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Accuracy of Eyewitness Memory Under Leading Questioning: The Effects of Hypnosis and Anxiety
Hypnosis has gained substantial support in the psychological community, as well as related health professions. The intense renewal of interest in hypnosis has also affected our legal-judicial system. Many police investigators trained in hypnosis operate from an exactcopy memory theory. They claim eyewitness eyewitness retrieve veridically stored memory traces from long-term memory, if questioned under hypnosis. Conversely, other researchers ascribe to a reconstructive memory theory. They believe hypnosis increases the likelihood of eliciting erroneous memories from eyewitnesses, especially under leading questioning. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the effects of hypnotic induction and anxiety on the accuracy of subjects' memory for eyewitnessed events when questioned with leading, non-leading, and embedded misinformation questions.
Assessment of Posttreatment Follow-Up Evaluation Procedures with Alcohol-Abuse Patients: A Methodological Study
The purpose of this project was to clarify the methodological considerations involved in the posttreatment follow-up evaluation of alcohol-abuse patients. A two-part project was undertaken in an attempt to answer the follow-up questions of how and when to measure treatment effects with discharged alcoholics. In Part I, a large-scale survey was utilized to examine return rates across various program evaluation methods and time frames. In Part II, the predictive validity of scores received at short-term follow-up in relation to scores received at 1-year follow-up was assessed for measures of psychosocial functioning and alcohol consumption.
Assessment of Visual Memory and Learning by Selective Reminding
A test of free recall visual memory and learning was developed for the present study. The purpose of the study was to determine the utility of the Visual Selective Reminding Test and the Verbal Selective Reminding Test for differentiating among groups of patients having memory impairments with organic etiologies. It was hypothesized that neurologically impaired patients would perform differently on the Visual and Verbal Selective Reminding Tests, the difference depending on the location of the underlying brain damage. Forty right handed male patients at a Veterans Administration hospital served as subjects. The patients were grouped according to the location of their brain damage; left hemisphere, right hemisphere, diffuse damage, and no brain damage. There were 10 patients in each group. Each patient was given the verbal and the visual memory tests in counterbalanced order and the Shipley estimate of intelligence.
Attribution of Blame Toward the Rape Victim
This study investigated the impact of victim provocativeness and rape history upon male and female subjects' perceptions of attribution of blame toward the rape victim. One hundred and forty-four subjects (a) read one of 12 fictional case reports of a rape incident from a sexual abuse center which systematically varied level of victim provocativeness and rape history and (b) completed a nine-item Rape Questionnaire (RQ). Data were analyzed by a 2 (subject's sex) x 3 (level of provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) analysis of variance on the Rape Questionnaire total score. An ancillary multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was also performed on the nine Rape Questionnaire items to check for potential masking of individual item differences from the Rape Questionnaire score. In addition, the data were reanalyzed in the 2 x 3 x 2 design by substituting high versus low scorers on the Attitudes Towards Women Scale (AWS) based upon median splits of the AWS for subject sex. The 2 (subject sex) x 3 (provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) MANOVA resulted in a sex by provocativeness interaction with males, relative to females, attributing more blame as the victim's level of provocativeness increased. In addition, significant differences emerged for provocativeness, rape history, and sex of subject. In general, subjects attributed more blame as the victim's provocativeness increased. Similarly, victims with rape histories were assigned more blame than victims without rape histories. The 2 (AWS) x 3 (provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) MANOVA resulted in a main effect for all three independent variables. In general subjects attributed more blame as the victim's provocativeness increased. Also victims with rape histories were assigned more blame than victims without rape histories. Finally, profeminist individuals attributed less blame to the victim than did traditional individuals. Implications for training of professional counselors and other service-providers are discussed. ...
Childhood Fears and the Impact of Divorce and Remarriage
Different family structures and levels of parental and financial stress were investigated in relation to children's overtly expressed fears, and secondarily, covertly measured fears and concerns. The family structures consisted of divorced and remarried families divided into those divorced less than two years and those divorced greater than two years. Intact families were used as the control group. One-hundred-twenty-one children from six to eleven years of age and their biological mothers from a semirural, southwestern town comprised the sample. The children were administered five instruments assessing overt fears, covert fears/concerns, and positiveness in family relationships. Mothers were given eight self-report measures which included a questionnaire, a report of their child's overt fears, and an indication of the positiveness in family relationships. Results indicated that the children of divorced, single mothers tended to report greater overt fears than remarried and intact families. Indications of covert fears of death and separation were also suggested. This was especially true for those single mothers divorced less than two years. Children of intact families did not generally differ from remarried groups although there were implications that remarriage too soon after divorce may impact covert fears as well as positive feelings toward the stepfather. Children of mothers reporting high levels of stress reported greater levels of overt fears than children of low stress mothers. Financial stress for mothers appeared to have greater implications for children's overt and covert fears than did parental stress. In contrast to the children of mothers reporting high levels of stress, mothers who reported low levels of stress tended to have children who reported fewer overt fears but greater covert fears and concerns. Recommendations for future research including adding parental measures to assess the coping styles as well as the effectiveness of such coping with divorce and remarriage, using different measures of ...
A Cluster Analysis of the Parental Effectiveness Factors on the Custody Quotient Technique (CQ)
Subjects comprised four groups including: 73 judges; 90 family law practitioners; 38 psychologists; and 43 psychology graduate students. The subjects completed surveys designating the five most relevant and the five least relevant factors of effective parenting from a list of 85 such factors. As hypothesized, the family law attorneys and family law judges generated similar clusters of factors while the results of the psychologists and psychology graduate students likewise clustered similarly. These results suggest the possibility of the existence of common cognitive structures used in the custody decision-making process. Results could be used in the modification and refinement of the Custody Quotient (CQ) Technique. Future study could focus more specifically on the cognitive structures particular subjects use in making custody decisions.
Cognitive Complexity, Perspective Taking, and Moral Reasoning in Depression
The relationships of cognitive complexity, social perspective taking, and moral reasoning have been primarily examined in children or juveniles. Little work has been done to study their relationships in the late adolescent and young adult college student population. Additionally, the research to date has only examined relationships among pairs of these constructs. There has been no attempt to assess the combined relationship of cognitive complexity and role-taking skills to moral reasoning at any developmental level. Therefore, there are two purposes in this study. First, to test the theory of ego function regression in depression on cognitive developmental concepts related to interpersonal functioning. Second, the study will determine the individual as well as combined relationships of cognitive complexity and social perspective taking to moral judgment in a late adolescent to young adult college student population.
A Comparison of Counterconditioning and Role-Playing Strategies in the Hypnotic Treatment for Cigarette Smoking
This study compared the relative efficacy of two different theoretically-derived strategies in the hypnotic treatment for cigarette smoking. The use of counterconditioning suggestions (present or absent) was compared to the use of role-playing suggestions (present or absent) in a two-way factorial design. Also investigated was whether there were any pretreatment variables which could predict successful long-term smoking control. Fifty adult chronic smokers were matched on the dimensions of baseline smoking rate, number of years smoking and number of previous attempts to quit smoking, then assigned to one of four treatment groups. All subjects were offered four sixty-minute group hypnotherapy treatment sessions over a three week period, with smoking rate assessed at the second, third and fourth sessions, and at one-month, three-months and six-months post-treatment. The two dependent measures of percentage reduction from baseline smoking rate and percentage of subjects in each treatment group remaining abstinent from smoking showed similar results. ANOVA procedures found a significant Time of assessment X Counterconditioning interaction, indicating that the use of counterconditioning suggestions facilitates the long-term maintanence of smoking control more than the use of role-playing suggestions or a "hypnotic relaxation" treatment using no specific suggestions. The demographic variables of increased age, having a smoking-related health problem, and being a "stimulation" type of smoker were found to correlate highly with successful long- term outcome and to correctly classify subjects as abstainers or nonabstainers the majority of the time.
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques
Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Counseling Outcomes and Perceived Counselor Social Influence: Validity of the Counselor Rating Form Extended
This study investigated predictor variables of the Counselor Rating Form dimensions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness using the predicted variable of therapy outcome, measured by Goal Attainment Scaling and postcounseling scores on the Counselor Rating Form. One hundred-fifteen mental health center outpatients agreed to participate. Forty subjects (25 females and 15 males) met all criteria and were labeled "completors." An additional 30 subjects, labeled "dropouts," enrolled but did not meet criteria. These subjects' data were considered in a separate analysis for prediction of treatment continuation. All subjects rated their own need for therapy before their initial interview. After the initial and final interviews, both the subject and the counselor completed the Counselor Rating Form, rating their perceptions of the counselor1s behavior during that session. The Goal Attainment Scaling was used to generate both pre- and postcounseling outcome scores on each subject's individual, personalized goals.
Determinants of Coping Strategies and Seeking Counseling Among Older Adults
This study investigated older persons' perception of the negative impact of ill health, retirement, and widowhood in relation to the mobilization of relevant coping mechanisms. In addition, the relationship of coping mechanisms and dissatisfaction with current gender-role identity to seeking counseling was studied. A distributed questionnaire package provided demographic data as well as information pertaining to satisfaction in various areas of life, impact of live events, and coping style. Subjects were 54 males and 67 females aged 50 to 92. Safeguards were taken to ensure complete confidentiality and anonymity of response. Stepwise multiple regression (listwise deletion of data), multivariate and univariate analysis of variance and bivariate correlational analyses of the data were performed, suggesting that perception of negative impact of the events measured (ill health, widowhood, retirement) was related a) to employing numerous useful coping strategies, b) to low dyadic satisfaction, and c) to low life satisfaction. Analyses also suggested that variables which distinguished those in the sample who sought counseling were a) identity discrepancy (wherein Ideal exceeded Real) on the Masculine and Androgynous dimensions, b) employing fewer Coping with Health strategies, and c) employing more Coping with Retirement strategies. These variables also distinguished males who sought counseling, but only the variable Age, distinguished females, who sought counseling from those who do not.
Development of the Ecological Q-Sort: A Self Concept Instrument for Use with the Elderly
Attempts to measure self concept in the elderly have been characterized by a variety of differing definitions of self concept, and differing methodological procedures. Previous investigations have used instruments which are stereotypic and not ecologically valid for elderly, test formats which make excessive demands on some elderly persons' cognitive and sensory-motor abilities, and administration procedures which penalize the less psychologically sophisticated older person, factors precluding adequate assessment of self concept in the elderly. In order to address the limitations of previous research, the present investigation developed and tested the Ecological Q-sort, a self concept instrument designed especially for use with the elderly. Items for the Ecological Q-sort were life situations which were ecologically representative and meaningful for older persons as self-defined by them. Two forms of the Ecological Q-sort were developed: the pictorial form consisting of pictorial representations of situations plus one sentence descriptions of situations; another form consisted of only one sentence written descriptions of situations.
Dimensions of Marital Commitment Definition and Assessment
The purposes of this study are a) to explore the construct of "marital commitment" in order to achieve a more clear definition of it; b) to identify the component factors involved in the construct; and c) to design and develop an instrument for assessing the construct.
The Effect of Two Variations of Role-Taking Training and Affect on Changes in Juvenile Delinquents' Role-Taking and Moral Judgment Development
The present investigation was designed to increase the moral judgment and simultaneous role-taking skills of institutionalized male juvenile delinquents and investigated possible effects of affect on the subjects' responses to treatment.
Effects of Counselors' Smoking on Clients' Perceptions and Counseling Outcome
This study investigated the impact of counselor smoking behavior upon nonsmoking clients' perceptions of therapists both during and at the conclusion of treatment. Clients' impressions when counselor smoking behavior was consistent across sessions and when counselors smoked in only the first or only the second interview were examined. In addition, the effect of therapists' smoking behavior on the outcome of counseling was assessed in two ways: changes in clients' career decisiveness and counselors' ability to influence client behavior. Eighty-two female undergraduates met with a vocational counselor for two sessions during which the counselor either smoked or refrained from smoking. Prior to the first interview, subjects completed the Behavioral Indecision Scale. Subjects then met and discussed their vocational concerns with a counselor. Following the interview, subjects completed the Counselor Rating Form and the California Occupational Preference System. The latter instrument, an interest inventory, was interpreted by the counselor during the second interview. The Counselor Rating Form and the Behavioral Indecision Scale were again administered following the conclusion of treatment. Data were analyzed by 2 (counselors) X 2 (conditions) X 2 (interviews) multivariate analyses with repeated measures on the third factor. No significant differences emerged for clients' perceptions when the counselors' indulgence in or restraining from smoking was constant from the first to the second sessions. Similarly, clients' impressions did not differ in relation to the inconsistency of counselors' smoking behavior from the first to the second interviews. In addition, subjects' compliance to a counselor initiated behavioral task and reported certainty of career choice were not differentially affected by counselors' smoking behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that it makes no difference in nonsmoking clients' impressions of therapists and in counseling outcome if the latter smoke during treatment. Suggested variables to further explore include the effects of counselors' smoking in brief and ...
The Effects of Maternal Employment and Family Life Cycle Stage on Women's Psychological Well-Being
The study examined the impact of maternal employment and family life cycle stage on the psychological well-being o£ middle socioeconomic status women. One hundred twenty eight mothers of children at the stages of birth to 6 years, 7 to 12 years and 13 to 17 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. To test the hypothesis of the study, a 3 X 3 (employment X family life cycle stage) analysis of covariance was conducted with age, income, time employed and psychological resources as covariates. Results indicated that middle socioeconomic status mothers employed full-time experienced significantly higher levels of role overload, occupational strain, spouse support and job commitment. A post hoc exploratory analysis using conflict level between commitment to work and parenting, yielded data which indicated that individuals with a large discrepancy between commitment to one role versus the other, experienced the greatest degree of difficulty. Results were evaluated in the light of selective characteristics of the sample. Recommendations for future research included the use of projective assessment to reduce the effect of defensive response styles. A life span approach using the concept of perceived conflict between roles was advanced, instead of the age specific developmental construct of family life cycle stage.
Effects of Monitoring Positive and Negative Events on Measures of Depression
This study examined psychoanalytic, physiological, and social learning models of depression in terms of etiology and symptomatology. Emphasis was placed on social learning theories of depression. First, Beck's cognitive approach stated that the root of depression was a negative cognitive set. Depressive episodes might be externally precipitated, but it was the individual's perception and appraisal of the event that rendered it depression inducing. Secondly, Seligman's learned helplessness model explained reactive depression in terms of a belief in one's own helplessness. Specifically, Seligman stated belief in the uncontrollability of outcomes resulted in depression, irrespective of the correspondence of such beliefs to objective circumstances. Additionally, depression resulted from noncontingent aversive stimulation and noncontingent positive reinforcement. Thirdly, Lewinsohn's model was based on these assumptions: a low rate of response-contingent positive reinforcement which acted as an eliciting stimulus for depressive behaviors. This low rate of response-contingent positive reinforcement constituted an explanation for the low rate of behaviors observed in the depressive. Total amount of response—contingent positive reinforcement is a function of a number of events reinforcing for the individual, availability of reinforcement in the environment, and social skills of the individual that are necessary to elicit reinforcement.
The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes
To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Effects of Reflection, Probing and Paradoxical Therapist Responses on Client Self-Acceptance
Client self-acceptance is a crucial element of mental health and a goal of psychotherapy. It has been demonstrated that client self-disclosure in psychotherapy is instrumental in the promotion of self-acceptance. Reflection, probing, and paradoxical therapist responses frequently are used to elicit self-disclosure. Cognitive dissonance theory was used to provide a theoretical understanding of these techniques and their use in the promotion of self-acceptance. Reflection, probing, and paradoxical responses were conceptualized as providing a client with different perceptions of choice over self-disclosure that may affect the occurrence of self-acceptance. This study compared the effects of the reflection, probing, and paradoxical techniques on self-acceptance and anxiety following self-disclosure.
The Effects of Reframing and Self-Control Statements on Loneliness, Depression and Controllability
Reframing, a therapy technique which allows the therapist to restate a situation or problem so that it is perceived in a new way, has received considerable attention recently because of its purported positive effects on the therapeutic process. The increase in the use of reframing has taken place despite an absence of empirical confirmation of its effectiveness. Proponents of reframing comment on its usefulness early in the therapeutic process as a means for helping clients to more positively view their symptomatic behavior, to experience some affective relief, to shift toward an increased sense of control regarding their symptoms, and to view their counselor and their expectations for counseling more positively. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential effects of reframing and selfcontrol responses on the subjects' expressed degree of loneliness, depression, and perceived control of loneliness. In addition, effects of these interventions on the subjects' ratings of the interviewers and the subjects' expectations regarding counseling were explored.
The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention
This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while injured, use of a stopwatch during training, or effort exerted in races. Overall, these findings suggest that an ability to perform under split-attention (dual task) conditions is positively related to aerobic fitness, a low-fat diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. In addition, Type A Runners differ from B Runners in some, but not all, aspects related to the Type A pattern, suggesting that aerobic exercise may modify to a limited extent the Type A behavior pattern. The failure to find A-B differences in attentional style consistent with prior research (Matthews & Brunson, 1979) or interaction of type and exercise ...
Employed Stepmothers: Psychological Stress, Personal Adjustment, Psychological Needs, and Personal Values
Employed and non-employed stepmothers were compared on four psychological dimensions: stress, adjustment, needs, and values. Employed stepmothers were hypothesized to experience greater stress, lower adjustment, different needs, and different values. Racial and race by employment status differences along these four dimensions were also addressed.
An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis
This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective in creating a significant change in performance on the dependent measure. The results are discussed as support for the hypothesized differences between depressives and normals. Differences between the measures used in the present study and that of Crawford and Allen suggest that hypnosis may mediate imagery at a conceptual level but not at the level of the primary visual-perceptual system.
Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy
This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with previous reports of disturbed mother-daughter relationships among this population. Discriminant analysis revealed that subjects choosing adoption were more likely to be older and to be white than those choosing to keep the child. They also tended to perceive higher levels of expressiveness and independence in their families. Comparisons between the present sample and "normal" families revealed differences which were statistically significant, but quite small in terms of raw score units. Indeed, these groups may be more similar than has often been assumed. The implications of these findings for the delivery of services and for future research efforts in this area ...
Health Locus of Control and Available Coping Resources: Do Elderly "Internals" Have an Advantage?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health attribution and the availability of organized internal resources and response style as measured by the Four Square of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Forty-two subjects participated in this study. Six major hypotheses were explored in the study. None of the hypotheses was statistically significant. Several factors may have contributed to these results. The small sample size and the homogeneity of the sample limited the investigator's ability to interpret the results of the study. Statistically, health attribution may not be conceptually related to organized internal resources and response style since physical and emotional distress may require different coping mechanisms.
Hypnotic Susceptibility as a Function of Information Processing
Hypnotic susceptibility, often regarded as a relatively stable individual characteristic, has been found to be related to the personality dimension of absorption. To test the hypothesis that this relationship is a function of the nature of the sensory response to stimulus events and the development of cognitive models pursuant to the processing of that information, a group of hospitalized, chronic pain patients were assessed on the following dimensions: absorption, clinical hypnotic responsiveness, cognitive resistance to interference, and visual automatization.
Imagery as a Skills Training Technique for Alcoholics
Alcoholism is a major health problem, and current methods of treatment have been only partially successful. One treatment approach is to teach coping skills for dealing with problematic situations. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of imagery techniques in teaching coping skills. There were two major objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine whether covert skills training would produce positive changes in alcoholics in terms of their effectiveness in responding to stressful situations, their self-concept, and selected personality characteristics. The second objective was to determine whether alcoholics subjectively experience the imagery approach as beneficial. The statistical design also evaluated whether the effectiveness of the treatment fluctuated as a function of age, education, chronicity of alcohol problem, number of rehabilitation attempts, and environmental support as measured by the presence of a family or job awaiting the alcoholic's return.
The Influence of Hypnotic Susceptibility on Depth of Trance Using a Direct Induction and a Metaphorical Induction Technique
To test the hypothesis that a metaphorical technique would be more effective than a direct technique to induce hypnosis, 60 volunteers from students at North Texas State University were divided into high- and low-susceptible subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. They were randomly assigned to direct and metaphorical induction groups and to a control group, with 10 high- and 10 low-susceptible subjects in each group. After hypnosis they completed the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth, and their mean scores were subjected to an analysis of variance and a Newman-Keuls test. Neither method of hypnotic induction was found more effective than the other, although both were effective when compared to a control group. It was also found that subjects who expected to be able to experience hypnosis were no more likely to be hypnotized than those who expected not to be able to experience hypnosis. Finally, it was found that low-susceptible subjects were as likely to respond to a post-hypnotic suggestion as high-susceptible subjects.
An Investigation of Black Stepmother Stress
Much research conducted on stepmothers has not been racially representative. This includes Janice Nadler's (1976) research on three psychological stresses (anxiety, depression, and anger) of stepmotherhood. To investigate the stress of black stepmotherhood, this study replicated a portion of Nadler's investigation on a black sample. It was hypothesized that 1) black stepmothers would report more stress than black natural mothers; and that 2) black stepmothers would report more stress than the white stepmothers in Nadler's study. The data indicated no significant difference in the levels of stress experienced by black stepmothers and black natural mothers. Overall, white stepmothers reported more stress than black stepmothers. The former may be attributable to black stepmothers and natural mothers having the same support system, the black extended family.
Locus of Control and Adjustment to Retirement
Locus of desired control and participation in a retirement preparation program was investigated in relation to retirement attitudes and adjustment. Fifty-nine subjects, consisting of older workers and retirees from a large southwestern corporation, comprised the sample. An experimental group, consisting of 12 subjects, completed questionnaires prior to and following their participation in the retirement preparation program. A control group, consisting of 15 subjects, completed the same questionnaires at approximately the same times as did the experimental group, but did not receive retirement preparation. A third group, consisting of 20 retirees who had a previous retirement preparation experience and 12 retirees who had not had such a retirement preparation experience, completed similar questionnaires.
Menstrual-Related Distress and Willingness Versus Unwillingness to Seek Treatment
The purpose of this study was to delineate variables which relate to reported willingness to seek treatment for menstrual-related distress, and to assess treatment preferences in a population of women often tapped for menstrual research that of college students. Of the 198 volunteers included in the study, 71 stated that they were willing to seek some form of treatment for menstrual-related distress, and 127 stated that they were not willing to do so. The Adjective Checklist (ACL), Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), along with a personal data sheet were administered to subjects. In addition, they were asked to read three paragraph-long descriptions of self-administered, medical, and behavioral treatments for menstrual-related distress and to indicate their preference for each.
Ordination and Cognitive Complexity as Related to Endogenous and Exogenous Depression
Personal construct psychology, as formulated by George Kelly (1955), contributed substantial knowledge to the study of psychopathology. The small amount of research in the area of depression has focused generally on the content of self-constructs and the cognitive complexity characteristic. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct system of the depressed patient specifically by investigating the endogenicity, exogenicity, and severity of depressive symptoms in relationship to construct content as applied to others, cognitive complexity, and ordination.
Orgasm Consistency, Causal Attribution, and Inhibitory Control
A group of 44 high-orgasm-consistency and 34 low-orgasmconsistency women were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, and the Fall Back Task. Excitatory and inhibitory controlling attitudes as manifested in hypnotic susceptibility, reported control of thinking and movement during coitus, causal attributions, and attitude toward alcoholic beverages were related to orgasm consistency. Women experiencing expectancy disconfirmation for coital outcomes attributed outcomes to unstable factors, supporting the application of Weiner's achievement model to the domain of coital orgasm. High and low consistency women showed different patterns of causal attribution for coital outcomes. High consistency women's attributions fit their reported sexual experiences, while low consistency women's attributions suggested the presence of self-esteem enhancing cognitive distortions.
Personal and Supplied Constructs: A Study of Meaningfulness, Cognitive Organization, Neuroticism, and Sex Roles
George Kelly has stated that persons place interpretations, or constructs, on what they perceive. Past research has indicated that subjects more meaningfully apply their own personal constructs to persons and situations than constructs supplied from other sources. This study attempted to confirm previous findings. Sixty-three university students used their own personal constructs, elicited from the Role Construct Repertory Test, and supplied instrumental-expressive role constructs to interpret and rate 12 actors portraying instrumental and expressive behaviors in six videotaped scenes. The purpose of this study is to compare the meaningfulness to subjects of stereotypic terms in a sex-role inventory to the meaningfulness of the subjects' own personal constructs when interpreting typical masculine- and feminine-typed behavior.
Personality Characteristics of Pediatric Leukemia Patients: Their Mothers' Perceptions
The improving prognosis for pediatric leukemia patients requires that involved professionals increase attention to the emotional adjustment of these children. This study was designed to determine (a) how mothers of leukemia patients perceived their children's personalities in order to identify any specific emotional difficulties which these children may experience and (b) if their perceptions differed from either mothers of cystic fibrosis and diabetes patients or mothers of healthy children. Subjects included 24 mothers in each of three groups: leukemia, other illness, and healthy. Children in both illness groups received higher scores than healthy children on Adjustment, Achievement, Somatic Concern, Depression, Psychosis, and Social Skills scales as measured by the Personality Inventory for Children; however, only the leukemic children were rated higher in areas of Anxiety and Withdrawal. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.
Personality Variables Relating to Facet Denervation Response
The disabling conditions of chronic low-back pain continue to cost patient, family, and society. The intricate mechanisms which perpetuate this medical condition often consist of both organic and functional factors. This study evaluated personality and psychosocial variables which may control individual responses to facet denervation, a treatment for chronic lumbar distress. The subjects were 47 chronic pain patients whose symptoms conformed to the facet syndrome. Patient responses to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were reviewed in an effort to predict statistically symptomatic relief. Also, the patients' involvement in litigation and their accuracy in determining their pain level were studied as possible influencing variables. Results show the litigation factor and two scalesof the MMPI to be most useful in predicting patient response from facet denervation treatment.
Phantom Breast Concomitants Among Mastectomy Patients
Thirty-eight mastectomy patients who reported phantom breasts were compared to 23 women who did not experience these sensations for the purpose of developing a predictive psychological profile of the phantom breast patient. The Adjective Check List, WAIS—short form, Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation Scale—Behavior, a social-medical questionnaire, and a Body Image Scale were administered. The Body Image Scale was also given to 25 women who had not had breast cancer. Hemispheric dominance was also assessed by means of conjugate lateral eye movements.
The Prediction of Homophobic Attitudes among College Students
A review of the literature on homophobia indicates that negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality have been empirically related to numerous socio-demographic and attitudinal variables. Research to this date has focused on the relationship between individual variables and homophobia rather than examining multiple variables simultaneously. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the factors which are predictive of homophobia. One hundred and ninety-four female and 115 male participants completed a biographical information questionnaire requesting socio-demographic information, self-proclaimed religiosity, frequency of church attendance, self-proclaimed political orientation, and political party identification. Participants also completed measures of attitudes toward male homosexuality, attitudes toward lesbianism, attitudes toward women, authoritarianism, sex anxiety, sexual attitudes, and socio-economic status. Statistical treatment of the data through principal components analysis indicated that homophobic attitudes are best predicted by a factor identified as "conservatism". Other factors were identified which predicted homophobia to a lesser extent. Male participant gender was determined to predict homophobia toward male homosexuals, but gender was not found to predict homophobic attitudes toward lesbians.
The Premenstrual Syndrome: Daily Stress and Coping Style
The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) continues to be an enigma for many: those women who report PMS, for professionals who attempt to treat premenstrual symptoms, and for researchers attempting to identify PMS and to compare treatments. The present study investigated the responses from 86 subjects between the ages 30-45 for their perceptions of daily stress and coping styles by PMS level. Three levels of PMS were formulated by subject responses to the questionnaire (a) PMS for scores within the criteria, (b) Non-PMS for scores lower than the criteria, and (c) Psy-Non-PMS for certain scores higher than the criteria with a psychological, or neurotic, profile. Hassle intensity (daily stress) and coping style, whether problem-focused (P) or emotion-focused (E), were assessed by questionnaire. In addition, help seeking behavior, i.e., whether a woman sought help from a doctor in the past twelve months, was examined but did not significantly relate to level of PMS, hassle intensity, or coping style. Psy-Non-PMS women reported perceiving significantly more hassles and significantly greater use of four of the E coping styles, Detachment, Focusing on the Positive, Self-blame, and Keep to Self, than the Non-PMS women. PMS women endorsed perception of significantly more hassles and significantly greater use of two of the E coping styles, Detachment and Keep to Self, than the Non-PMS women. These E coping styles are consonant with detached, avoidant, escapist, and self-deriding coping mechanisms, typical of depressed and anxious persons. There was some difficulty in differentiating the PMS group from the Psy-Non-PMS group. Only one coping style, Focusing on the Positive, was endorsed by the Psy-Non-PMS group significantly more than the PMS group. Further statistical analysis of the data could determine psychological/behavioral PMS subtypes as distinct from physiological PMS subtypes, providing more clearly defined PMS groups. Future research involving a carefully controlled study for determining ...
Prisoners' Self-Help Packets for Positive Behavioral Change
This study investigated the efficacy of bibiliotherapy in a correctional setting. Bibliotherapy (the utilization of books, pamphlets, or other literature) has been recommended as an adjunct to psychotherapy when professional time was at a premium or when the motivational level of the clientele was marginal. The experimental problem of this present study was to assess the usefulness of bibliotherapy in coping with psychological problems found within the correctional setting. This investigation was designed to explore the effects of two self-help packets on two diverse prison populations.
Processes of Relapse and Recovery in Alcoholics
This study was designed to investigate risk factors for resumption of alcohol use during the early period following treatment. Specifically, the influence of cognitions, stressful life events, subjective appraisal of stress, expectancies about alcohol use, and personal coping responses was explored.
A Psychometric Comparison of Bulimics With and Without a Prior History of Anorectic-Like Behavior, Normals, and Those Concerned About Weight
Based on psychodynamic and object relations theories, 17 variables were proposed to be salient for those suffering from bulimia. In the present study four groups were compared: (a) bulimics with a prior history of anorectic-like behavior (FAB); (b) bulimics without a prior history of anorectic-like behavior (NAB); (c) a nonobese, nonbulimic group who evidenced excessive concerns about their weight (CAW); and (d) a normal control group (Control). Differences were predicted between both the bulimic and control groups as well as between both bulimic groups (FAB and NAB). Seventy-five women between the ages of 18 and 35 completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Eating Disorders Inventory, and Levenson's Locus of Control Scale. Results of a multivariate analysis of covariance procedure revealed differences across the groups on 12 variables. Post hoc testing indicated that both bulimic groups differed from the control groups confirming the first hypothesis. Further, the bulimic groups were differentiated from each other in the predicted direction on 10 of the 12 variables, lending support for the second hypothesis. Overall, the results suggest a progression of psychopathology and clinical symptomatology. In order of decreasing psychopathology were the following groups: FAB, NAB, CAW, and Control groups. Also, a discriminant analysis procedure identified 11 variables which successfully differentiated among the FAB, NAB and nonbulimic groups. It was concluded that within the syndrome of bulimia a prior history of anorectic-like behavior was related to increased psychopathology and clinical symptomatology. A clear distinction between the syndrome of bulimia and occasional instances of bulimic behavior was also indicated. Lastly, results of this study seemed to rule out excessive concerns about weight as a factor related specifically to the bulimic syndrome. Limitations and alternative explanations for the results are discussed and suggestions for further research are put forth.
Rational Behavior Therapy in a Retirement Community
The objectives of this investigation were to develop, implement, and determine the effects of rational behavior therapy for residents in a retirement community. The question addressed was, "Will rational behavior therapy, relative to a discussion group and control group, exhibit significant changes in level of rational thinking and depression?" Drawing upon a cognitive theory of depression relevant to the aged population and upon rational behavior therapy literature, it was hypothesized that short-term rational behavior therapy intervention would be significantly related to a modification of belief systems and a decrease in depression. The participants were residents of two retirement communities. There were 25 subjects who completed the study through posttest assessment. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups and assessed at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The experimental group did not experience the hypothesized significant increase in level of rational thinking and decrease in level of depression. Possible explanations are given for lack of expected effects. Overall, the discussion group had more significant increases in rational thinking than the experimental and control groups.
The Recovery of Cognitive Functions by Males Diagnosed as Chronically Alcohol Dependent During Increased Periods of Abstinence
The present study addresses questions regarding the cognitive functioning of recently detoxified male alcoholics during increasing time periods of abstinence. Such questions relate to whether alcoholic males between the ages of 30 and 55 demonstrate a recovery to normal cognitive functioning within a six week abstinence period.
Reframing, Self-Control, and Neutral Interventions: The Differential Influence on High and Low Trait-Anxious Individuals
This study compared the differential influence of reframing, self-control, and neutral counselor interventions on high and low trait-anxious subjects' self -descriptions as measured by the Adjective Check List. Reframing was predicted to be superior to self-control and neutral interventions in eliciting more favorable self-descriptions. An interaction was also predicted between counselor intervention and trait anxiety such that, in the reframing condition, low trait-anxious subjects would describe themselves more positively than high trait-anxious subjects.
The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression
This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the fourth session. As anticipated, reduction in negative attributions did not precede or coincide with reduction in depression. It was not possible to determine the change in the attributional style of subject during the time period of this study. The results were discussed in terms of Bower's Associative Network Theory in which activation of mood facilitates the access to memories, behaviors, and interpretation of events which are congruent with the mood state.
Relationship of Self-Acutalization and Marital Models to Marital Adjustment
The present study was an attempt to further investigate what factors contributed to whether married individuals defined their relationship as traditional or nontraditional. The project, moreover, explored what variables affected marital adjustment levels. The variables whose effects were assessed regarding whether married individuals defined their relationship as traditional or nontraditional included self-actualization and presence or absence of children. The factors examined thought to affect marital adjustment levels were self-actualization, subjective definition of the relationship as traditional or nontraditional, and presence or absence of children.
Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus
The hypothesis was tested that meditation using an audible word-sound would be superior to silent repetition of the same word in producing decrements in autonomic arousal and improvements in anxiety, mood, and the ability to cope with stress. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility upon improvement was also evaluated. Thirty subjects, assigned to one of three groups: audible meditation, silent meditation, and relaxation control, met one hour weekly for six weeks to practice their respective technique and discuss their progress. All subjects were evaluated using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a medical symptom checklist, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, a self-rating of state anxiety, and factors C and Q4 of the 16PF. Finger temperature was taken as a measure of physiological arousal. Confidence ratings of the respective strategies were taken pre- and post-treatment.
Religious Inventory for the Assessment of Psychologically Healthy and Unhealthy Beliefs
The problem concerns determining whether healthy and unhealthy religious beliefs can be distinguished. A 150 item Religious Beliefs Inventory (RBI) was developed to assess healthy and unhealthy religious beliefs. In a pilot study, RBI scales were developed and the MMPI-168 was used as the criteria measure. Fifteen of the 23 RBI scales yielded an average reliability of .79 and an average validity of .48 for 95 undergraduate university subjects. The present study seeks to cross-validate the results of the pilot study with a church-active sample. Six judges/pastors evaluated RBI items as healthy or unhealthy and their responses were used to formulate and validate the RBI scoring system. For the 196 church-active subjects, Hypothesis 1 is supported by eleven of the seventeen significant predicted correlations between the RBI and the validity criteria MMPI- 168, ranging from .14 to .28 with an average of .20. The average reliability of 15 RBI scales is .71. Hypothesis 2 is supported by five of eight significant predicted positive correlations between the RBI and the Rehfisch RI (Rigidity) scale, ranging from .18 to .25 with an average of .17. One or more of the following explanations may account for the absence of higher and more numerous significant correlations for support for Hypotheses 1 and 2 found in the present study: (a) the distribution of scores on 18 of 24 RBI scales are skewed to the right; (b) there are significant differences between characteristics of the pilot study undergraduate sample and the church-active sample participating in the present study; (c) there is a need to assess an individual's degree of involvement in his religious beliefs; (d) psychometric improvements are needed in the RBI; and (e) limitations of the validity criteria. In conclusion, although the RBI is not ready for clinical use, fifteen of the RBI scales appear ...
Self-Disclosure and Self-Actualization as Predictors of Love
Maslow (1956) suggested that self-actualization in an important determinant of the type of love experienced in heterosexual relationships. Recent work has suggested that the self-actualization of each member of a couple may also be important in determining the level of self-disclosure intimacy which occurs in the couple, and also that self-disclosure itself is an important determinant of interpersonal attraction. The present study employed the technique of path analysis (Wright, 1960) to determine 1) the direct and indirect contribution of each partner's self-actualization to his experience of five love components identified by Critelli, Myers, Ellington, and Bissett (1981), 2) the contribution of each partner's self-actualization to his self-disclosure intimacy, and 3) the contribution of the partner's self-disclosure intimacy to their experience of the five love components.