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Determination of Biotransformation and Biodegradation Rate Constants for Naphthalene, Lindane and Phenol
Biotransformation and biodegradation rate constants were determined for naphthalene, lindane, and phenol in water samples from three different sources. Rate constants produced from monitoring disappearance of the parent chemical (biotransformation) were compared to those obtained from mineralization of the chemical (ultimate biodegradation) by ¹⁴CO₂ evolution as well as acidification of the residual ¹⁴C-labeled compound (primary biodegradation). Rate constants were statistically different for the three chemicals. The water source affected the rate constants. When biomass measurements of the waters were considered and second-order rate constants were derived, there was no statistical evidence that this parameter gave a reliable rate constant statistic that could be useful in predicting the fate of any of naphthalene, lindane, and phenol in these waters.
The Determination of Uptake and Depuration Rate Kinetics and Bioconcentration Factor of Naphthalene and Lindane in Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill were exposed to 3 and 30 pg/L lindane and 20 and 200 pg/L naphthalene to determine uptake rate constants, K1 depuration rate constants, K2, and bioconcentration factors, BCF. Correlations were determined between lipid normalized and non-lipid normalized BCFs, and between observed Kl, K2 and BCFs and predicted values. The K1 values for both chemicals and concentrations were similar. The K2 values were different (1.04 day~1, 0.46 day 1). Naphthalene was more rapid. BCFs for lindane (315) and naphthalene (98) were different. Lipid normalized BCFs for naphthalene were more variable than non-lipid normalized BCFs. The reverse was observed for lindane BCFs. Predicted K1, K2 , and BCFs were in agreement with observed values.
Enhancement by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin of Transformation of Chick Embryo Fibroblasts and Rat Kidney Cells Infected with Temperature-Sensitive and Wild Type Rous Sarcoma Viruses
Human chorionic gonodotropin (HCG) affected in various ways cell cultures infected with strains of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The cell cultures studied were chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), normal rat kidney cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutant (LA31-NRK) and a wild type RSV (B77-NRK). HCG increased the rate of transformation and viral titer of CEF cells infected with RSV, but not B77-NRK. HCG increased significantly transformation rates of LA31-NRK, only if the temperature sensitive transformation process was first delayed by incubation at non-permissive temperatures. It is suggested that some postinfective, pretransformational event(s) may operate before viralmediated transformation rates are increased by HCG.
Microbiological Studies of Biological Activated Carbon Filters Used in Water Treatment
A collaborative pilot study of the microflora on biological activated charcoal (BAC) filters employed in the tertiary treatment of drinking water revealed the principle bacterial genera to be Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Chromobacterium, Microcyclus and Paracoccus. The microbial population of the filters paralleled seasonal carbon dioxide production. Of particular interest were the effects of the BAC miroorganisms upon precursors of trihalomethanes (THMs). Mixed populations of BAC microorganisms were cultivated for 50 days in a mineral salts-humic acid medium. It was concluded that (1) the BAC microflora enhances the absorptive capacity of the filters; (2) chemico-physical and biological processes operate in concert to lower the concentration of precursors of THMs; and (3) few bacterial pathogens establish themselves on the filters.
Responses of Fishes to a Low pH Environment
Data were collected from natural and introduced fishes present in Ferndale Lake, a small (120 ha) sport fishing reservoir in Camp County, east Texas. Levels of pH measured in the lake during the study period ranged from 3.5 to 5.3. Monthly field surveys and experimental manipulations were designed to evaluate quantitatively the signs of stress at various biological levels. Lethal limits to low pH were quantified for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) to be pH 3.8 and 4.0,respectively. Mean blood pH (+ 1 SD) of 59 bluegill was 7.41 (j 0.16), with no significant difference (P-0.05) among groups from Ferndale Lake and Moss Lake (Cooke Co., Texas) under experimental conditions, even when severe stress was externally apparent. In a dual-trough horizontal pH gradient, bluegill behavioral avoidance was observed at pH levels below 7.0. Individual testing of 40 bluegill in pH gradient of 5.2 to 7.6 resulted in median occupation of pH 7.1,with an interquartile range of pH 6.9 to 7.3. Decreased community structure and population "well being" compared to early studies cannot be attributed entirely to recent acidic condition. Separating potential stress due to lake conditions from that due to heavy biotic predation by sport fishing in a small reservoir is difficult.
The Roles of Genic Behavioral and Biochemical Mechanisms in the Adaption of Minnows of the Genus Notropis (Cyprinidae) to Temperature
Electrophoretic variation at twenty gene loci, patterns of behavioral thermoregulation, and genotype-specific malate dehydrogenase kinetics were investigated among populations of the red shiner, Notropis lutrensis, and the blacktail shiner, N. venustus, collected from thermally altered and thermally unaltered portions of their ranges. Genic variation was found to be high among red shiners and low among blacktail shiners. The behavioral response of the blacktail shiner to temperature was fixed among the populations sampled, whereas the response of the red shiner was mutable. Finally, blacktail shiners have incorporated into their genome an Mdh-B allele which functions well at low temperatures; red shiners, displaying high levels of Mdh-B polymorphism, maintain a more complex set of allozymes which function well over a wide range of environmental temperatures. These data are consistent with reported ecotypic distributions of the species in Texas waters; i.e., blacktail shiners occur in cool, thermally static habitats, and red shiners are tolerant of wide temperature ranges.