The objective of this investigation was to examine the changes in the nucleotide pools of Azotobacter vinelandii during the growth cycle. Endogenous ribonucleotides were extracted from A. vinelandii using trichloroacetic acid (TCA; 12% w/v). The 5' mono-, di- and triphosphates of adenine, guanine, uracil and cytosine were separated and quantified by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated that the adenylate energy charge of A. vinelandii paralleled the growth rate during exponential phase and that it declined rapidly as the stationary phase was reached. In addition, the amount of each nucleotide in A. vinelandii tended to increase in the logarithmic phase and decrease in the stationary phase in a similar manner to the energy charge.
Chronic toxicity of zinc to Pimephales promelas was estimated by conducting replicate static and static-renewal short-term embryo-larval tests and static-renewal seven-day larval tests. The two test methods were highly reproducible. Daily renewal of test solutions had little effect on the toxicity of zinc, however, the stage of development at which exposure was initiated affected the sensitivity of the toxic endpoints measured. The most sensitive and reproducible endpoint in the embryo-larval tests was survival of viable (non-deformed) larvae and in the seven-day larval test was growth of the larvae, which was slightly more sensitive than the embryo-larval test endpoint. The estimated MATC of 0.18 and 0.15 mg/L mean total and mean soluble zinc, respectively, compared well with published results. Because of its advantages and similar sensitivity, the short-term embryo-larval test was recommended for estimating chronic toxicity.
National Water Quality Criteria intended to protect aquatic life and their uses from the adverse effects of pollutants may not be appropriate due to site-specific factors that alter chemical bioavailability. The Indicator Species Procedure may be used to derive site-specific criteria in order to account for differences in site-specific bioavailability. This procedure was implemented using zinc for three chemically different site (river) waters. The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioavailability of zinc in each site water and correlate results to water quality parameters and/or zinc speciation. Results demonstrated that national criteria for zinc accurately predicted the experimentally derived site-specific values within a factor of two when adjusted for water hardness. Particulate forms of zinc were shown to be biologically unavailable under conditions tested.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has been employed as an analytical tool for the purification and separation of nucleic acids. A Nucleogen DEAE 4000-10 weak anion exchange column, prepacked with modified silica gels, was used to purify and separate a number of Escherichia coli plasmids. Plasmid DNAs were extracted by the alkaline lysis method. The cleared lysate was injected directly onto the Nucleogen column, and the peaks were collected, desalted and analysed by gel electrophoresis. On the chromatogram, the pBR322 formed a distinctive peak at 27 minutes and partial separation was made for the E. coli V517 plasmids. Plasmid pBR322 showed a clear band without any detectable contamination on agarose gel. This purified plasmid DNA is biologically active for enzymatic reaction commonly used in genetic engineering techniques.
In five separate experiments, weight-adjusted doses of TEM, EMS, and ENU were injected intraperitoneally into twelve week-old female mice six hours after mating. On day seventeen of gestation, the females were sacrificed and their uterine contents were examined. The effect of each agent was determined by its ability to cause malformations and death to the developing embryos. All treatment groups showed statistically significant elevated levels of malformations in comparison to their corresponding control groups. The reproductive damage induced in these experiments cannot be singularly attributed to teratogenesis or mutagenesis but a combination of the two.