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Catalytic Calcination of Calcium Carbonate

Description: The calcination of calcium carbonate in a cement or a lime kiln uses approximately two to four times the theoretical quantity of energy predicted from thermodynamic calculation depending upon the type of the kiln used (1.4 x 10^6 Btu/ton theoretical to 6 x 10^6 Btu/ton actual). The objective of this research was to attempt to reduce the energy required for the calcination by 1. decreasing the calcination temperature of calcium carbonate, and/or 2. increasing the rate of calcination at a specific temperature. Assuming a catalytic enhancement of 20 percent in the industrial applications, an energy savings of 300 million dollars annually in the United States could be reached in the cement and lime industries. Three classes of compounds to date have shown a positive catalytic effect on the calcination of calcium carbonate. These include alkali halides, phospho- and silico-molybdate complexes, and the fused carbonates system.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Safa, Ali Ibrahim, 1953-

Isomerization Reactions in Organosilicon Chemistry

Description: Dimethylsilene, generated from the thermal gas phase reaction of 1,1-dimethyl-1-silacyclobutane, reacts with alkynes to produce silacyclobutenes or acyclic silanes. The temperature dependence of the product ratios have been determined and the relative reactivities of three different alkynes toward the 1,1-dimethylsilene has been determined. 1-Hydrido-1-methylsilene has been generated by gas phase thermal decomposition from three different precursors. Trapping studies with butadiene and trimethylsilane lead to products expected from dimethylsilylene. The most plausible explanation for these observations is that hydridomethylsilenes undergo a facile isomerization to divalent dimethylsilylene. Cycloaddition of 1,1-dimethylsilene to allene at 600°C in a flow vacuum pyrolysis system affords the first synthesis of 2-methylene-1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane and smaller amounts of six other products. For static pyrolysis at 421°C, the 2-methylene-1,1-dimethyIsilacyclobutane isomerizes to 1,1-dimethylsilacyclopentenes. The kinetics of gas phase thermal decomposition of cyclopropyltrimethylsilane has been studied over the temperature range, 689.6-751.1 K at pressures near 14 torr. The Arrhenius parameters for formation of allyltrimethylsilane are k_1(sec^-1)=10^14.3 ± 0.1 exp(-56.5 ± 0.2 kcal mol^-1/RT) and those for the formation of E- and Z-1-propenyltrimethyIsilane are k_2(sec^-1)=10^14.9 ± 0.3 exp(-61.9 ± 0.8 kcal mol^-1/RT). The difference between activation energies has been interpreted in terms of anchimeric assistance or the β effect of the silicon atom. The syntheses of 3-trimethylsilyl-1-pyrazoline and 1-trimethyl-2-pyrazoline are described. The thermal decomposition of either pyrazoline affords four different products along with elimination of a nitrogen molecule. It was suggested that the relative rates of methylene-hydrogen migration to radical centers α and γ to silicon are approximately equal. The thermal isomerization of 3-trimethylsilyl-1-pyrazoline to 1-trimethylsilyl-2-pyrazoline has been investigated kinetically at 65°C by proton NMR spectroscopy and the reverse reaction has been detected by gas phase pyrolysis.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Kwak, Young-Woo

Synthetic Applications of Ketene Cycloadditions: Natural and Novel Pyrethroid Insecticides

Description: A new synthetic route to natural and novel pyrethroid acids was developed utilizing ketene cycloaddition which is a significant improvement over existing syntheses. The newly synthesized pyrethroid acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and used to study structure-activity relationships. The cycloaddition of dichloroketene with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene yields (2+2) cycloaddition products, 2,2-dichlorocyclobutanones. The reductive removal of one chlorine atom from these cycloaddition products gave monochlorocyclobutanones which underwent a Favorskii-type ring contraction to yield cis- and trans-chrysanthemic acids. 4-Methyl-1,3-pentadiene was also used as a precursor in this synthetic scheme to yield an analogue of the chrysanthemic acid. These results are consistent with a concerted cycloaddition process involving a dipolar transition state. The zinc reduction is not a regiospecific reaction which accounts for the two regioisomers of the monochlorocyclobutanones. The Favorskii-type ring contraction is a regiospecific reaction. A variety of different bicyclo(3.1.0)alkenecarboxylates and bicyclo(4.1.0)heptenecarboxylates were synthesized from alkylcyclopentadiene and fulvene derivatives. These new bicyclo pyrethroid acids are structurally similar to the natural chrysanthemic acid but are rigid and locked in a single conformation which is likely the least stable conformer of the natural acid. The acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and tested against the housefly and cockroach. The test results indicate that the bicyclo pyrethroids synthesized are not as active as the natural pyrethroid. Apparently, these bicyclo pyrethroids with structures similar to the less stable conformer of the natural pyrethroids are of little consequence as it binds to the target site in the insect. In an effort to learn more about the conformational requirements of the pyrethroid acid, a new bicyclo-spiro pyrethroid system with a structure similar to the most stable conformation of the natural pyrethroid was designed and synthesized. These bicyclo-spiro pyrethroids were derived from a new isopropylidenecyclobutane derivatives as a starting compound instead of a conjugated diene. The test results of ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Ko, Jinren