statistical treatment of data included Pearson product-moment correlations and a multiple linear regression analysis. The total test scores and several of the subtests were found to be significantly correlated with performance.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Edwards, Dorsey W. (Dorsey Williams)

Development and Analysis of an Employee Attitude Survey

Description: A factor analysis using an oblique rotation was performed on an employee attitude survey developed for a data processing company. The survey was administered to 669 volunteer employees. There were 291 males and 378 females. It was hypothesized that four main factors would be identified as "Advancement Opportunities," "Compensation and Benefits," "Management Style," and "Job." Results of the factor analysis did not confirm the hypothesized a priori factor structure. The lack of confirmation of the hypothesized factor structure was found to be a result of poor survey construction. The attitude survey was found not to be a valid measure of employee attitudes. Implications of this study suggest that a poorly constructed attitude survey may be worse than no survey at all.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Metevelis, Catherine Westbook

Development of a Machine Transcription Work Sample Test for Secretarial Selection

Description: The study described the development of a standardized, normed, content-valid machine transcription test which could be used to evaluate the ability of secretarial applicants to type a mailable copy of a business letter from a dictated tape recording. The test was based on a thorough job analysis and was pretested using a pilot study with job incumbents to confirm its feasibility. Normative data were developed from 50 job applicants. Interrater reliability was statistically significant (r = .85, p <..05). The test was adopted for use at the headquarters office of a major oil and gas producing company.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Kaye, Deborah Frances

The Effects of Selection Risk on Sex Discrimination in Employment Decisions

Description: Effects of selection risk on sex discrimination in hiring were investigated. Ninety-six male and female educational administration graduate students rated ficticious resumes on suitability for hiring for the female-oriented position of secondary school teacher. Sex and selection risk level were varied, with sex of rater as an assigned factor. Analysis of variance yielded significant main effects for sex (p < .01) and selection risk level (p < .05). All ratings were lower in high selection-risk situations, with males preferred over females across both levels of risk. Results suggested that ratings were based on a stereotype of female inferiority in work efficiency, overriding job sex-orientation as a decision factor.
Date: May 1979
Creator: McKenna, David John

Factor Analysis of an Employee Attitude Survey

Description: A 75-item, Likert-type employee attitude survey was completed by a sample of 670 hourly and salaried employees of a Southwestern company engaged in computerized tax-form processing. The survey contained items relating to attitude dimensions roughly analogous to those subsumed under the two-factor theory of job satisfaction as defined in the relevant literature. Factor analysis, using the principle axes solution, followed by both orthogonal (varimax) and oblique (direct oblimin) rotations was performed. The oblique rotation derived 11 factors which accounted for 87.3% of the common variance. These lent statistical support to 10 of 16 a priori, hypothesized attitudinal dimensions. The six remaining hypothesized dimensions were not empirically supported.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Scivetti, Frank A.

An In-Basket Promotional Examination for Police Sergeant That Can Be Used Under Civil Service Code 1269m

Description: An "in-basket" test (representative sample of work usually found in the incoming mail basket of a person in a specific desk job) was designed to be used under limitations imposed by Civil Service Statute 1269m concerning merit examinations for the position of police sergeant. This test was used in conjunction with the traditional cognitive skills. test and performance evaluations. Subjects were 20 white male police officers. Peer and supervisory evaluations and predictions of who would make the best sergeant were correlated with total scores on the three-part test. Results indicate that the in-basket test contributes a unique and viable dimension to the traditional merit examination, and aids in the selection of those considered most qualified. Use of the in-basket test under Code 1269m was subsequently approved by the Civil Service Commission.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Salem, Betty L.

Job Satisfaction and Group Industrial Accident Rates

Description: It was hypothesized that group industrial accident rates would be negatively related to job satisfaction. An employee opinion survey measuring satisfaction with various aspects of the job was administered to 1,577 non-exempt (hourly) field workers in 36 district offices of a Texas petroleum services company. Factor analysis of the survey revealed five interpretable sub-scales (factors) measuring five aspects of job satisfaction. Internal consistency reliability for each of the sub-scales and for the instrument as a whole was high (.83 or better). For each of the 36 districts, group accident rate for a six month period was determined. A correlational analysis was then done between district accident rate and the district satisfaction score for each factor and for total satisfaction. None of the correlations were significant.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Grant, Lynne Corney

Job Satisfaction and Group Turnover Rate: A Correlational Analysis

Description: A job satisfaction questionnaire measuring satisfaction with various job aspects was administered to 458 male equipment operators in 30 district offices of a North Texas based petroleum services company to determine whether mean district scores on any of nine sub-scales developed through factor analysis or on the composite overall satisfaction scale were predictive of subsequent district turnover rate. Eight of the nine sub-scales were correlated with district turnover rate at the .05 level or better. Overall satisfaction was also significantly related to district turnover rate (r = .57, p < .001). It was concluded that the instrument is a valid indicator of subsequent employee turnover rate in the population studied. However, a cross-validation was suggested to determine whether the relationships can be generalized to other populations.
Date: August 1979
Creator: McCown, James G.

Life Stress and Industrial Accidents

Description: Traditional personality research on accident behavior has produced conflicting opinions as to the traits that describe the "accident-prone" personality type. Other research has shown that psychosocial life stress, while partially determining the temporal onset of a variety of illnesses, may also be a factor contributing to increased accident liability. This study examined the role of temporary and stress-producing life changes in groups of accident-free and accident-involved industrial employees. The accident sample was found to have significantly higher stress over baseline during the period of accident involvement, but generally lower pre-accident levels than the non-accident sample. A cause-effect analysis of the data from within the accident-involved sample proved inconclusive. Several implications for future research and managerial actions to alleviate stress were also discussed.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Huddleston, Charles T.

Management Development Training: an Evaluation of a Program for First Line Staff Supervisors

Description: A pre- and postexperimental design with a control group was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a management development program. Subjects were 48 first line staff supervisors employed by a major manufacturing company. The training group subjects (n = 24) attended the company's 1-week training program. Subjects in the control group (n= 24) were similar with respect to plant location, job assignment, etc. A 42-item employee-opinion questionnaire was constructed to measure supervisory style and work.-group climate. The subjects' subordinates (n = 313) completed the questionnaire before and after training. Eleven items identified by content analysis as most relevant to the training content comprised the measure of training effectiveness. An analysis of covariance was performed using the pretest as the covariate. Results indicated no significant training effects.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Mechler, Ralph E.

Managerial Assessment Centers in the Hotel Industry: Concerns with Validity

Description: A replication of an original study of managerial assessment centers performed by Sackett and Dreher (1982) is presented. Their major finding, indicating that assessment centers lack key tenets of internal construct validity, was corroborated in this study of a hotel managers' assessment center. This hotel managers' assessment center is also found to be externally valid using criterion-related validity. The argument is posed that assessment centers, as standardized tests of complex behavioral traits, appear to be operating outside the bounds of normal test construction principles. Five key explanations for this paradox are offered to guide much needed future research in this area. Additionally, a description of commonly utilized assessment center activities is offered the reader.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Baker, Thomas Grant

A Multiple Regression Analysis of the Relationships Between Application Blank Data and Job Tenure

Description: One technique being used to reduce employee turnover is the Weighted Application Blank. Data obtained from application blanks are analyzed and weights are assigned to each item. Utilizing these weights, predicted scores are derived and compared to each person's actual tenure to determine the effectiveness of the model. The present study analyzed application blank data from the files of 93 currently employed and 69 terminated female clerical workers. Twelve items were analyzed by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression procedure, with months of tenure being the dependent variable. The five most significant items yielded a multiple correlation of .54. The total sample also was divided randomly into two groups, and cross-group analyses resulted in simple correlations of .56 and .29.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Newton, Nancy W.

Perceptual Style, Field Dependence, and Accident Involvement

Description: It was hypothesized that field dependence and attention measures would differentiate accident-loaded and accident-free employees of a petroleum services company. Analysis of variance revealed main effects and a three-way interaction for the Rod-and-Frame Test. Main effects occurred for the Attention-Diagnostic Method and Embedded- Figures Test. No differences occurred for the Closure Test. Regression analysis produced an R (76) = .41, p < .01, with the Attention-Diagnostic Method contributing more to prediction. Equality-symmetry violations occurred in the data. Cautious interpretation was advised because of the assumption violations. The accident-loaded subjects produced consistently greater performance variances, which suggested general performance characteristics in several respects. Future research should be longitudinal-predictive, oriented from Kerr 's complementary safety theories.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Smith, J. Murry

Predicting Attendance and Work Performance from Pre-Entry Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviors

Description: Absenteeism, lateness, and work performance on the job were investigated. Pre-entry attitudes and self-reported behaviors in the three areas were assessed via RELY, a self-report instrument developed by Kurt Helm (1980). Subjects (N=282) were entry-level stock, bag and clerical personnel for a large grocery store chain. They were 91% Caucasian and 62% male. Results showed significant correlation between three empirically derived scales and criteria: total days absent, total occurrences of lateness, and supervisory performance ratings. However, these findings were considerably weaker under cross-validation. The findings indicate absence-proneness as a tenable concept. Further investigation may find a considerable amount of the variance in attendance to be the result of pre-entry attitudes.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Leeman, Gordon E. (Gordon Ellis)

Prediction of Job Performance from Factorially Determined Dimensions of Biographical Data

Description: Twenty factors identified through a factor analysis of a 102-item biographical inventory were used as predictors in a multiple regression equation to predict on-the-job performance (supervisory ratings) of oil field employees. This yielded a multiple R of .41. A total of 295 subjects participated in the study. Cross-validation yielded a correlation coefficient of .06. The t-test analyses of the factor means of equipment operators and field mechanics proved that two factors could discriminate between the groups, Mechanical Experience (p<.01) and Social Orientation (p<.05). The results of this study indicate that conducting a factor analysis of unvalidated biographical items and attempting to predict performance would be less appropriate than factor analyzing predictive items to gain an understanding of their underlying dimensions.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Germany, Patrick J.

Predictive Validation of a Computer Programmer Selection Test

Description: Subjects were 32 computer programmers employed in a large computerized tax-processing company in the Southwest. Ratings of each programmer's job performance by his/her immediate supervisor and scores on the Aptitude Test for Programmer Personnel (ATPP) were obtained. Relationships between test scores and criteria were examined to identify significant (p < .05) correlations. Statistical treatment of data included zero-order Pearson product-moment correlation, multiple linear regression, and first-order semi-partial correlation analyses. Results indicated that the ATPP did not successfully predict (2 >.05) the rated performance of the programmers.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Duvall, Sherman K.

Relationship of Physical Characteristics, Personality Traits, and Biographical Data to Success of Flight Attendants

Description: With the EEOC requiring empirical criterion-related validity for selection procedures, predictor variables of physical characteristics, biographical data, and personality traits were related to both on-the-job performance and training performance. In the correlational analysis of the variables, a total of 455 flight attendants from a single airline were used, with half of the subjects serving as a cross-validation sample. The results showed slight relationships between biographical data and physical characteristics to training performance but no relationship between any predictor variable and job performance. The impact of race being a significant predictor of training performance was reviewed. The lack of practical information was discussed, and implications made for future research to include proper design and reliability of screening procedures before attempting criterion-related validation.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Hons, Michael Jerome

Selection of Warehouse Employees Using a Weighted Application Blank

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop a weighted application blank (WAB) which would aid in the selection of employees who would be more likely to remain on the job for 3 months or more. The 31 biographical items for long- and short-tenure employees were compared to see which items differentiated. A somewhat improvised approach which compared trends of both groups (weighting group N = 169, holdout group N 89), produced five items which were significant at the .05 level and resulted in a 70% improvement over the previous method of selection. The long-tenure employee could be described as a slightly older (20 years or more) married person who lives close to the job, less educated (8th grade or less), and who can list three references.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Parker, Larry L.

Subjectivity in the Performance Appraisal System of a Data Processing Company

Description: An attempt was made to determine the presence of subjectivity in the appraisal system of a data processing company. Ninety-one clerks were given individual performance ratings by their supervisors, including an overall rating and ratings on seven performance dimensions. A multiple regression performed on these data resulted in a set of empirical weights. Supervisors were also asked to rank the relative importance of each of the seven dimensions to the clerk job. The mean rankings were regarded as apparent weights. A comparison of the empirical and apparent weights led to the conclusion that supervisors were not rating their employees according to what they said was important for successful performance, thus introducing an element of subjectivity into the system.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Bierstedt, Sheryl Ann

Training Program Evaluation: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of School Versus On-the-Job Training

Description: The hypothesis was investigated that school training was more effective than on-the-job training. Of a sample of 349 male subjects, 217 received on-the-job training and 132 received school training. Data were collected and analyzed on tenure, performance, promotions, salary increases, and accidents. Training type had a significant positive correlation with tenure and accident occurrence at the .01 and .05 level, respectively, and a significant correlation with salary increase at the .05 level. A regression model using accident occurrence and salary increase yielded a prediction of training type significant at the .05 level. No difference was found between the two types of training, as measured by the study variables.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Lipscomb, M. Suzanne

Validation of a Selection Battery for Computer Programmers

Description: Subjects were 38 computer programers employed in a national food-retailing corporation. A job analysis provided a basis for criteria development and served to guide the selection of predictors. Ratings of each programmer's job performance by his immediate supervisor, and scores on such tests as the Computer Programer Aptitude Battery (CPAB), clerical tests, and supervisory judgment test were obtained. Relationships between tests and criteria were examined to find the best test combination for predicting programming performance. Statistical treatment of data included a principal components analysis of the criteria and a multiple linear regression analysis. A weighted combination of the CPAB Reasoning, a test of clerical ability, and supervisory judgment test was found to be highly correlated with performance (R = .60).
Date: August 1979
Creator: Tuseth, Michael

Validation of Training Outcome Measures: Relationships Between Learning Criteria and Job Performance Criteria

Description: Five learning measures used in a skills training program were related to three types of job performance measures for a sample of 163 oil field employees. Statistical analyses resulted in only modest correlations between learning and job performance criteria. Factor analyses of learning measures followed by multiple regression on factors yielded a significant R with only one criterion measure. It was concluded from these data that the training program was of minimal value. The discussion centered on strategies for better training, training research, job engineering, and correcting the two limitations of this study.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Benavides, Robert M.

Validity of the California Psychological Inventory for Police Selection

Description: The study examined the validity of using the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) as a tool for police selection. The mean CPI profile of 211 police applicants was first compared to that of the CPI norms. Five performance criterion measures--retention on the job, academy grades, supervisory ratings, commendations, and reprimands of police officers--were studied to investigate their relationships with the CPI scales. The results indicated that there were significant mean differences on all the CPI scales between police applicants and CPI norms. The scale of Flexibility significantly differentiated the criterion groups of retention on the job. The CPI was useful in predicting academy performance; however, it did not correlate well with job performance as measured by supervisory ratings, commendations, and reprimands.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Hwang, Guo Shwu-Jen