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Aquatic Heterotrophic Bacteria Active in the Biotransformation of Anthracene and Pentachlorophenol

Description: Dominant genera of bacteria were isolated from three river waters during anthracene and pentachlorophenol biotransformation studies. The genera Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Micrococcus, Chromobacterium, Alcaligenes, Azomonos, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium were capable of biotransforming one or both of these compounds. These isolates were subjected to further biotransformation tests, including river water and a basal salt medium with and without additional glucose. The results of these experiments were evaluated statistically. It was concluded that only a limited number of the bacteria identified were able to transform these chemicals in river water. The addition of glucose to the growth medium significantly affected the biotransformation of these chemicals. It was also determined that the size of the initial bacterial population is not a factor in determining whether biotransformation of anthracene or pentachlorophenol can occur.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Entezami, Azam A. (Azam Alsadat)

L-asparaginase II Production by Escherichia coli

Description: Growth of Escherichia coli A-l under aerobic conditions in an enriched medium with a total amount of 0.2 per cent glucose was biphasic and asparaginase II activity was detected after depletion of ammonia from the growth medium in the second phase of growth. Glucose was exhausted two hours before ammonia and three hours before asparaginase II activity was detected. The concentration of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate was found to fluctuate when the dissolved oxygen in the medium reached a low level, when glucose and ammonia were exhausted, and when the cells entered the second stationary phase of growth. Culture tube studies of the growth of E_j_ coli A-l in three per cent nutrient broth with varied concentrations of ammonium chloride and potassium nitrate gave lower specific activity of asparaginase II when this was compared to that seen in three per cent nutrient broth alone. The addition of glucose to the same medium before asparaginase II activity was detected resulted in the production of acid by E. coli A-l with cessation of growth; however, addition after L-asparaginase synthesis had started did not affect the specific activity of the enzyme. The addition of ammonium chloride suppressed L-asparaginase synthesis, but addition after enzyme synthesis started had no affect. These findings suggest that asparaginase II is produced by E. coli A-l in response to low concentrations of ammonia and that exogenously supplied nitrogen compounds may play a major role in the regulation of this enzyme. It is suggested that E. coli A-l produced L-asparaginase in order to obtain ammonia for the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate. The synthesis of glutamine from glutamate is the first step of a highly branched pathway which ultimately leads to the synthesis of many of the important macromolecules of the cell.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Johnson, Terrance L. (Terrance Lewyne), 1950-

Degradation of Humic Substances by Aquatic Bacteria

Description: A variety of aquatic bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to degrade humic substances and their aromatic residues/monomers which serve as precursors of the trihalomethanes (THMs) found in chlorinated drinking waters. The majority of them were Gram-negative, oxidative types dominated by pseudomonads. Most of the 146 isolates were found to utilize as their sole source of carbon several or more of ten aromatic compounds known to be products of degradation of humus and also to be precursors of THMs. The aromatics tested, with percent of the isolates utilizing the compound in parentheses, were: p-hydroxybenzoate (49), vanillic acid (48), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (16), syringic acid (19), vanillin (30), benzoic acid (27), ferulic acid (34), resorcinol (9), catechol (8) and protocatechuic acid (27).
Date: August 1985
Creator: Baiu, Saleh Hamed Salem