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A Comparative Analysis of Three Forms of Evaluating Management Training Programs

Description: The practice of training evaluation has not kept pace with prescription, and evaluations being being done are frequently negligent of appropriate controls needed to draw valid conclusions. A comparison was made of training outcomes contrasting results obtained using carefully controlled scientific approaches with those from a more popular less scientific approach. The research design involved the collection and analysis of data from a single organizations managerial training program. , Three different methods of training evaluation were studied: an "immediate reaction" rating sheet, a self-report participant survey, and a similar survey completed by t he participants' subordinates. Bo th surv ey r e sul t s showed no signif icant c hang es in on-the-job behavior six weeks after training. In contrast the "immediate reaction" ratings were positive, implying the training program was a "success." Conclusions w ere drawn concerning the validity of methods compared.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hale, John P.

A Comparative Content Analysis of the Editorial Positions of the Christian Century and Christianity Today on Selected Social and Moral Issues

Description: This study compared the editorial positions of two magazines, The Christian Century and Christianity Today, on seven social and moral issues, then compared each magazine's positions with the opinions of their intended audiences. A directional content analysis was conducted that determined the editorial positions. On all four issues for which comparison was possible, the magazines demonstrated a marked difference in direction. These positions were compared with the published opinions of those social groups identified as representative of each magazine's intended audience. There was marked disagreement between each magazine and its intended audience on three of the five issues for which comparison was possible.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Warner, Gregory Dann

A Comparison of Physics Enrollments in Selected Large Texas Secondary Schools

Description: The problem of this study is twofold. The first is to discover in what ways are physics teachers and counselors in large Texas public secondary schools encouraging students to take physics, and second, what are their perceptions of reasons for student avoidance of physics. The population consisted of physics teachers and counselors in large (1,310 minimum enrollment) high and low percentage physics enrollment schools. Percentage enrollment in physics is defined as the number of students enrolled in physics compared to total twelfth grade enrollment. Thirty high (above 8.9) and thirty low (below 8.0) percentage enrollment schools comprise the sample population. Data were collected using separate questionnaires that related to (a) school, (b) physics teacher, and (c) counselor variables that could affect physics enrollments. The questionnaires addressed to perceptions of both physics teachers and counselors covered (a) the exchange of physics course information between students, teachers, and counselors, (b) the method of exchange of physics course information, and (c) the extent to which the physics program is sold to the student body. Also elicited were eleven responses from both physics teachers and counselors that pertain to perceived reasons for student avoidance of physics courses. A statistical analysis was made between physics teachers and counselors perceptions pairing high and low percentage enrollment groups by chi square analysis of each item of the questionnaire, using a .05 level for significance.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Test, Harold G. (Harold Goldson)

A comparison of straight-stained, Q-stained, and reverse flourescent-stained cell lines for detection of fragile sites on the human X chromosome

Description: Cell cultures were examined for percentage of fragile sites seen in straight-stained, Q-stained and reverse fluorescent-stained preparations. In all cases, percentage of fragile site expression was decreased when compared to straight-stained preparations. However, fragile sites seen in Q- and RF-stain could be identified as on X chromosomes.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Coultas, Susan L. (Susan Lynette)

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Childbirth Preparatory Techniques

Description: Stress reduction techniques have been used to assist people in coping with stressful medical procedures and events. Labor and delivery training classes have utilized techniques to assist women with the childbirth process. The classes generally included basic education of labor and delivery, respiration behavior, relaxation of muscles, and participation of a coach. Reducing the amount of pain experienced in labor and delivery has been suggested for facilitating the process and decreasing the amount of medication received. The painful experience changed from an uncontrollable situation into a positive one, allowing women to feel more resourceful, less anxious, and less threatened.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lindberg, Cheryl Senf

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Inservice Education Programs for Members of Local Boards of Trustees in Selected Texas School Districts: A Descriptive Study

Description: The problem of this study was to describe inservice education programs for members of local boards of trustees and to assess the knowledge and attitude toward inservice of participating and non-participating board members. The major purposes of this study were to describe training programs carried on in selected school districts, and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward inservice education of board members who do and do not participate in those training programs. The project involved the identification of skill areas necessary for board members, the development of instruments to measure knowledge and attitudes toward inservice, the selection of boards of trustees from six school districts for an experimental and a control group, the description of inservice education programs in operation in districts comprising the experimental group, and the assessment of knowledge and attitudes of members of the experimental and control groups.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Meeker, Nancy Ruff

A Comparison of Three Methods of Detecting Test Item Bias

Description: This study compared three methods of detecting test item bias, the chi-square approach, the transformed item difficulties approach, and the Linn-Harnish three-parameter item response approach which is the only Item Response Theory (IRT) method that can be utilized with minority samples relatively small in size. The items on two tests which measured writing and reading skills were examined for evidence of sex and ethnic bias. Eight sets of samples, four from each test, were randomly selected from the population (N=7287) of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students enrolled in a large, urban school district in the southwestern United States. Each set of samples, male/female, White/Hispanic, White/Black, and White/White, contained 800 examinees in the majority group and 200 in the minority group. In an attempt to control differences in ability that may have existed between the various population groups, examinees with scores greater or less than two standard deviations from their group's mean were eliminated. Ethnic samples contained equal numbers of each sex. The White/White sets of samples were utilized to provide baseline bias estimates because the tests could not logically be biased against these groups. Bias indices were then calculated for each set of samples with each of the three methods. Findings of this study indicate that the percent agreement between the Linn-Harnish IRT method and the chisquare and transformed difficulties methods is similar to that found in previous studies comparing the latter approaches with other IRT methods requiring large minority samples. Therefore, it appears that the Linn-Harnish IRT approach can be used in lieu of other more restrictive IRT methods. Ethnic bias appears to exist in the two tests as measured by the large mean bias indices for the White/Hispanic and White/Black samples. Little sex bias was found as evidenced by the low mean bias indices of the male/ ...
Date: May 1985
Creator: Monaco, Linda Gokey

Comparisons of the Needs of Adult Learners by Faculty Student Services Staff and Adult Students at a Selected Community College

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is assessing the relationship between the expressed needs of adult community college students and their needs as perceived by selected faculty members and student services staff members at a metropolitan community college. The population of the study was 201 adult students and 77 faculty and student services staff members who took the Adult Learner Needs Assessment Survey, a publication of the American College Testing Program. The data results were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé multiple comparison procedure. Data were considered statistically significant at the .01 level on all eight hypotheses. Based on the data findings, the following conclusions appear to be warranted. 1. The Adult Learner Needs Assessment Survey seems to provide useful needs assessment information in a convenient format for large scale research. 2. The instrument seems to provide a useful tool for gathering data on the perceptions of the needs of adult learners from community college employees. 3. Both faculty and student services staff groups seem to perceive adult students as needing more assistance with educational and personal needs than is reported by adult students. 4. Both faculty and student services staff groups perceptions of the needs of adult learners, when compared to the needs reported by adult students, appear to be less accurate for those needs for which a lesser degree of assistance is needed and more accurate for those needs for which a greater degree of assistance is needed. 5. The perceptions of the needs of adult learners by both faculty and student services staff groups appear notably similar. 6. This research, using a more rigorous level of significance, validates the general findings of similar research. 7. The research methodology and the use of analysis of variance and Scheffé test as statistical procedures ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Horton, Dianne Wahl

Complex polymers of ADP-ribose occur in vitro and in vivo

Description: The work presented here included the development of a highly sensitive method to estimate the size and complexity of poly(ADP-ribose). This involved radiolabeling of the precursor pools, purification of polymers using a boronate resin, polymer fractionation according to size by molecular sieve chromatography and analysis of polymer complexity by enzymatic digestion to nucleotides which were quantified by strong anion exchange chromatography.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Alvarez-Gonzalez, Rafael

Computerized voice recognition and environmental control with a person who is severely physically involved and profoundly mentally retarded

Description: The problem of this study was to conduct a systematic application and evaluation of the appropriateness of a computerized voice control system with a subject having the severe multihandicaps of profound mental retardation, quadriplegia, and limited communication skills. This research was an effort to establish if a computer could compensate for some of the physical limitations of the subject.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Brown, Carrie Costello

Concerns of Hispanic Women Who Attend Community College

Description: This study is concerned with the problem of determining and analyzing the characteristics and concerns of Hispanic women who are enrolled in a large metropolitan community college district. The purposes include (1) the description of demographic data on these Hispanic women in terms of (a) specific group ethnicity, (b) marital status, (c) estimated total income, (d) age, (e) number of hours currently enrolled, (f) number of dependent children, (g) number of hours employed per week, and (h) language usage (English or Spanish); (2) identification of the concerns of these students; (3) determination of the degree of concern as reported by these Hispanic women students regarding specific problems; (4) assessment of the relationships between the demographic characteristics and the degrees of concern about specific problems. The study population sample is composed of 748 Hispanic female students from the Tarrant County Community College District enrolled for at least one credit hour during the Fall Semester of the 1984-1985 academic year. The sample for the study is 400 randomly selected students from this population. A survey instrument originally developed by Kathie Beckman Smallwood was revised for this study and produced a 52.25 per cent response return. Response frequencies and percentages were gathered to show degree of concern for each problem and the characteristics of the Hispanic female students. Mean scores to show the average degree of concern are also reported for each potential problem. Chi square contingency coefficient was used to show every possible association between concerns and demographic variables. The findings indicate that Hispanic female students concerns are academically and career oriented. Respondents indicate that getting a good job after graduation is their primary concern. Ability to succeed in college is the second highest reported concern followed by knowing how to study efficiently. Seventy four per cent of the respondents are Mexican-American, ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Martinez-Metcalf, Rosario

Concertino for Tuba, Winds, and Percussion

Description: Concertino for Tuba, Winds, and Percussion is a work for solo tuba and an ensemble consisting of two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, bass clarinet, bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, two trombones, bass trombone, and three percussionists. The percussionists play small, medium, and large suspended cymbals, triangle, tam tam, metal wind chimes, five tom toms, snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum, two sets of two timbales, five temple blocks, maracas, glockenspiel, vibraphone, chimes, xylophone, marimba, and five timpani. The three movements of the work follow the arrangement of the standard concerto format (fast-slow-fast). The lengths of the movements are approximately four minutes and fifteen seconds, two minutes and twenty-five seconds, and four minutes and ten seconds respectively. The total duration of Concertino is about eleven minutes.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Potter, David

A Content Analysis of Citations to Four Prominent Philosophers of Science in Selected Sociology Journals

Description: Numerous studies have attempted to measure scientists' influence by measuring the quantity of citations to their works. The problem with "citation counting," as it is called, is that it assumes that each listing of an author in a citation index is equal to another without bothering to explore the substantive uses of citations in the source article. The present study attempts to alleviate this problem by content analysis of citations in a limited sphere: reference to major philosophers of science by sociologists. In just over 100 sociology journals, citations to Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, Ernst Nagel, and Carl Hempel (overall, the most frequently cited philosophers of science) from 1971-1982 were randomly sampled. Each citation was classified according to the following criteria: 1) philosopher cited; 2) work cited, 3) exclusivity (whether cited with others); 4) multiplicity (number of citations by the philosopher in the same article); 5) type of article; and 6) purpose of citation. Purposes of citation included seven categories: 1) listing as relevant literature; 2) definition of a concept; 3) modification or extension of a philosopher's theory; 4) formulation of a research problem; 5) interpretation of results; 6) critical of philosopher's work; and 7) other. Analysis of these data revealed the following conclusions: 1) the major use of philosophy was the furnishing of concepts and their definitions; 2) philosophy of science played little or no role in directing research or interpreting results; 3) the use of citations differed greatly among the philosophers; 4) simple citation counting would have severely distorted the relative influences of each philosopher; and 5) the dialogue between sociology and the philosophy of science has, in the last decade, been dominated by Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Rowe, M. Edward (Montie Edward)

A Content Analysis of Public Broadcasting Service Television Programming

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the description of the social map that is presented to the viewers of public television. Using content analysis methodology, the study describes how different genders, racial groups, and age groups are being portrayed on PBS programming. The sample consisted of one week of PBS 1984 fall programming broadcast on KERA-TV, the PBS station in Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas. Research questions addressing proportions of groups, types of roles, length of scenes, occupational variation, conversational behaviors, conflict management modes, and cultural norms were answered. All coding was accomplished by the principal investigator. Upon completion of the coding sub-totals for the variables under study by program types and a grand total for the entire sample were then tabulated. After this extensive content analysis, the report concludes that females are still extremely underrepresented in PBS programming, accounting for only 32.7% of the total participants. Blacks and Hispanics are also underrepresented except in children's programming. Occupational variation for white males is evident for all types of PBS programming. Occupational variation for white females is evident in children's programming and informational/documentary programming. Minorities with delineated occupations are extremely limited in all types of programming except for children's programming. The exchange of information is the major conversational behavior that occurs on PBS programming with minority characters receiving orders considerably more than their white counterparts. Verbal aggression is the conflict management mode chosen most frequently on PBS programming. Explicit messages regarding racial and sexual equality and prosocial behavior occur on PBS programming. Implicit messages such as frequency of appearances, number of major roles, and prevalence of power cues suggest a white male domination of television programming on PBS. The findings of the study reveal that major inroads have been made by women and minorities in children's programming. This comprehensive analysis ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Harper, Sandra S.

A Content Analysis of Violence in Music Videos

Description: This content analysis study of music videos answered questions concerning the amount and severity of violence content during different time periods of the day. A system of classifying violence content as nonviolent, mostly light, neither light nor serious, mostly serious, and extremely serious was used to evaluate music videos from MTV. One hour from each day was randomly selected for evaluation for a period of thirty days. During this time, there were 313 occurrences of music videos which were aired and subsequently evaluated. The results indicated the majority of these music videos contained mostly light or no violence content. This study also revealed that the most likely time of day a viewer would see videos with violence would be from midnight until eight in the morning.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Paxton, Sue

Corporal Punishment in American Education from a Historical, Legal, and Theoretical Perspective

Description: This paper discusses corporal punishment as a disciplinary method in American public schools. The effectiveness of corporal punishment is investigated. Chapter I introduces corporal punishment as a pertinent educational issue. Chapter II discusses the historical development of corporal punishment. Chapter III discusses the legal ramifications of corporal punishment. Chapter IV looks at surveys and studies that have been conducted in regard to the issue. Chapter V discusses a survey of teachers in Lewisville, Texas. Teachers responded to 42 statements pertaining to corporal punishment. Chapter VI concludes that research indicates that corporal punishment will not be effective unless it is administered harshly and consistently. The paper concludes that corporal punishment will not be necessary if higher educational institutions train teachers in alternative methods.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Carnes, Susan Carle

A Critical Evaluation of the Image Texas Baptists Have of Their Eight Colleges and Universities

Description: The problem undertaken in this study was an attempt to discover the image Texas Baptists have of their eight colleges and universities, and to recommend steps to ensure a positive image. The two methods used to determine the image was a questionnaire distributed through a weekly newsmagazine, the Baptist Standard, and telephone interviews. From the study it was concluded that Texas Baptists have a positive image of their eight colleges and universities and rely on the Baptist Standard for their information. The major strength of the eight colleges and universities is the spiritual emphasis, and the major weakness is the high cost of attending a private college or university.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Armstrong, Jerilynn W. (Jerilynn Wood)

The Critical Response to Philosophical Ideas in Walker Percy's Novels

Description: Walker Percy differs from other American novelists in that he started writing fiction relatively late in life, after being trained as a physician and after considerable reading and writing in philosophy. Although critics have appreciated Percy's skills as a writer, they have seen Percy above all as a novelist of ideas, and, accordingly, the majority of critical articles and books about Percy has dealt with his themes, especially his philosophical themes, as well as with his philosophical sources. This study explores, therefore, the critical response to philosophical ideas in Percy's five novels to date, as evidenced first by reviews, then by the later articles and books. The critical response developed gradually as critics became aware of Percy's aims and pointed out his use of Christian existentialism and his attacks upon Cartesianism, Stoicism, and modern secular gnosticism. These critical evaluations of Percy's philosophical concerns have sometimes overshadowed interest in his more purely artistic concerns. However, the more a reader understands the underlying philosophical concepts that inform Percy's novels, the more he may understand what Percy is trying to say and the more he may appreciate Percy's accomplishment in expressing his philosophical ideas so skillfully in fictional form. Critics and readers may enjoy Percy's novels without knowing much about his philosophical ideas, but they cannot fully understand them. Thus this study concludes that the critical response to philosophical ideas in Percy's novels has done both Percy and Percy's readers a service.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Gunter, Elizabeth Ellington, 1942-

Curricula Responses to the Demands of Industrialization and High Technology in the Marketplace

Description: This study addresses itself to several issues in relation to public education in the United States. First, it examines the basic social philosophies underlying the development of mass education in the United States. Secondly, it asks the question: what is the purpose of public education? Thirdly, it relates the development of public education to a dominant source of social change--industrialization, and examines the relationship between the structure and function of education in the 1800's and early 1900's, and the needs of the marketplace. Fourthly, it examines the relationship between the curricula of education in the 1980's and the needs of high technology in the marketplace.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Chambliss, Virginia Ricci

The Decision-Making Process in Commercial Motor Carrier Selection

Description: This study is designed to gain a better understanding of the decision process of freight shippers who use commercial truckers. Pursuant to this study, it is possible to gather some insights into the phenomenon of the selection of a trucking company to transport goods. Planning is essential to the attainment of goals in any type of firm, and that is especially true in the volatile environment of commercial trucking. Development of the external environment of trucking is prerequisite to the planning process and essential to the attainment of goals. The external environment of a trucking firm is generally represented by economic, social, and political influences, which extend specifically to the nature and tendencies of its markets, i.e., the shippers.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Little, Charles D. (Charles David)

Degradation of Humic Substances by Aquatic Bacteria

Description: A variety of aquatic bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to degrade humic substances and their aromatic residues/monomers which serve as precursors of the trihalomethanes (THMs) found in chlorinated drinking waters. The majority of them were Gram-negative, oxidative types dominated by pseudomonads. Most of the 146 isolates were found to utilize as their sole source of carbon several or more of ten aromatic compounds known to be products of degradation of humus and also to be precursors of THMs. The aromatics tested, with percent of the isolates utilizing the compound in parentheses, were: p-hydroxybenzoate (49), vanillic acid (48), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (16), syringic acid (19), vanillin (30), benzoic acid (27), ferulic acid (34), resorcinol (9), catechol (8) and protocatechuic acid (27).
Date: August 1985
Creator: Baiu, Saleh Hamed Salem

A Delphi Investigation of Staff Development Needs of the Child-Care Personnel in the Juvenile Detention Facilities in the State of Texas

Description: This investigation was concerned with the problem that the staff development needs of child-care personnel in juvenile detention facilities in the State of Texas have not been identified and described. The study utilizes the Delphi technique in determining juvenile detention administrators' perceptions of the skills/knowledge required to be a competent detention child-care worker. The assumption was made that detention administrators can supply relevant input to study.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Brown, Melvin, 1941-

The Development and Evaluation of a Forecasting System that Incorporates ARIMA Modeling with Autoregression and Exponential Smoothing

Description: This research was designed to develop and evaluate an automated alternative to the Box-Jenkins method of forecasting. The study involved two major phases. The first phase was the formulation of an automated ARIMA method; the second was the combination of forecasts from the automated ARIMA with forecasts from two other automated methods, the Holt-Winters method and the Stepwise Autoregressive method. The development of the automated ARIMA, based on a decision criterion suggested by Akaike, borrows heavily from the work of Ang, Chuaa and Fatema. Seasonality and small data set handling were some of the modifications made to the original method to make it suitable for use with a broad range of time series. Forecasts were combined by means of both the simple average and a weighted averaging scheme. Empirical and generated data were employed to perform the forecasting evaluation. The 111 sets of empirical data came from the M-Competition. The twenty-one sets of generated data arose from ARIMA models that Box, Taio and Pack analyzed using the Box-Jenkins method. To compare the forecasting abilities of the Box-Jenkins and the automated ARIMA alone and in combination with the other two methods, two accuracy measures were used. These measures, which are free of magnitude bias, are the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the median absolute percentage error (Md APE).
Date: May 1985
Creator: Simmons, Laurette Poulos

The Development and Testing of a Three-Section Cloze Test of English Proficiency

Description: The purpose of this research was to develop and test a three-section cloze test of English proficiency and to norm it for use as a means of level placement. The study sample consisted of ESL students at Brookhaven Community College and the Intensive English Language Institute of North Texas State University, as well as a group of native speakers. Four types of statistical analysis were used: analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlations, a t-Test, and a multiple comparison procedure, the Scheffé test. The cloze test was sensitive to significant differences between every level at both schools. Subsequently it was normed to a four-level system and score ranges for each level were suggested.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Lindholm, Lauralee