UNT Libraries - 14 Matching Results

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Adherence/Compliance to Exercise Prescription: A Test of the Self-Efficacy Model

Description: It has been well-documented in the literature that there are many physical and psychological benefits to be derived from regular aerobic exercise. It has also been noted that adherence/compliance to aerobic exercise regimens tends to be quite low. Investigators have found that a number of factors tend to correlate with adherence, but it has been difficult thus far to determine a mechanism which underlies a tendency to adhere versus a tendency to drop-out. This study examined the problem of non-adherence from the perspective of Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977). Subjects for this investigation included all patients seen during a four week period in the Cooper Clinic at the Aerobics Center in Dallas, Texas. Patients at the clinic receive a complete physical examination and health prescriptions based upon the results of their examination. During this four week period, half were administered a Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Approximately three months later all patients seen during this four week period received a followup (adherence questionnaire in the mail). It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between responses on the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and responses on the Adherence Questionnaire. A second hypothesis stated that there would be a positive relationship between items which specifically pertained to exercise on each of the questionnaires. In addition, it was expected that there would be no difference in adherence rates between those who made self-efficacy judgments and those who did not. Results of a t-test conducted between the group which made self-efficacy judgments and the group that was not asked to make such an evaluation demonstrated no significant difference in adherence rates. A correlational analysis revealed that there was not a statistically significant relationship between total self-efficacy scores and total adherence scores. There was, however, a statistically significant relationship between levels of exercise self-efficacy and levels of exercise adherence. ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Lyons, Beth (Beth A.)

Characteristics and Predictors of Success at Two Coed Halfway Houses

Description: The present study evaluated offender characteristics associated with completion of halfway house placement by the inclusion of additional offender characteristics for analysis in addition to those studied in previous research, the analysis of a large number of representative cases, and the use of statistics allowing clear conclusions upon which to base decision making. Data analysis was done in three steps. The first Step was to identify offender characteristics which were associated with completion in halfway house placement. The second step was to see how accurate the offender characteristics identified were in predicting completion of an offender's halfway house stay. The third step was to identify any possible factors which underlie the offender characteristics identified. Discriminant analyses identified ten offender characteristics which were associated with completion of halfway house placement for 521 male offenders and four offender characteristics which were associated with halfway house completion for the group of 33 female offenders studied. These offender characteristics resulted in 75.38 percent correctly classified cases for the male offender group and 96.9 7 percent correctly classified cases for the group of female offenders. Factor analyses resulted in the identification of four factors for the group of male offenders and two factors for the female offender group. Suggestions for future research included replications of the present study leading to the identification of offender groups based on probabilities of successful halfway house completion, and the establishment of halfway house programs tailored to offenders identified as having high or low probabilities of completion.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Sperry, Robert M., 1953-

Childbirth and Locus of Control: The Role of Perceived Control in the Choice and Utilization of Birthing Alternatives

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wives' perceptions of personal control over the process of childbirth were related to couples' choices and utilization of three birthing alternatives (home birth, unmedicated hospital birth, and medicated hospital birth). The wives' perceived control over the childbirth process was expected to vary inversely with the level of medical intervention in the birthing alternative chosen. The home birth mothers were expected to perceive themselves as having more control over childbirth than were the unmedicated hospital group mothers, and the unmedicated hospital group mothers more than the medicated hospital group mothers. The husbands' perception of their wives' perceived control in childbirth and their participation was also measured.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Dawson-Black, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann)

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven

Cognitive Organization, Interpersonal Flexibility and Psychological Maladjustment

Description: Recent research on the contribution of cognitive and social factors to psychopathology has been narrowly focused on isolated cognitive-social aspects of adjustment. This study takes a broader perspective by examining a) cognitive structure in addition to cognitive content and b) general aspects of interpersonal style rather than isolated social behaviors. Maladjustment was. examined with respect to premorbid history as well as current adjustment. The hypotheses were that cognitive integration interacts with cognitive complexity to influence psychological disturbance; that a positive relationship exists between interpersonal flexibility and psychopathology; and that a positive relationship exists between the proportion of ambiguous constructs which they employ and a person's level of psychopathology.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Nicholson, Stephen David

The Effect of Hypnotically-Induced Mood Elevation as an Adjunct to Cognitive Treatment of Depression

Description: Cognitive therapy for the treatment of depression has generated substantial research indicating its effectiveness and it is currently considered among the most viable conceptualizations of depression. However, it has remained controversial because its methods do not directly address emotional symptoms in depressed persons. Treatment of depressed emotions is a primary focus of hypnotic mood elevating techniques. These techniques enable depressed persons to experience positive emotions during hypnosis sessions and to re-experience them daily concurrent with performance of certain specified behaviors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multicomponent treatment which combines the techniques of cognitive therapy and hypnotic mood elevation in the treatment of depressed persons. The three treatment conditions constructed for this investigation were cognitive therapy plus hypnotic mood elevation, cognitive therapy plus pseudo-biofeedback, and no treatment waiting list.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Lucas, Scott Gordon

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

The Effects of Computer Versus Personal Administration on Measures of Verbal and Spatial Short-Term Memory

Description: This study sought to investigate the influence of expressive task demand, as determined by amount of face-to face social interaction, level of subjects' expressive ability, sex of subject, and sex of experimenter on subjects' digit and visual-spatial short-term memory span performance. The amount of personal contact was manipulated by the automated versus person administrations of the memory measures. The automated administration was accomplished through the use of a microcomputer.
Date: May 1985
Creator: McFarlane, Gilbert John

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre

The Effects of Lateralization of Task on the Use of the Dual Task Paradigm as a Measure of General Intelligence

Description: Stankov's work on attention and intelligence suggests that the dual task paradigm, requiring the division of attention, is a better measure of general intellectual ability than the single task paradigm which does not make this demand. Sixty right handed undergraduates remembered digit and visual-spatial sequences alone and in two dual task conditions involving lateralized key tapping as the primary task. R gher intercorrelations were found under dual task conditions in which the tasks competed for the same hemisphere's resources. Better memory performance resulted when both tasks were lateralized to the same hemisphere. Hierarchical models combining general attention resources with ,lateralized hemispheric resources best account for these resutsi
Date: December 1985
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann

History of Self-Disclosure and Premature Termination from Therapy

Description: The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that female clients who tend to terminate therapy prematurely will have been assigned to a male therapist. The study also tested the hypothesis that female clients who defect from therapy will have reported a history of low self-disclosure to individuals of the same sex as their therapist. Neither hypothesis was supported by the results of this study, but findings suggest a possible bias in the manner by which male and female therapists select their clients for therapy. It also appears that female defectors may be over-identifying with their family of origin or that they may be overly dependent on it as a resource system. This may be the reason for their apparent difficulty in developing a prototype that will accommodate their therapist.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Rose, Grace (Grace Elizabeth)

Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Organization

Description: Individual differences of cognitive organization and content were investigated as they relate to adaptation to remote, recent, and immediate life stress. Outside the field of stress, prior researchers have implicated cognitive organization with adjustment and cognitive content with specific psychopathology. As for behavioral adaptation to life stress, cognitive organization was viewed as a major factor in emotional vulnerability and adjustment, and cognitive content as a major factor in the mood disturbance of depression. Behavioral adaptation was defined in terms of current emotional vulnerability, adjustment and negative changes in the immediate (last six months), recent (over six months), and remote (over one year) past.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene

Perceived Parental Nurturance, Parent Identification and Sex-Role Orientation for Female Victims of Sexual Abuse

Description: This study examined the perception of parental nurturance, the parental identification, and the sex-role orientation of women who had been sexually abused as children. Its purpose was to explore these aspects of a woman's relationship with her parents and the subsequent sex role development, as it relates to the presence or absence of sexual abuse in the relationship. Eighty women averaging 31 years of age volunteered to participate in the study. The women represented three distinct populations with respect to the question of sexual abuse. The first group reported never having been sexually abused (Nonabused). The second group reported having been sexually abused by their father or stepfather (Father Abused). The third group reported having been sexually abused by someone other than their father or stepfather (Other Abused). As predicted, perceived parental nurturance was significantly lower for members of the Father Abused group than for the remaining two groups. In addition, the Nonabused group reported the highest nurturance scores of the three groups. Contrary to expectation, there was no difference between the parent identification patterns of the three groups. Support was provided for the prediction that women who had been sexually abused by their fathers were more likely to express undifferentiated sex roles than androgynous ones. Women not abused by their fathers were more likely to express androgynous sex roles than undifferentiated ones. Limitations of the study and implications of the results were discussed.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Heath, Robert Steven

Predicting Attrition of Baptist Foreign Missionaries Using the MMPI

Description: Relationships between MMPI subscale scores and premature resignations among Southern Baptist foreign missionaries appointed in 1964 were investigated in an effort to develop a predictive model for attrition. Unsuccessful attempts were made at cross-validating the results of a previous related study, and two separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken. The first sorted subjects into three groups, defined by subjects' length of service before resignation. The second classified them according to the reason stated for their termination, if applicable. Both procedures failed to establish a statistically reliable classification system for relating MMPI scores with premature resignations. Although consistent success has been achieved with the MMPI as a screening instrument for psychopathology, it is suggested that the instrument is not adequately sensitive as a screening device for groups lying predominantly within the normal range of variability.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee