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Adult Client Outcomes: Differences Between Counselors with Education in Child Centered Play Therapy Versus Counselors Without Education in Child-Centered Play Therapy
Child-centered play therapists are taught unique relationship building approaches and therapeutic methods to utilize when working with children. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult clients counseled by child-centered play therapists would demonstrate greater positive therapeutic outcomes than adult clients who were counseled by non-educated child-centered play therapists. This study also attempted to determine if the play therapists' clients would show greater, significant improvement in any particular areas of client distress (i.e., depression/anxiety, relationship issues), more so than the clients of the non-play therapists. Archival data from an assessment, The Adult Self-Report Inventory (ASR), was gathered to measure reported pre and post-test client symptomology. This study utilized a 2X2 repeated measure ANOVA design to analyze the impact of counselors who were educated in child-centered play therapy who saw adult clients, versus their non-play therapy counterparts who saw adult clients. Before treatment pre-test and after treatment post-test administration was collected for use in the analysis. The population consisted of 60 adult clients seeking counseling services at a major university in the southwest. All clients were seen by Master's practicum students for ten sessions. The clients were divided into two groups - 30 were seen by play therapists, 30 were seen by non-play therapists. Five scales on the ASR were measured using a 2x2 split-plot design and Eta squared. There were three independent variables: group, measurement occasion, and the interaction between group and measurement. The results of this study did not reveal any statistical significance. However, clinical significance was demonstrated as the play therapists' clients did report greater reductions in symptomology on all five scales, some more than others.
Changes in Social Distance Among American Undergraduate Students Participating in a Study Abroad Program in China
As the world becomes increasingly interdependent, mutual understanding becomes increasingly important. Therefore, it is essential that people strive for reductions in social distance on an international level. Study abroad is one of the ways to approach internationalization and promote understanding among different peoples and cultures. Prior research has been done on the degrees of social distance between people from different cultures; however, little research has been done regarding changes that cultural immersion produces among those who reside in different cultures. Studies about study abroad programs have focused on cultural sensitivity and adaptability, yet few have combined the study abroad experience with the perceptions of self and other cultural groups. This study presents a framework for understanding people through intercultural activities. It studied social distance and attitude changes brought about in social distance as an artifact of cultural immersion. The study took place both in China and in the United States. It focused on the social distance among American undergraduate students who participated in a China Study Abroad program sponsored by the University of North Texas. The study measured before and after social distance of a group of American students who studied abroad in China. The study abroad program itself was the intervention and lasted for three weeks. A mixed methods research design was used in the study. Social distance data were collected before and after students studied abroad in China. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed in the study. Most of the sample population were close to the Chinese people to begin with. Some participants positively changed their social distance and attitudes towards the Chinese people after the study abroad program, even though the changes were not statistically significant. This study merits replication among randomly selected samples. Study abroad programs should ...
Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University
This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2006. This bi-national school was founded as the Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, RACU was accredited by the Russian Ministry of Education under the name Russko-Americansky Christiansky Institute. RACU offers two state-accredited undergraduate academic programs: 1) business and economics, and 2) social work. RACU also offers a major in English language and literature. The academic model of RACU was designed according to the traditional American Christian liberal arts model and adapted to Russian higher education system. The study documents the founding, vision, and growth of RACU. It provides insight into the academic, organizational, and campus life of RACU. The study led to the creation of an operational framework of the historical development of RACU. The study also provides recommendations for the development of new Christian liberal arts colleges and universities based on the experience and the underlying structure of RACU.
Determining the Relationship Between Motivation and Academic Outcomes Among Students in the Health Professions.
Admissions processes for health professions programs result in students entering these programs academically homogeneous. Yet some students have great difficulty with the programs. Research has shown a limited ability of traditional academic indicators to predict successful outcomes for health professions education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation and academic outcomes for students in health professions programs. The Modified Archer Health Professions Motivation Scale (MAHPMS) and a demographic survey were administered at orientation to 131 medical and 29 physician assistant students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in the fall of 2005. At the end of the semester, the same version of the MAHPMS was administered, and final course grades and semester averages were collected. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all the study variables. Analysis of variance was utilized to examine within subjects and between subjects differences for the learning motivation scores among programs and demographic categories. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between learning motivation scores and end-of-semester grades. And finally, logistic regression was performed to explore the ability of the motivation scores to predict academically high-risk students. Approximately three-fourths of the students indicated a preference for mastery learning and an internal locus of control. For the PA students, alienation to learning and performance goal scores statistically related to semester grades, and alienation to learning scores predicted high-risk academic performance almost 90% of the time. For the medical students, mastery goal scores statistically related to semester grades, but no motivation score predicted high-risk performance. External locus of control scores predicted high-risk performance 81% of the time for the total group of students at the end of the semester. Students in this study exhibited learning motivation preferences similar to those of other health professions students reported in the ...
Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting Style with Child Temperament, Parent-Child Relationship, and Family Functioning on Child Social Competence in the Chinese Culture: Testing the Latent Models
Interactional and contextual models have been conceptually proposed in understanding parental influences on children. Yet, empirical model testing has been limited. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of parenting style on child social competence using structural equation modeling in a sample of 544 Chinese families with 6-9 years old children, mainly singleton, residing in Nanjing, China. Five latent models were tested: (a) the direct model between parenting style and child social competence, (b) child temperament as a moderator, (c) parent-child relationship as a mediator, (d) the interaction model between parenting style and family functioning, and (e) bidirectional models of parenting style concurrently with parent-child relationship, and family functioning predicting child social competence. Findings showed: (a) The direct relationship between parenting style and child social competence was significant in both parents with authoritative parenting style on the positive direction, whereas authoritarian and permissive parenting styles on the negative direction; (b) child temperament did not moderate parenting style on child social competence; (c) father-child relationship mediated paternal parenting style on child social competence, whereas maternal parenting style did not; (d) family functioning neither moderated nor mediated the relationship between parenting style and child social competence for both parents; and (e) The four-factor prediction models on child social competence turned out to be unidirectional. For the mothers, the best model was from family functioning to mother-child relationship, to maternal parenting style, and finally to child social competence. Maternal parenting style was the significant proximal factor. For the fathers, it was from family functioning to paternal parenting style, to father-child relationship, and then to child social competence. Father-child relationship had the direct impact, whereas the influence of paternal parenting style was distal through father-child relationship. Findings from this study suggest that the Chinese parents should use ...
Effectiveness of Child-centered Play Therapy and Person-centered Teacher Consultation on ADHD Behavioral Problems of Elementary School Children: a Single Case Design.
I examined the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for elementary school children identified with clinical or borderline levels of ADHD behaviors on the Teacher Report Form and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale Revised - Short Form. Additionally, I examined the impact of CCPT and PCTC on the levels of parenting and teaching stress. Due to the current trend to determine interventions that are evidence-based through between-group or single case designs, for this study, I utilized a single case design experiment for which the behaviors of five children were examined. Trained observers utilized the Direct Observation Form in observations of all five students three times per week. Additionally, parents and teachers completed behavioral rating scales and stress inventories at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. To prevent biased observational ratings, observers were blind to the assignment of the five children. Three students participated in 24 sessions of twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of CCPT, and these students' teachers participated in six sessions of once-weekly 10-minute PCTC. Two students participated in twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of reading mentoring, after which they participated in 14 sessions of CCPT. Visual analysis of the data indicated mixed results. Three students demonstrated substantial improvement in the observed ADHD behaviors within the classroom. Results of the parent and teacher assessment data were inconsistent, but did indicate behavior change for some children and a reduction in teaching stress for one teacher. Parenting stress appeared unaffected. Implications for future research regarding the use of single case design, the measurement of student behavior change, and issues of comorbidity are indicated.
Effects of Three Interventions with International College Students Referred for Adjustment and Language Difficulties: A Preliminary Study
This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of three interventions with international college students referred for adjustment and language difficulties. Fifty-four international students were assigned to treatment groups including expressive group counseling (n = 14), group speech therapy (n = 14), interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention (n = 13), and the no treatment control (n = 13). Three null hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures analysis of variance to determine whether the four treatment groups behaved differently across time according to pre- and posttest results of the ASR Total and Internalizing Problems scales and the CCSR total scores. Two null hypotheses were rejected at the alpha .05 level of statistical significance with large treatment effects. Post hoc analyses were conducted when a statistically significant interaction effect was found. The no treatment control group was established as a baseline to examine how each intervention group performed over time when compared to the no treatment control group. Results of the post hoc analysis for Total Problems indicated that international students in all three treatment groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in total behavior problems at the alpha .025 level (Expressive counseling: p = .002, Speech: p = .01, and Interdisciplinary: p = .003) and large treatment effects (partial η2 = .33, .24, and .31, respectively), thus indicating all three may be considered effective mental health treatments to target international students' total behavior problems. Results of the post hoc analysis for Internalizing Problems indicated that the interdisciplinary counseling/speech intervention was statistically significant (p = .02) in lowering internalizing problems and had a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .22). The expressive group counseling intervention also demonstrated a large treatment effect (partial η2 = .15) although not a statistically significant level (p = .04). The large treatment effects obtained for both interventions highlight the benefit ...
Hardiness and public speaking anxiety: Problems and practices.
This study explored the relationship between the personality construct of hardiness and public speaking anxiety. Although hardiness has been widely explored in a variety of anxiety-arousing life events, its relationship with communication anxiety had not been previously studied. Therefore, hardiness, public speaking trait anxiety, and public speaking state anxiety were measured in a course requiring an oral presentation assignment. One hundred fifty students enrolled in a basic speech communication course participated in the study. A statistically significant correlation was revealed between hardiness and trait communication anxiety. Students higher in hardiness reported lower trait communication apprehension in three contexts: 1) meeting, 2) interpersonal, and 3) group. Overall, students did not differ on measures of hardiness and a fourth communication context: public speaking anxiety. Likewise, on measures of hardiness and state public speaking anxiety, students did not differ.
History and Demise of The University Foundation in St. Augustine, Florida: An Institutional Autopsy
This is an historical study of an institution of higher education that existed in St. Augustine, Florida from 1942-1949. The name of the institution was The University Foundation, founded by George J. Apel, Jr. This institution had several higher education divisions functioning under its umbrella. These divisions were the St. Augustine Junior College, the Graduate Division, the American Theological Seminary and the University Extension College with evening courses and Home Study courses for vacation study. The information collected for this study was accomplished primarily by the process of studying archives and conducting personal interviews. Since this is a qualitative research study, the collected information was processed through the use of multiple data-collection methods, data sources and analyses which insured the validity of the findings of the study. This process is known as information triangulation. The results of this study provide answers to the circumstances and identities of the key players which led to the formation of The University Foundation. Issues relating to the mission, revenue streams, faculty, curricula, and the ultimate demise of The University Foundation were also addressed in this study. Recommendations are included for higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, fund-raisers, and others whose efforts may be directed toward the launching and operation of new Christian institutions of higher learning.
Interest Differentiation and Profile Elevation: Investigating Correlates of Depression, Confidence, and Vocational Identity
Using a correlational design, this study examined relationships among and between differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level (predictors) and depression, confidence, and vocational identity (criterion). Clients presenting for counseling services (n = 90) with a career concern at a large, metropolitan university were included in the study. Six assumptions were examined using three single hierarchical regression analyses to reveal relationships among and between variables. Two research assumptions were confirmed at the .05 level of significance. Bivariate correlations were computed to examine the structure coefficients. Beta weights and structure coefficients were examined to determine the relative contribution of the predictors in the regression model. Results indicated that differentiation, profile elevation, gender and educational level did not predict significant variance in depression and vocational identity. However, differentiation, profile elevation, and educational level did significantly predict confidence (p< .0001).
An investigation of beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents and the cultural applicability of child parent relationship therapy.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey to identify the beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents, which assisted in clarifying the assertions in the current literature regarding conservative Protestant parenting. Additionally, this researcher sought to determine the applicability of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy model based upon the principles of child centered play therapy, for conservative Protestant parents by ascertaining the need for cultural modifications. Beliefs and practices of conservative Protestants were measured using the Protestant Parenting Inventory (PPI), an original instrument developed through a series of focus groups and pilot testings. The population comprised 148 mothers and fathers from 4 Southern Baptist churches in and around the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the data in order to increase internal consistency estimates and percent of explained variance. Criterion coding of demographic data allowed a multiple regression analysis to determine which demographic variables were significant predictors of participant responses on the PPI. Descriptive statistics allowed the researcher to investigate the compatibility of conservative Protestants and CPRT. Results of this study both confirm and refute past findings regarding conservative Protestants. Results also revealed the need for some cultural modifications to CPRT in order to make it an acceptable parenting resource for conservative Protestant parents.
John Nelson Darby: His Contributions to Contemporary Theological Higher Education
This study investigated the contributions of John Nelson Darby to selected institutions of contemporary theological higher education. A qualitative approach to the investigation was employed. Archival foraging occupied a greater part of the research data and yielded rich returns as evidenced in the literature review. Purposeful sampling was also utilized. The faculty and administration of three institutions, Moody Bible Institute, Dallas Theological Seminary, and Emmaus Bible College, were mailed questionnaires comprising 22 questions to ascertain their opinions of Darby's contributions to their institutions. Of the 22 questions, 21 were of a Likert type scale offering 5 options: Strongly agree, Agree, Not sure, Disagree, and Strongly disagree; and 1 open-ended question. A response rate of 45% (N=27) was achieved. All results were statistically significant at the p=.05 level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
Latino success stories in higher education: A qualitative study of recent graduates from a health science center.
This study used qualitative research, particularly life history analysis, to determine the personal pathways of success for Latino students who chose to enter a health science center for graduate study and who graduated. By giving voice to individual success stories of Latino students, some of the influences on the life pathways of these graduates were determined. For the purposes of this study, success was defined as graduation from a health science center with either a doctor of philosophy, doctor of public health or doctor of osteopathic medicine degree. Four research subjects agreed to participate in this study from a possible 11 students from the graduating class of 2004-2005 at this health science center. Data were gathered through multiple in-depth interviews of the students themselves over a period of no more than one month for each participant. Data were analyzed using the mind mapping technique and Padilla's unfolding matrix. Findings indicate that each participant traveled a different pathway to achieve educational success although similarities did exist across participants. The influences of family background, cultural background, educational background and personal perceptions and goals did affect the pathways of these four Latino graduates. While three of four participants indicated that family was the most important influence on their academic success, all participants related the importance of family to their success, although their definitions of family seemed to vary and included the concepts of education, culture, and personal perceptions and goals. The concepts of family support of education and a culture of education within the family unit emerged as similar themes among study participants. Other similarities among participants were a high academic self-concept, a strong internal locus of control, the ability to create academic community, and a positive view of potentially negative situations. Individual themes emerged from the narratives within each category for each ...
Reflections on diversity: Graduate perceptions of campus climate at Dallas Theological Seminary, 1996-2005.
The purpose of this study was to determine how graduates of master's degree programs perceived the ethnic and cultural climate at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) during their enrollment there. The population (N=2,223) consisted of graduates of master's degree programs who attended Dallas Seminary from 1996-2005. The study utilized a non-experimental design methodology using a mailed survey questionnaire. A 37.2 % response rate was achieved. Most results were statistically significant at the .05 alpha level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
The relationship between Adlerian personality priorities of clients and counselors and the therapeutic working alliance.
The purpose of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between quality of the therapeutic working alliance and counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities. Variables included counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities and ratings of working alliance. Information for counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities was obtained on the Allen Assessment for Adlerian Personality Priorities (AAAPP; Allen, 2005). Working alliance was measured with the Working Alliance Inventory- short revised (WAI-SR; Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006). Participants included 14 counselors and 31 clients from a community counseling clinic on a university campus in the southwest United States. Results suggested that match between counselors' and clients' Adlerian personality priorities is related to counselors' perceptions of quality of the therapeutic working alliance. Statistically significant values were found on one hypothesis, as well as large effect sizes.
The relationship between maternal stress and mothers' perceptions of their preschool children's social behaviors: A cross-cultural study of immigrant Korean mothers in the United States and Korean mothers in Korea.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of maternal stress as it relates to the mothers' perceived social behaviors of their preschool children in both immigrant Korean families in the US and Korean families in Korea. The subjects included 49 immigrant Korean mothers in the US and 52 Korean mothers in Seoul, Korea. This study is relevant to current research because of the dramatically increasing Korean immigrants in the US and needed information concerning unique cultural and psychosocial needs of Korean-Americans. All mothers completed the Demographic Survey, Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-2 (PKBS-2). Statistical analyses of the data used for the study were multiple regressions, independent t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients. Data analysis revealed that (a) there were different demographic variables affecting maternal stress between immigrant Korean mothers in the US and Korean mothers in Korea; (b) there was no significant difference in maternal stress and mothers' perceptions of their preschool children's social skills in the areas of social cooperation, social interaction, and social independence between both groups; (c) there was a significant difference in preschool children's behavioral problems in the areas of externalizing and internalizing social-emotional behaviors between both groups; (d) there was a negative relationship between maternal stress and mothers' perceptions of their preschool children's social skills, and (e) there was a positive relationship between maternal stress and mothers' perceptions of their preschool children's behavioral problems in both groups. Findings from this study showed that US immigrant Korean children and their mothers could experience stress in mother-child interaction and culturally expected gender behaviors. This study provides information that could be helpful for early childhood educators who work with Korean young children and their families in regards to the process of acculturating to the United States.
Thai Teachers' Beliefs about Learner-Centered Education: Implications for Success For Life Thailand
The Thai government has strongly advocated for the learner-centered education for the past decade. Success For Life Thailand (SFLT), a brain-research-based early childhood education program blended with the theories of the developmentally appropriate practices and child-centered philosophies, has been implemented in Thailand for over 8 years. The purposes of the present study were to: (a) describe the current statuses of the Thai early childhood educators' learner-centered beliefs and practices, (b) identify if the SFLT training workshop affects teachers' learner-centered beliefs and practices, and (c) examine if other variables, along with familiarity with the SFLT program, predict teachers' learner-centered beliefs and practices. Ninety-three preschool and kindergarten teachers participated in the study. Among them, 17 were SFLT trainees in 1999 and 2000 (i.e., the previously trained group), 43 were trained in Year 2006 (the currently trained group), and the others were comparable to the currently trained group by matching the key personal and school variables. The Teachers Beliefs and Practices Survey: 3-5 Year Olds (Burts et al., 2000) and the Learner-Centered Education: the Assessment of Learner- Centered (ALCP) for K-3 (McCombs, 2001) were used to collect data on the various domains of the learner-centered beliefs and practices. Findings reveal that: (a) Thai teachers highly endorse learner-centered beliefs, (b) Thai educators demonstrate relatively low levels of developmentally appropriate practices and high levels of developmentally inappropriate practices (DIP) in comparing with the American early childhood educators, (c) the previously trained SFLT teachers score higher on the DAP domains and lower on the DIP domains than the other two groups, and (d) familiarity with the SFLT program, along with teacher's education level, years of teaching experience, and the total number of students in the classroom do not predict variations on the different domains of the DAP and learner-centered learning questionnaires. Future studies need to use ...