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Acculturation Level, Generational Status and Gender: Their Role in Acculturative Stress in Young Adolescent Mexican Americans

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between acculturation level, generational status, and gender with acculturative stress. Acculturation level was determined by the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II) and acculturative stress was determined by the Societal, Attitudinal, Familial and Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale-Children's Version (SAFE-C). Subjects included 1268 Hispanic children ages 11-15. In order to validate the usefulness of the ARSMA-II with this sample, analyses were conducted between acculturation level and generational status. The Pearson product moment correlation (r=.44) and the ANOVA between the mean acculturation score and generational status were significant. However, the mean acculturation score from this study was considerably lower than the ARSMA-II score; therefore, new acculturation levels were developed to establish local adolescent norms for the ARSMA-II. All analyses involving acculturation levels were conducted using both the ARSMA-II and new acculturation levels because 300 subjects were reclassified with the new norms. Significant results were similar using both acculturation levels; however, there were more between group differences using the new acculturation levels. It was hypothesized that as acculturation level increased toward the Anglo culture, acculturative stress would decrease. The one-way ANOVA confirmed this relationship. It was also hypothesized that as generational status increased, acculturative stress would decrease. A one-way ANOVA also supported this hypothesis. In order to replicate previous findings on gender, a one-way ANOVA was conducted with acculturative stress and acculturation level. Results for both were non-significant. Overall findings indicate that generational status and acculturation level have a significant impact on acculturative stress in Hispanic children; however, gender does not seem to be a factor. Findings emphasize the importance of addressing cultural issues in the assessment, intervention, and treatment of acculturating Hispanic children. Furthermore, the ARSMA-II appears to be a useful instrument in assessing acculturation level in young adolescent Hispanics though new ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Manning, Suzanne C.

Age and Responses to the Events of September 11, 2001

Description: Following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, many turned to the field of psychology for greater understanding of the impact of such events and guidance in supporting our citizens. This study sought to gain greater understanding of the differential impact of the September 11th attack on individuals by investigating the influence of age, psychological hardiness, and repression versus sensitization as forms of coping behavior on psychological health. Both an initial cross-sectional sample (172 young adults & 231older adults) and a short-term longitudinal follow-up (39 young adults & 58 older adults) were included in the study. Older age, psychological hardiness and the use of a repressing coping style were found to each individually relate to greater resilience/less dysfunction at both time one and two. For young adults, high hardy repressors faired best, followed by high hardy sensitizers. Low hardy young adults demonstrated similar levels of dysfunction regardless of coping style (repressions/sensitization). For older adults, coping style impacted both high and low hardy individuals equally, with high hardy repressors demonstrating greater functioning. This study attempted to gain greater insight into explanations for these and previous findings of greater resilience among older adults. In explaining the greater resilience of older adults, it seems that coping style is highly important, while hardiness and the impact of history-graded events does not explain the resilience of older adults.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Holmes, D. Nicole

Associations Between Neuromotor and Neurocognitive Functioning in Adults with Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Description: Individuals diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) exhibit patterns of cognitive deficits in (1) attention (Lees-Roitman, Cornblatt, Bergman, Obuchowski, Mitropoulou, Keefe, Silverman, & Siever, 1997), (2) memory (Bergman, Harvey, Lees-Roitman, Mohs, Margerm, Silverman, & Siever, 1998), (3) executive functioning (Cadenhead, Perry, Shafer, & Braff, 1999), and recently (4) neuromotor functioning (Neumann & Walker, 1999), similar to individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, recent research suggests a link between neuromotor and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) (Neumann & Walker, 2003). The current study is an extension of research on non-drug-induced neuromotor disturbances in individuals with SPD and examines how such disturbances covary with neurocognitive measures. Approximately thirty-three adults (18-65) were rated for SPD symptoms. Motor assessments included a computerized motor task and finger tapping test. Cognitive assessments included measures of attention, verbal and visual memory, and executive functioning. Consistent with previous research, the SPD group displayed significant right hand (left hemisphere) motor disturbances (i.e., increased force and force variability) compared to healthy controls after excluding all cases reporting a history of head injury. In addition, results indicate significant associations between motor, cognitive, and symptom variables. Consistent with previous research, neuromotor functioning and the relationships between motor and cognitive functioning varied as a function of Time of Day (TOD) of testing. Understanding the relationship between neuromotor and neurocognitive functioning may help elucidate the neural systems that contribute the symptoms characteristic of SSDs.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Reynolds, Felicia D.

Combat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effect of Intelligence on Symptomatology

Description: The objective of this study was to examine the relations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptomatology and intelligence. Thirty American combat veterans of the Vietnam War, diagnosed with chronic PTSD, were given a psychodiagnostic structured interview. Participants were assessed for Intelligence Quotient as well as the veracity of their self report. The study found that there were significant differences in how participants experienced their PTSD symptoms that were correlated with intelligence. The higher IQ participants reported more frequent and intense guilt related symptoms as well as more intense intrusive recollections. The lower IQ participants experienced more frequent startle responses, more intense problems related to falling or remaining asleep and more frequent affective symptoms related to emotional numbing. Psychologists could use these differences in how PTSD is experienced in treatment planning. It may be useful for therapy to address sleep disturbances and affective numbing in lower IQ individuals. Therapy for higher IQ individuals may be more useful if it addresses feelings of guilt and intrusive recollections.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Crisp, William A.

Contextualized Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Utility of Actuarial, Clinical, and Structured Clinical Approaches to Predictions of Violence.

Description: Assessing offenders' risk of future violent behavior continues to be an important yet controversial role of forensic psychologists. A key debate is the relative effectiveness of assessment methods. Specifically, actuarial methods (see Quinsey et al., 1998 for a review) have been compared and contrasted to clinical and structured clinical methods (see e.g. Hart, 1998; Webster et al., 1997). Proponents of each approach argue for its superiority, yet validity studies have made few formal comparisons. In advancing the available research, the present study examines systematically the type of forensic case (i.e., sexual violence versus nonsexual violence) and type of assessment method (i.e., actuarial, structured clinical, and unstructured clinical). As observed by Borum, Otto, and Golding (1993), forensic decision making can also be influenced by the presence of certain extraneous clinical data. To address these issues, psychologists and doctoral students attending the American Psychology Law Society conference were asked to make several ratings regarding the likelihood of future sexual and nonsexual violence based on data derived from actual defendants with known outcomes. Using a mixed factorial design, each of these assessment methods were investigated for its influence on decision-makers regarding likelihood of future violence and sexually violent predator commitments. Finally, the potentially biasing effects of victim impact statements on resultant decisions were also explored.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Jackson, Rebecca L.

Development and Psychometric Validation of the State-Trait Spirituality Inventory

Description: The present study contributes to the widening body of spirituality research by conceptualizing it as a state-trait construct. A new measure of spirituality, the State-Trait Spirituality Inventory (STSI), was created and validated according to psychometric methods of test construction. In its current form, the STSI contains seven state spirituality items and six trait spirituality items. A thorough review of the literature identified common themes in spirituality definitions and assisted in developing definitions of trait and state spirituality. Internal consistency for the trait scale was .88 and for the state scale, .68. Good test-retest reliability was found with coefficients of .84 for trait spirituality and .81 for state spirituality. Results from a preliminary undergraduate sample as well as from the validation sample yielded a two-factor solution. In general, items determined by expert panels as trait items loaded on one factor and items deemed to be state items loaded on the second factor. Multitrait multimethod analysis yielded mixed findings for convergent, divergent, and concurrent validity for the spirituality and religiosity traits. Methods consisted of paper-and-pencil cognitive and behavioral measures. Cognitive measures were more likely to support convergent/divergent validity than were behavioral measures. A major emphasis in the study was to determine whether state and/or trait spirituality were able to predict current health status and provide evidence for predictive validity. Positive relationships were identified between trait spirituality and the mental health measures of the Short Form-36® (SF-36). In contrast, it was negatively related to the Role-Physical scale. State spirituality was inversely related to the Physical Component scale. These findings are discussed within the context of minimal research using the SF-36 and spirituality measures. The MTMM analysis was limited by available spirituality and religiosity measures that contain only cognitive or behavioral items. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Harvey, Michelle B.

The Effects of Multicultural College Courses on Intercultural Experiences and Attitudes.

Description: This study examined college undergraduates' intercultural experiences and attitudes at the beginning and the end of a semester-long course on multicultural issues. Participants were 290 undergraduate college students at the University of North Texas , 202 of whom were enrolled in one of the university's core global studies, cross-cultural, or diversity courses for the fall 2001 semester, and 88 of whom were enrolled in courses outside the core. It was hypothesized that the multicultural group's Positive Inventory of the Consequences of Multicultural Experiences scores would increase and Social Dominance Orientation Scale scores would decrease more than they would for the control group. Findings did not support these hypotheses.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Soule, Amy

The Effects of Perceived Locus of Control and Dispositional Optimism on Chronic Pain Treatment Outcomes.

Description: The financial cost for health care and lost productivity due to chronic pain has been estimated at over $70 billion per year. Researchers have attempted to discover the psychosocial and personality factors that discriminate between people who learn to cope well with chronic pain and those who have difficulty adjusting. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of perceived locus of control and dispositional optimism on chronic pain treatment outcomes. Subjects reported significantly lower post-treatment pain levels as compared with pre-treatment levels (M = 0.66, SD = 1.58), t(45) = 2.85, p = .007 (two-tailed), but decreased pain was not associated with scores on the internality dimension of the Pain Locus of Control Scale (PLOC) or on the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) (a measure of dispositional optimism). Overall, participants' increased coping ability was associated with scores on the LOT-R, but not with scores on the internality dimension of the PLOC. Subjects with the lowest pre-treatment scores on the LOT-R demonstrated significantly greater increases in post-treatment coping ability than those with the highest scores (F(2,40) = 3.93, p < .03). Participants with the highest pre-treatment scores on both the PLOC internality dimension and the LOT-R demonstrated greater post-treatment coping ability (F(2,32) = 4.65, p < .02), but not less post-treatment pain than other subjects. Participants' post-treatment LOT-R scores were significantly higher than their pre-treatment scores (M = 2.09, SD = 3.96), t(46) = 3.61, p = .001 (two-tailed), but post-treatment PLOC internality scores were not significantly higher than pre-treatment scores. Implications of these results are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Worsham, Scott L.

Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.

Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including difficulty in relationships. Research has posited CSA may lead to insecure attachment in survivors, which may be the vehicle by which dysfunctional parent-child relationships develop. The purpose of the proposed study was to examine differences in parenting outcomes between CSA and non-CSA mothers utilizing both observational and self-report methods and to examine the unique impact of CSA on parenting attitudes. Abuse status was determined by scores on the Sexual Abuse subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with the CSA group comprised of mothers scoring in the moderate to severe range. Mothers self-reported parenting attitudes on the Parent-Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire/Control (P-PARQ/Control) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2), while parental depression was assessed with the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). Parenting behaviors were observed by coding the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment (PCIA). Hypotheses were not supported until child gender was considered as a third variable. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers, exhibited significantly poorer limit-setting skills (h² = .21) with male children compared to female children, but did not self-report these differences. Although not statistically significant, small but potentially meaningful effect sizes were found when the self-reports of CSA mothers were compared to their observed behaviors. Specifically, CSA mothers displayed increased levels of physical nurturance (h² = .11) and role reversal (h² = .08) with male children compared to female children, but again, did not self-report these differences. Finally, CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers tended to self-report greater beliefs in corporal punishment with male children compared to females (h² = .08). Secondary findings revealed parental depression was the only unique predictor of parental nurturance, attitude toward corporal punishment, and role reversal. Findings confirm the importance of third variables, including child gender and ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.

An Exploration of Object Relations and the Early Working Alliance in a University Clinic Sample

Description: The current study investigated the relationship between clients' object relations functioning and the working alliance. The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1991), an object relations scoring system for the TAT, was used to assess object relations functioning. Forty-eight therapy clients at a university-based training clinic were administered the TAT, Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1977), and the short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSD; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Following the initial assessment of client characteristics shortly after intake, clients and their therapists rated the working alliance 3 sessions later. Results indicated that the SCORS was significantly correlated with client and therapist ratings of the working alliance. The current study also assessed the predictive validity of the SCORS by examining how its various scales are related to aspects of the working alliance and the other measures used in this study. The findings suggest that the relationship between object relations functioning, the working alliance, symptom severity, and attachment disturbance depends on the aspect of object relations that is being assessed.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Niemeyer, Kristin M.

Gender Differences in Child, Parent, and Teacher Perception of Social Functioning Among Children With ADHD

Description: Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) tend to experience social functioning problems, with girls more likely to encounter peer rejection than boys. The present study investigated gender differences in child, parent, and teacher perceptions of social functioning among ADHD and control children. Participants included 119 children (ages 6-11) and their parents. Sixty-one children were previously diagnosed with ADHD. Parents, teachers, and children completed measures assessing the child's social functioning. The results indicate that the relationship between ADHD status and social functioning differs as a function of rater. Teachers and parents reported that ADHD children had lower social functioning than controls, while ADHD and control children reported similar levels of social functioning. Gender differences were found on the child self-report, with girls reporting lower social functioning than boys. In ADHD children the relationship between social functioning and comorbid depression differed as a function of rater. Specifically, among ADHD children with depression, parents rated children as having lower social functioning than did children or teachers. In ADHD children without comorbid depression, however, there were no rater differences. Additionally, no rater differences in social functioning were found between ADHD children with and without a comorbid psychiatric condition. Overall, the results of the current study lend support to the idea that parents, teachers, and children have different perceptions of social functioning. Clinically, these results suggest that interventions could focus on identifying those ADHD children most at-risk for social functioning problems and developing interventions that fit with their perceptions. The limitations of the current study and directions for future research are presented.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Tureau, Corinne C. S.

The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory

Description: The present study compared the career development concerns and other vocationally relevant variables of employees of organizations who have and have not engaged in downsizing within a one year timeframe. The sample consisted of 162 participants, 72 layoff survivors (those who remained in an organization after its downsizing) and 92 non-survivors (employees in organizations who have not downsized within 12 months). Significant results were found that differentiated the career related experiences of participants in the survivors group, survivors from non-survivors, and participants in general regardless of survivorship status. In general, results indicated that non-survivors reported greater job satisfaction and job security than layoff survivors, that being married with children may increase job satisfaction, and social support may buffer the grief reactions that survivors have to the loss of their co-worker friends. Furthermore, Super's age-associated stages within the Life-Span, Life-Space Theory were moderately upheld in the sample, especially for the Exploration stage. However, younger workers demonstrated more Maintenance concerns that would be predicted by the theory. A discussion of the relevant literature is included as well as possible explanations of the results, small sample size, and implications for future research.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Lahner, Jessica M.

Individual Behavior Change in the Context of Organization Change: Towards Validation of the Transtheoretical Model of Change in an Organizational Environment

Description: A review of literature indicates limited effort to understand and explain employees' acclimation to, and adoption of, new behaviors required by organization change initiatives. Psychological theories of individual behavior change have, in restricted instances, been applied into organizational environments. The transtheoretical model of change (TTM) offers a comprehensive explanation of behavior change uniting multiple theories of individual change. TTM describes change as a series of stages that individual progress through before arriving at the decision to implement a change in behavior. Movement through the stages is facilitated by processes which increase the probability of a behavior change effort's success. The present research investigated the potential applicability of TTM for explaining individual level change within a new context, specifically, an organizational environment. To examine if individual change in the context of an organization occurs in the fashion described by TTM, measures of core TTM constructs were delivered to employees in a water department of a city in the American southwest. The water department was immersed in an organization change initiative necessitating individual behavior change by its employees. Results of TTM core construct measures and their relationships with each other and the stages of change were examined. Initial findings are indicative of TTM's potential applicability as a description of behavior change within an organizational context. Implications of these findings, potential applications, imitations of the current research, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Phillips, Tobe M.

The Influence of Perceived Career Barriers on College Women's Career Planning

Description: Research has indicated that balancing work and family is on the minds of college-age women long before they are married. At the same time, women continue to choose occupations that do not fully utilize their abilities and often fail to follow their original career goals. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived career barriers and supports on young women's career planning. Utilizing Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and recent literature as a basis, this study conceptualized career goals using the two constructs career salience and career aspirations. Based on information garnered in this student's thesis and on studies examining pathways in the SCCT model, the current study used a hierarchical regression model and hypothesized that barriers related to work and family conflict and sex discrimination would have the most impact on the career aspirations and career salience of young women. Career supports were hypothesized to add significantly to the prediction of these variables, and coping self-efficacy for these types of barriers were hypothesized to depend on the level of these types of barriers perceived and the interaction effect was in turn expected to add significantly to the prediction of career aspirations and career salience. None of the hypotheses were supported in predicting career salience. Career aspirations were found to be predicted by barriers other than those hypothesized, career supports were found to add significant variance, and coping self-efficacy for work and family conflict was found to have a unique, unpredicted relationship with career aspirations. Implications of the findings are discussed as are suggestions for directions of new research utilizing SCCT.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Raiff, Gretchen Wade

Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide

Description: An exploratory study was conducted examining Internet usage among African-American college students. The study examined both psychosocial correlates, including technological anxiety and racial identity as well as socioeconomic measures, as they impacted Internet usage. Additionally, three distinct measures of Internet usage, thin access, thick access and the Internet Connectedness Index (ICI), were used as criterion variables in three separate multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results of the study found differences in predictive validity based on the criterion variable used, with the ICI accounting for the greatest amount of variance (54%). Racial identity, in terms of internal beliefs and feelings about being African American and internalization of Afrocentric values in a political context were found to be predictive of Internet usage as measured by the ICI.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Harvey, Pejcharat Jane

Maladaptive appraisals and intrusive thoughts associated with obsessive compulsive disorder: A semiidiographic approach.

Description: This project investigated the metacognitive strategies used to appraise obsessive thoughts employed by individuals with different anxiety symptoms. Two hundred eighty-seven undergraduate students completed two repertory grids and three anxiety scales. The repertory grids respectively examined the appraisal process of intrusive thoughts both from the perspective of the rater and the rater's imagined average person. Variables quantified from the rep grid related to the construal process of raters' own intrusions, failed to demonstrate robust differences between OCD, non-OCD anxious, and non-anxious individuals. However, it appears that anxious individuals, not just those with OCD, use metacognitive strategies to suppress rigid constructions under perceived social evaluation. Future studies may wish to use related grid variables to explore the relation between obsessions and social anxiety.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Hutchinson, Geoffrey

Narcissistic traits and parenting style: A closer look at maladaptive parenting through parent-child observations, parent self-report, and child self-report.

Description: The thrust of this paper was two-fold, 1) to confirm a 2-factor model of narcissism in women, and 2) to examine the relationship between narcissistic traits in mothers and several variables associated with parenting efficacy. Participants included 193 mother-child dyads. A 2-factor model of narcissism was confirmed in the present sample of mothers, suggesting that narcissistic traits in women may be manifested in distinct Overt and Covert forms. Contrary to expectations, Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers did not significantly correlate with observed parenting behaviors on the PCIA, including Positive Personal Comments (PPC) towards children, Negative Personal Comments (NPC), and Parental Nurturance. However, children's self-reported maternal rejection on the C-PARQ correlated positively with Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers, as did mother's self-reported dysfunctional parenting attitudes on the AAPI-2. Narcissistic traits in mothers correlated most strongly with risk of child physical abuse on the CAPI (r = .70). Results are also presented for the Overt Narcissism factor, which proved to be less stable as a factor. Overall, results emphasize the need for a more comprehensive understanding of narcissism for women, given its potential Implications for children's healthy development and parenting interventions.
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Collins, Michelle

Needs of familial caregivers of cancer patients across the advanced cancer disease trajectory.

Description: Familial caregivers are providing increasing amounts of care to advanced cancer patients. Increased understanding of caregivers' needs is vital in providing necessary support to lessen caregiver burden and comorbidity. This study examines particular information needs across a variety of specific events in the advanced cancer disease trajectory. A cross-sectional sample of 107 familial caregivers (24 current and 83 bereaved) of people with advanced cancer completed a needs assessment survey along with a measure of health information-seeking behavior. Analyses extend current research by including more specific disease-related events along the advanced cancer trajectory through bereavement. In all information categories, endorsement of wanted information differed across broad stages of Cancer Progression, Treatment, End of Life, and Post-Patient Death. For all information categories, except Dying and Spirituality, greatest information was wanted at the Cancer Progression stage. Information need also differed across specific events within broad stages. The categories of Disease/Medical and Relating to the Patient were the most endorsed at events involving patient care. Spirituality was least endorsed. At patient death, Caregiver Well-being has the highest endorsement. For events thereafter, information on Caregiver Well-being, Spirituality, Future Outlook, and Family and Close Others was most endorsed. Information needs did not differ based on age or education. Whether or not a caregiver had experienced a given event on the cancer trajectory impacted some categories of information desired at the events of leaving the hospital for home, going into hospice, patient death, immediately after death, and bereavement. In all cases, those who had experienced the event wanted more information. In comparing current to bereaved caregivers, no differences in information endorsement occurred for events of the Cancer progression or Treatment stages. This study also involved the validation and factor analysis the Health Information-Seeking Behavior Survey. Two factors, Health Information-Seeking and Health Information-Avoiding, emerged. Health Information-Seeking correlates positively ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Bernard, Lori Lynn

Neuropsychological Predictors of Incompetency to Stand Trial

Description: This study investigated the effect of cognitive factors on competency to stand trial. Previous researchers have investigated how psychological variables --such as psychosis and intelligence--contribute to incompetency. Although several researchers have established that intelligence contributes to incompetency, very few have investigated the role of specific cognitive abilities within the realm of intelligence. This study investigated the performance of 55 defendants referred for competency restoration on neuropsychological measures. Specifically, competent defendants and incompetent defendants were compared on several measures assessing functioning in seven cognitive domains. Competent defendants performed significantly better than incompetent defendants on measures of verbal comprehension, social judgment, verbal memory, and executive functioning. Competent and incompetent defendants did not differ on attention, visual spatial skills, or nonverbal memory.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Grandjean, Nicole Rae

Perceptions and attributions of child, spousal, and elder abuse.

Description: Although researchers have studied perceptions regarding sexually abused children, little was known about how other types of abusive events were perceived. This study examined 480 college students' abuse history and perceptions of child, spousal, and elder abuse by varying the respondent, victim, and perpetrator genders. Physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were investigated. Perceptions of abusiveness, seriousness, harm, and responsibility were examined, along with the extent of identification with the victims/perpetrators. Participants viewed spousal abuse as less serious and harmful than other abuse types, especially when perpetrated against a male or by a female. Although able to recognize psychological abuse, students did not fully understand what other abuse types entailed. Individuals also showed a considerable amount of blame toward victims. Results further demonstrated important findings about how ethnic identity/orientation, religious affiliation, and history of abuse related to perceptions of abusive events.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Altman, Adrianne

The Perceptions of Psychotherapists-in-Training regarding People who Stutter versus Normally Fluent Speakers

Description: It has been shown repeatedly that many people hold personality stereotypes of stutterers. The attitudes of psychotherapists regarding stutterers have never been investigated. The present investigation assessed the degree to which psychotherapists-in-training hold stereotypes of stutterers as compared to normally fluent speakers. Two groups viewed a videotaped vignette of a male. In one, the male interviewee displayed stuttering behaviors. In the other, the same male spoke fluently. Participants then rated the male interviewee on several personality dimensions. Contrary to previous findings, the group viewing the stuttering interviewee rated him no differently than did the group viewing the fluent interviewee. Greater knowledge of stuttering was associated with more positive ratings of the person who stuttered. The clinical and research implications of these findings are then discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Tomczyk, Daniel A.

Reasons for attrition from a smoking cessation program.

Description: The present study examined various psychosocial variables that may influence success in a stop smoking program (QuitSmart) used by the North Texas Veterans Health Care Service (NTVHCS). The QuitSmart program utilizes the Stages of Change Model, with its focus on the last three stages (preparation, action, and maintenance). It was proposed that factors including shame-proneness, guilt, anger/hostility, depression, self-efficacy - both global and smoking situational, neuroticism, and level of nicotine dependence might individually or in combination predict attrition from the NTVHCS smoking cessation program. Results indicate that shame-proneness, guilt, anger/hostility, and depression did not individually predict attrition. Persons with high levels of smoking situational self-efficacy tend to utilize self-change strategies leading to greater success in smoking cessation. Participants with a psychological diagnosis, when combined with neuroticism and shame-proneness, appear to have more difficulty with cessation than those with only a medical diagnosis. Clinical implications and suggestions for change to the NTVHCS smoking cessation program are discussed.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Taber, Iris

The relationship between the MCMI-III and the MMPI-2 in a chronic pain population.

Description: The purpose of the present study was to study the relationship of MCMI-III clinical scales with MMPI-2 clusters in a chronic pain population. Data was obtained through assessment data (N = 242) from the Dallas Spinal Rehabilitation Center (DSRC), that included MMPI-2 and MCMI-III, as well as pre-and post-assessment information (n = 21) and follow-up questionnaires (n = 19). Subjects' age ranged from 18 to 64. Each patient had a primary diagnosis related to a back and/or a cervical injury, a chronic pain diagnosis, and often medical prescription dependency and/or addition. Each has experienced back pain in the lumbar region (L1 to L5) or cervical region (C1 to C7) for an average of 32 months. Patients with thoracic (mid-spine) and carpal tunnel pain were excluded from this study. A multivariate cluster analysis procedure was performed that yielded 3 homogeneous female MMPI-2 clusters and 4 MMPI-2 homogeneous male clusters. Seven multiple regression analyses were performed to determine which MCMI-III clinical scales predicted cluster membership in the MMPI-2 clusters. Results indicated that MCMI-III clinical scales "7" Compulsive, "X" Validity and "C" Borderline were predictors for membership in the male MMPI-2 clusters. Membership in the female MMPI-2 clusters were predicted by MCMI-III clinical scales "4" Histrionic, "T" Drug Dependence and "2A" Avoidant. Nineteen pre-and post-MCMI-IIIs were analyzed for change after participants completed the six-week pain management program. Paired-sample t-tests were performed on these data and revealed that significant change was noted on 10 MCMI-III clinical scales. Follow-up data questionnaires were available on these same individuals. Results from a correlation analysis indicated that patients who reported having supportive relationships with their spouse and family and a secure source of income report better quality of sleep, better mood, are able to relax and are believe that they are able to manage their pain. Participants who ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Hardie, John C.

Social skills training for individuals with schizophrenia: Evaluation of treatment outcome and acquisition of social and cognitive skills.

Description: Social and cognitive skill acquisition were evaluated in 33 (male=24, female=11) outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A social skills training treatment group (n=19) was compared to a wait-list control (n=14). Participants' mean age was 41 years, mean number of hospitalizations 10.4, and mean number of years with diagnosis 15.8. Assessment measures included WAIS-III Picture Arrangement subtest, Social Cue Recognition Test, COGLAB, WMS-III Word List subtest, and SADS-C. Results did not support the main hypotheses of improved social and cognitive skills in the treatment group. Participants with better memory and attention at pre-testing also did not show an advantage in social skills improvement. Contrary to hypotheses, the control group improved the most on some social and cognitive measures. Several supplemental hypotheses yielded the following results: lack of volunteer participation from paranoid schizophrenia individuals; evidence that schizoaffective disorder participants may be less cognitively impaired and better able to benefit from social skills training; and younger, less chronic participants with better attentional capacities may benefit most from social skills training. Findings are discussed in light of the possibility that improving social skills might not improve social and cognitive functioning, at least with the dosage of social skills training provided in this study. Limitations such as a sampling bias and small study size are also considered as possible explanations for the pattern of findings. Clinical and research implications are discussed to apply and extend the current findings.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Conner, Dianna Holden