UNT Libraries - 6 Matching Results

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The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne

Fatigue Related Changes in the Body Motion and Force Application During the Performance of Consecutive Chin-ups

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on force application and resulting movement patterns during the performance of consecutive chin-ups. Special attention was directed toward relating any fatigue effects to upper limb strength dominance. Twenty male adult subjects each performed one trial. Each trial consisted of consecutive chin-ups. Fatigue caused changes in the movement patterns, duration of movement and force applied through the supporting hands. Throughout the performance greater vertical forces were applied through the dominant upper limb segment with the application of these forces resulting in horizontal displacement of the total body center of gravity toward the dominant hand.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hong, Der-Ming

Swinging Gait Patterns and Preferred Rung Spacing During Free Choice Horizontal Ladder Traverses

Description: Fifty-one subjects each performed two trials which consisted of traversing a horizontal ladder. Film records were made of each trial using a high-speed camera. Absolute and relative temporal and kinematic parameters were obtained from the film records. The conclusions were that there was no age related interaction or differences in preferred rung spacing or contact/airborne times. A Chi-Square analysis did show a preference for a specific gait pattern for the six year old age group.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Roth, Charles H. (Charles Hillary)