Description: The calcination of calcium carbonate in a cement or a lime kiln uses approximately two to four times the theoretical quantity of energy predicted from thermodynamic calculation depending upon the type of the kiln used (1.4 x 10^6 Btu/ton theoretical to 6 x 10^6 Btu/ton actual). The objective of this research was to attempt to reduce the energy required for the calcination by 1. decreasing the calcination temperature of calcium carbonate, and/or 2. increasing the rate of calcination at a specific temperature. Assuming a catalytic enhancement of 20 percent in the industrial applications, an energy savings of 300 million dollars annually in the United States could be reached in the cement and lime industries. Three classes of compounds to date have shown a positive catalytic effect on the calcination of calcium carbonate. These include alkali halides, phospho- and silico-molybdate complexes, and the fused carbonates system.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Safa, Ali Ibrahim, 1953-