The present study examined age cohort differences in older and younger adults as they relate to perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics. The present study also assessed whether previous help-seeking behavior influences perceptions of what counselor characteristics would be helpful. The social influence model is used as basis for predictions. The first research hypothesis for the present study was that there would be an age by cohort interaction in perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics at both Time 1 (1991) and Time 2 (2001). The second research hypothesis was that there would be a main effect for cohort, with more recently born cohorts preferring more interpersonal counselor characteristics. The third research hypothesis was that there would be a main effect for age in endorsement of the social influence model. The fourth research hypothesis was that there would be a significant difference between the perceptions of those individuals who had previously sought help from a mental health professional and those individuals who had not sought help, regardless of age and cohort. A revised Adjective Check List (Gough, 1965; Gough & Heilbrum, 1983) was used to assess perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics. Chi-square analyses, MANOVA/supplementary ANOVAs, and exploratory factor analyses were used to test the research hypotheses. The first and second research hypotheses were supported. The third research hypothesis was not supported. The fourth research hypothesis was supported for Time 1, but not for Time 2. Limitations of the present study and implications of this research are discussed.
It has only been in recent years that eating disorder researchers have begun focusing on sexual orientation as a variable that may affect prevalence rates. Heeding the call for studies that extend beyond identification of fixed eating disorder risk factors (e.g., gender), this study was designed to explore factors that contribute to the development of disordered eating among lesbians. In this study, a hypothesized Lesbian Model of Disordered Eating was tested using structural equation modeling. Lesbian Sexual Identity and Social Supports were hypothesized to positively influence Psychological Health. In addition, Internalization of U.S. Societal Norms of beauty and attractiveness was hypothesized to negatively affect Psychological Health. Psychological Health, in turn, was hypothesized to negatively influence Body Image Concerns. Body Image Concerns was then hypothesized to positively affect Disordered Eating. The fit of the model was evaluated and one of the hypothesized pathways, Internalization of Norms was moved to directly predict Body Image Concerns. After adjusting the model, the model accounted for 54% of the variance in disordered eating. Most notably, the results highlight the potential affects of adopting a positive lesbian identity on disordered eating and underscore the importance of including sexual identity as a demographic variable in studies of body image and disordered eating. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed.
The current study assessed 125 conjugally bereaved persons using multiple self-report measures as indicators of personal adjustment and bereavement distress across three times of testing (initial, 6-month, and 3-year follow-up). Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to examine the causal relationships between adjustment and bereavement distress indicators and overall factors. Exploratory factor analyses indicate measures of adjustment load on a single Adjustment factor and measures of bereavement distress load on a single Grief factor. Considering results using composite scores for each variable, adjustment was significantly more predictive of bereavement distress than bereavement distress was predictive of adjustment for both Time 1 to Time 3 and Time 2 to Time 3. Adjustment issues measured by indicators such as the UCLA, POMS, HSC, BDI, and RSES significantly influenced the extent of grief symptoms as measure by the BEQ and the severity of scope of grief symptoms as assessed by the IOLQ.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of women's anger and religiosity on their expression of violence toward their partner. The sample consisted of the 664 women who completed three interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women, a study of low-income, ethnically diverse women in Dallas county. Across the waves, women completed measures of relationship violence, anger, and religiosity. Religiosity was not found to moderate the relationship between women's anger and their use of violence. When partners' threats and violence were included in the regression equations, these variables were consistently related to women's behavior. Due to several methodological limitations, clinical implications of the results should be considered with caution.
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in how parents of ADHD children and non-ADHD parents attribute undesirable and prosocial child behavior, and to determine if attributions about undesirable child behavior influence parents' perceived levels of parenting stress. Parent attributions from 69 parent-child dyads, half with a child ADHD diagnosis, were measured coding videotaped interactions. Results indicated that parents of ADHD children do not make significantly more stable attributions about undesirable child behavior than non-ADHD parents. Additionally, compared to non-ADHD parents, parents of ADHD children did not make significantly more unstable attributions about their children's prosocial behaviors. Regarding parenting stress, individuals who generated higher frequencies of stable attributions also appeared to maintain more negative views of their children's behaviors in comparison to other children.