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Adherence/Compliance to Exercise Prescription: A Test of the Self-Efficacy Model

Description: It has been well-documented in the literature that there are many physical and psychological benefits to be derived from regular aerobic exercise. It has also been noted that adherence/compliance to aerobic exercise regimens tends to be quite low. Investigators have found that a number of factors tend to correlate with adherence, but it has been difficult thus far to determine a mechanism which underlies a tendency to adhere versus a tendency to drop-out. This study examined the problem of non-adherence from the perspective of Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977). Subjects for this investigation included all patients seen during a four week period in the Cooper Clinic at the Aerobics Center in Dallas, Texas. Patients at the clinic receive a complete physical examination and health prescriptions based upon the results of their examination. During this four week period, half were administered a Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Approximately three months later all patients seen during this four week period received a followup (adherence questionnaire in the mail). It was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between responses on the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and responses on the Adherence Questionnaire. A second hypothesis stated that there would be a positive relationship between items which specifically pertained to exercise on each of the questionnaires. In addition, it was expected that there would be no difference in adherence rates between those who made self-efficacy judgments and those who did not. Results of a t-test conducted between the group which made self-efficacy judgments and the group that was not asked to make such an evaluation demonstrated no significant difference in adherence rates. A correlational analysis revealed that there was not a statistically significant relationship between total self-efficacy scores and total adherence scores. There was, however, a statistically significant relationship between levels of exercise self-efficacy and levels of exercise adherence. ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Lyons, Beth (Beth A.)

Assessment of Brain Damage: Discriminant Validity of a Neuropsychological Key Approach with the McCarron-Dial System

Description: The present study investigates the predictive accuracy of a key approach to interpretation of the verbal-spatialcognitive (VSC) and sensorimotor (SM) factors of the McCarron-Dial System (MDS). The subjects include 99 brain damaged and 30 normal adults. The following research questions are addressed: (a) Does the neuropsychological key classify brain damaged and non-brain damaged subjects at a level significantly above chance? (b) Among the brain damaged subjects, does the neuropsychological key identify right brain damage, left brain damage and diffuse brain damage at an accuracy level significantly above chance? (c) Is the neuropsychological key approach superior to the empirical model derived from discriminant function analysis in predictive accuracy? The neuropsychological key correctly classifies 90% of the cases as brain damaged and 90% of the cases as non-brain damaged, for a total of 89.9% predictive accuracy. The obtained Kappa coefficient of .74 is statistically significant. The key accurately classifies 71.4% of the brain damaged group as right damage, 70% as left damage, and 93.8% as diffuse damage, for a total predictive accuracy of 7 9.5%. The Kappa coefficient of .68 is statistically significant. Chi square analysis of the difference between the key approach and multiple discriminant function analysis reveals that no significant difference is present between the accuracy of the two approaches in differentiating between brain damaged and non-brain damaged, or in differentiating among left, right and diffuse brain damage. The results support the validity of a neuropsychological key approach to interpretation of the McCarron-Dial System, although cross-validation is indicated to confirm the stability of these results. Differences in sex, educational level and racial composition of the comparison groups may have affected the results obtained. Refinement of the key in future research and the addition of test instruments assessing memory, auditory processing, attention and emotional/behavioral variables are recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn

Characteristics and Predictors of Success at Two Coed Halfway Houses

Description: The present study evaluated offender characteristics associated with completion of halfway house placement by the inclusion of additional offender characteristics for analysis in addition to those studied in previous research, the analysis of a large number of representative cases, and the use of statistics allowing clear conclusions upon which to base decision making. Data analysis was done in three steps. The first Step was to identify offender characteristics which were associated with completion in halfway house placement. The second step was to see how accurate the offender characteristics identified were in predicting completion of an offender's halfway house stay. The third step was to identify any possible factors which underlie the offender characteristics identified. Discriminant analyses identified ten offender characteristics which were associated with completion of halfway house placement for 521 male offenders and four offender characteristics which were associated with halfway house completion for the group of 33 female offenders studied. These offender characteristics resulted in 75.38 percent correctly classified cases for the male offender group and 96.9 7 percent correctly classified cases for the group of female offenders. Factor analyses resulted in the identification of four factors for the group of male offenders and two factors for the female offender group. Suggestions for future research included replications of the present study leading to the identification of offender groups based on probabilities of successful halfway house completion, and the establishment of halfway house programs tailored to offenders identified as having high or low probabilities of completion.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Sperry, Robert M., 1953-

Children of Battered Women: Personality Patterns and Identification

Description: Mental health professionals have observed that children who witness interparental violence frequently display either an affrontive, demanding personality style, or a passive, compliant style. The prevalence of these personality types and their relation to identification, stress, and other variables was evaluated in a sample of 40 children (age range = 6 - 12 years old) who have witnessed parental spouse abuse. Children completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and the Parental Identification Questionnaire. Mothers completed the Life Experiences Survey. Independent ratings of the children's personality were made. The results validated the existence of these two personality styles among both male and female witnesses, and supplied evidence for their relation to paternal identification, familial instability, and parental ineffectualness. The implications of these findings for assessment and intervention are discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients who relied on dramatized coping strategies were less likely to be successful in treatment. Breathing activity and pain acknowledgement were positive coping techniques highly predictive of successful outcome in this study. The use of computers for assessment and other recommendations for future research were discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne

Cognitive Organization, Interpersonal Flexibility and Psychological Maladjustment

Description: Recent research on the contribution of cognitive and social factors to psychopathology has been narrowly focused on isolated cognitive-social aspects of adjustment. This study takes a broader perspective by examining a) cognitive structure in addition to cognitive content and b) general aspects of interpersonal style rather than isolated social behaviors. Maladjustment was. examined with respect to premorbid history as well as current adjustment. The hypotheses were that cognitive integration interacts with cognitive complexity to influence psychological disturbance; that a positive relationship exists between interpersonal flexibility and psychopathology; and that a positive relationship exists between the proportion of ambiguous constructs which they employ and a person's level of psychopathology.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Nicholson, Stephen David

A Comparative Analysis of Three Forms of Evaluating Management Training Programs

Description: The practice of training evaluation has not kept pace with prescription, and evaluations being being done are frequently negligent of appropriate controls needed to draw valid conclusions. A comparison was made of training outcomes contrasting results obtained using carefully controlled scientific approaches with those from a more popular less scientific approach. The research design involved the collection and analysis of data from a single organizations managerial training program. , Three different methods of training evaluation were studied: an "immediate reaction" rating sheet, a self-report participant survey, and a similar survey completed by t he participants' subordinates. Bo th surv ey r e sul t s showed no signif icant c hang es in on-the-job behavior six weeks after training. In contrast the "immediate reaction" ratings were positive, implying the training program was a "success." Conclusions w ere drawn concerning the validity of methods compared.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hale, John P.

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques

Description: Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lindberg, Cheryl Senf

The Effect of Examination Stress on Phagocytic Immune Functioning

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological stress, specifically examination stress, would decrease immune system functioning. Twenty-five first-year master's and doctoral students who volunteered to participate in the study were psychologically and immunologically assessed during two high- and two low-stress periods. Immunological assessments included a white blood cell differential count and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) to measure neutrophil functioning. Psychological instruments administered at each assessment period included Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), Bender Gestalt Test, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and a Brief Stress Questionnaire. Stepwise discriminant function analysis of data revealed five variables which contributed significantly to change under stress and yielded an average canonical correlation of .79 (p < .002) providing evidence of support for the hypothesis that increased psychological stress will alter immune functioning and heighten psychological responses.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Didriksen, Nancy A. (Nancy Andrews)

The Effect of Hypnotically-Induced Mood Elevation as an Adjunct to Cognitive Treatment of Depression

Description: Cognitive therapy for the treatment of depression has generated substantial research indicating its effectiveness and it is currently considered among the most viable conceptualizations of depression. However, it has remained controversial because its methods do not directly address emotional symptoms in depressed persons. Treatment of depressed emotions is a primary focus of hypnotic mood elevating techniques. These techniques enable depressed persons to experience positive emotions during hypnosis sessions and to re-experience them daily concurrent with performance of certain specified behaviors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multicomponent treatment which combines the techniques of cognitive therapy and hypnotic mood elevation in the treatment of depressed persons. The three treatment conditions constructed for this investigation were cognitive therapy plus hypnotic mood elevation, cognitive therapy plus pseudo-biofeedback, and no treatment waiting list.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Lucas, Scott Gordon

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

The Effects of Computer Versus Personal Administration on Measures of Verbal and Spatial Short-Term Memory

Description: This study sought to investigate the influence of expressive task demand, as determined by amount of face-to face social interaction, level of subjects' expressive ability, sex of subject, and sex of experimenter on subjects' digit and visual-spatial short-term memory span performance. The amount of personal contact was manipulated by the automated versus person administrations of the memory measures. The automated administration was accomplished through the use of a microcomputer.
Date: May 1985
Creator: McFarlane, Gilbert John

Effects of Counselors' Smoking on Clients' Perceptions and Counseling Outcome

Description: This study investigated the impact of counselor smoking behavior upon nonsmoking clients' perceptions of therapists both during and at the conclusion of treatment. Clients' impressions when counselor smoking behavior was consistent across sessions and when counselors smoked in only the first or only the second interview were examined. In addition, the effect of therapists' smoking behavior on the outcome of counseling was assessed in two ways: changes in clients' career decisiveness and counselors' ability to influence client behavior. Eighty-two female undergraduates met with a vocational counselor for two sessions during which the counselor either smoked or refrained from smoking. Prior to the first interview, subjects completed the Behavioral Indecision Scale. Subjects then met and discussed their vocational concerns with a counselor. Following the interview, subjects completed the Counselor Rating Form and the California Occupational Preference System. The latter instrument, an interest inventory, was interpreted by the counselor during the second interview. The Counselor Rating Form and the Behavioral Indecision Scale were again administered following the conclusion of treatment. Data were analyzed by 2 (counselors) X 2 (conditions) X 2 (interviews) multivariate analyses with repeated measures on the third factor. No significant differences emerged for clients' perceptions when the counselors' indulgence in or restraining from smoking was constant from the first to the second sessions. Similarly, clients' impressions did not differ in relation to the inconsistency of counselors' smoking behavior from the first to the second interviews. In addition, subjects' compliance to a counselor initiated behavioral task and reported certainty of career choice were not differentially affected by counselors' smoking behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that it makes no difference in nonsmoking clients' impressions of therapists and in counseling outcome if the latter smoke during treatment. Suggested variables to further explore include the effects of counselors' smoking in brief and ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Stewart-Bussey, Elysabeth L. (Elysabeth Langfeld)

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre

The Effects of Lateralization of Task on the Use of the Dual Task Paradigm as a Measure of General Intelligence

Description: Stankov's work on attention and intelligence suggests that the dual task paradigm, requiring the division of attention, is a better measure of general intellectual ability than the single task paradigm which does not make this demand. Sixty right handed undergraduates remembered digit and visual-spatial sequences alone and in two dual task conditions involving lateralized key tapping as the primary task. R gher intercorrelations were found under dual task conditions in which the tasks competed for the same hemisphere's resources. Better memory performance resulted when both tasks were lateralized to the same hemisphere. Hierarchical models combining general attention resources with ,lateralized hemispheric resources best account for these resutsi
Date: December 1985
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann

Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy

Description: This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with previous reports of disturbed mother-daughter relationships among this population. Discriminant analysis revealed that subjects choosing adoption were more likely to be older and to be white than those choosing to keep the child. They also tended to perceive higher levels of expressiveness and independence in their families. Comparisons between the present sample and "normal" families revealed differences which were statistically significant, but quite small in terms of raw score units. Indeed, these groups may be more similar than has often been assumed. The implications of these findings for the delivery of services and for future research efforts in this area ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Warren, Keith Clements

Handedness, Perceptual and Short Term Memory Asymmetries, and Personality

Description: A large body of research has depicted relative arousal of the left and right cerebral hemispheres as related to utilization of particular defensive coping styles, level of anxiety, and perceptual styles. The right and left hemispheres are also presented in the literature as differing in visual-spatial and verbal-auditory short term memory abilities. The present research studied 127 right handed undergraduates' relative performance on forward spatial and digits memory spans in relation to hemispheric lateralization and other perceptual and personality variables hypothesized in the literature to be related to hemispheric arousal. It was hypothesized that the forward spatial and digit memory spans would display asymmetrical sensitivity to hemispheric arousal. That is, in a series of successive factor analyses, a hemispheric balance factor, a trait anxiety factor, and a short term memory factor would emerge. The three factors were hypothesized to be unrelated to each other. During an initial group pretesting, subjects were given pencil and paper measures of handedness, trait anxiety, and several defensive coping styles. During a second individual testing, subjects were administered measures of short term memory, field independence, and a computerized presentation of geometric designs which measured the subjects ability to detect differences which occurred at either the global or analytic level (Navon task). The factor analyses revealed only the hypothesized trait anxiety factor. The hypothesized short term memory and hemispheric balance of arousal factors did not emerge. Instead, a. defensive coping style factor and separate verbal—auditory and visual-spatial short term memory factors emerged. Several methodological difficulties of the present study which possibly contributed to the failure of the two hypothesized factors to emerge were discussed. Several additional findings, including sex differences in hemispheric lateralization, were presented. Also, signal detection analysis revealed a pattern such that trait anxious subjects were biased toward over-reporting differences on the Navon task. ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Wilcox, Gary A. (Gary Alden)

Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon

Holland's Self-Directed Search: A Measure of Interests of Abilities?

Description: This study examined the relationship between the sub-components of Holland's Self-Directed Search and independent, objective measures of ability using a comprehensive battery of well-validated tests of primary abilities corresponding to each of Holland's six vocational interest types. The sample consisted of 149 female undergraduate students, ages 18-25. Correlation of the ability measure test scores with the four Self-Directed Search subcomponents revealed that the subtests were not related to corresponding measures of ability in a consistent fashion. Implications for the use of the Self-Directed Search in assessing abilities are discussed along with suggestions for future research investigating the relationhip between interest in ventories and the measurement of primary abilities.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Williams, Richard Earl

The Influence of Hypnotic Susceptibility on Depth of Trance Using a Direct Induction and a Metaphorical Induction Technique

Description: To test the hypothesis that a metaphorical technique would be more effective than a direct technique to induce hypnosis, 60 volunteers from students at North Texas State University were divided into high- and low-susceptible subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. They were randomly assigned to direct and metaphorical induction groups and to a control group, with 10 high- and 10 low-susceptible subjects in each group. After hypnosis they completed the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth, and their mean scores were subjected to an analysis of variance and a Newman-Keuls test. Neither method of hypnotic induction was found more effective than the other, although both were effective when compared to a control group. It was also found that subjects who expected to be able to experience hypnosis were no more likely to be hypnotized than those who expected not to be able to experience hypnosis. Finally, it was found that low-susceptible subjects were as likely to respond to a post-hypnotic suggestion as high-susceptible subjects.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Grotts, James B. (James Bruce)

Influences of Stated Counselor Religious Values on Subjects' Preference for a Counselor

Description: The effects of the counselor's religious values on the counseling process has been a focal point recently in the literature on counseling and psychotherapy, especially with regard to how the counselor's announced values might effect potential clients' selection of a counselor. In the present study, the investigator addressed this issue in a study with 125 male and 125 female undergraduate students assigned to five different groups in which they read a script that differed with respect to the counselor's religious orientation. The content of the five scripts ranged from no mention of religious values to describing in detail the specific religious values of the counselor. Subjects' responses to the scripts were measured by having them rate (1) the degree of similarity in their own values and the announced values of the therapist; (2) their rating of how helpful they thought the therapist would be with their problem; and, (3) their stated willingness to see the counselor. Results indicated that subjects who read the script describing an agnostic counselor saw a significant degree of dissimilarity between their own and the counselor's values, but this did not affect subjects' perceptions of the counselor's helpfulness or their willingness to see the counselor. Differences in the degree of religiosity between subjects and sex differences observed were discussed as were implications for future research.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Wyatt, Steven C. (Steven Charles)

Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Organization

Description: Individual differences of cognitive organization and content were investigated as they relate to adaptation to remote, recent, and immediate life stress. Outside the field of stress, prior researchers have implicated cognitive organization with adjustment and cognitive content with specific psychopathology. As for behavioral adaptation to life stress, cognitive organization was viewed as a major factor in emotional vulnerability and adjustment, and cognitive content as a major factor in the mood disturbance of depression. Behavioral adaptation was defined in terms of current emotional vulnerability, adjustment and negative changes in the immediate (last six months), recent (over six months), and remote (over one year) past.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene

Life Stress and Incidence of Pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia Pain Crises

Description: This study investigated the relationship between stress and pain crisis incidence in pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA). It was hypothesized that SCA children were exposed to higher levels of stress than healthy children. It was also hypothesized that a significant positive correlation existed between level of stress and pain crisis incidence both within and between years. The sample consisted of 20 Black elementary school children with SCA. There were 12 female and 8 male children. The period of investigation included the calendar years 1983 and 1984. Pain crisis incidence was determined through parent interviews and verified by a review of medical records.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Norsworthy, William Ludy, 1948-

A Measure of Dependency in Patients with Chronic Illness: Clinical Ecology

Description: This study briefly reviews both historical and recent conceptualizations of dependency. In particular, it focuses on this concept's applicability to patients with chronic illnesses, especially those with allergies. Type and degree of dependency were seen as an important factor in the approach to the medical and psychological treatment of clinical ecology patients. The purpose of the study was to develop an objective measure of dependency which could quickly identify patients whose dependency conflicts interfere with the treatment process. The study was divided into three phases. In the first phase test responses by 84 inpatients to the CAQ, MMPI, and the HAT as well as historical and demographic data were analyzed by a series of stepwise discriminant analysis. The 53 resulting items were examined for those which most concisely discriminated between the two identified groups (pathologically dependent and nonpathologically dependent). These 15 items were used to test 120 additional patients in phase II. Fourteen items were retained and the coefficients obtained classified the patients in phase I and II with a 98.81 percent and 94.17 percent degree of accuracy respectively. These classification coefficients were used to classify another 30 patients in phase III with a 96.67 percent rate of accuracy. These results provide exceptionally strong support for the hypothesis that group classification can be obtained through the use of an objective screening instrument. The pathologically dependent patients tend to focus on disease, frequently are unemployed, have histories of childhood illnesses, have limited emotional controls, are depressed, ambivalent, and distrustful. Additionally, they experience difficulty establishing goals or accepting personal responsibility. Those patients identified as nonpathologically dependent exemplify the more positive aspects of these traits. The pathologically dependent patients appear to be caught in a dilemma between wellness and satisfaction of dependency needs. While all patients need an organized approach to treatment, the ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Jones, Frances McManemin