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Ethylbromo Acetate as an Olfactory Probe
Olfactory transduction mechanisms are best studied when specific blocking agents are available with which to modify cellular responses to odorant stimulation. This study is an electrophysiological investigation of functional group-specific olfactory acceptor mechanisms using ethylbromo acetate (EtBrAc), a World War I war gas which inhibits olfactory responses to odorant stimulation. The major findings of this investigation show that (1) vaporous EtBrAc is found to be a quick and effective inhibitor of electroolfactogram (EOG) responses to odorant stimulation, (2) isoamyl acetate is shown to protect EOG responses to a wide variety of odorants, inclusive of itself, from the inhibition effect of EtBrAc treatment, and (3) amine acceptor sites exist which are resistant to the inhibitory effects fo EtBrAc treatment.
Genic Differentiation Between Two Chromosomal Races of Pocket Gophers, Geomys bursarius
Genic data from two chromosomal races of Geomys bursarius from a contact zone in central Texas indicated that the two races possessed distinct gene pools which would define them as separate species. Data from proteins encoded from 21 loci in this study substantiated this hypothesis. A pattern of alternately fixed alleles at the ADH-l, MDH-2, LDH-l, and IDH-1 loci with no apparent gene flow in zones of contact strongly suggested that these two races should be designated as separate species. Levels of heterozygosity and high FST values indicate that genomic structuring within Geomys is most heavily influenced by high levels of inbreeding and low migration rates. Fossorial rodents were suggested to undergo speciation primarily through parapatric means.
Isolation and Partial Characterization of Pigment Mutants of Corynebacterium poinsettie ATCC 9682
Carotenoid pigments were extracted from Corynebacteriuma poinsettiae (wild type) ATCC 9682, and from 108 mutants obtained by exposure of a streptomycin resistant strain of C. poinsettiae to ultra-violet light irradiation and N-methyl- N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The pigments were characterized by their absorption maxima, Rf-values, and partition ratios in petroleum ether and methanol. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare pigments of the wild type with those of the mutants. Possible biosynthetic pathways in carotenoid synthesis of the wild type were postulated on the basis of the observed genetic blocks. Mutants were found which suggested the existence of a linear pathway in carotenoid synthesis from the aliphatic C4 0 molecule to the bi-cyclic C50-diol. Other mutants suggested possible alternative pathways in the biosynthesis of these pigments or the presence of intermediates not detectable by thin layer chromatography.
Seasonal and Spatial Variability of the Microcrustacean Community in Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma
Twenty-eight species of zooplankton were identified from Lake Texoma. Seasonal density of the overall microcrustacean community and seasonal cycles of individual species were compared with northern populations and any available literature from the Southwest. Cycles of occurrence and abundance were similar to those observed in northern populations but tended to occur earlier in the year due to higher temperatures. Spatial distributions within the reservoir were heavily influenced by nutrient and salt input from the Red River, which resulted in dense populations in the Red River Arm. In addition, during the summer, the microcrustacean community was restricted to the epilimnion due to anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion of the reservoir.