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Food, Feeding Selectivity, and Ecological Efficiencies of Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque) (Osteichthyes; Cyprinodontidae)

Description: This study was made to further define the trophic dynamics of Fundulus notatus by determining its ration composition under natural conditions, measuring feeding selectivity under various laboratory conditions of prey-species composition and availability, and determining the efficiencies with which F. notatus utilizes ingested chironomid larvae.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Atmar, Gerald Legare

Genetic Differentiation of the Geomys Pocket Gopher Complex of Texas

Description: Genetic variation was analyzed for populations of seven taxa comprising four cytotypes of the Geomys bursarius chromosome complex, including G. b. major, G. b. knoxjonesi, and the Edwards Plateau taxa, G. b. llanensis and G. b. texensis. Genetic relationships of the Edwards Plateau gophers with other taxa and between themselves were examined. Genetic similarity, number of fixed allelic differences, and ectoparasite distribution indicate the Edwards Plateau gophers are a distinct gene pool. Isolation of the Edwards Plateau taxa precludes contact zone analysis. However, genetic differentiation is typical of that between other species of Geomys, and the Edwards Plateau taxa should be recognized as G. texensis. Distributions of allelic frequencies indicate little justification in retaining the subspecific status of the Edwards Plateau forms.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Block, Scott B. (Scott Bishop)

Genic Differentiation and Evolution in the Ground Squirrel Subgenus Ictidomys (Spermophilus)

Description: The genetic structure of 26 natural populations of three species (S. tridecemlineatus, S. mexicanus, and S. spilosoma) of the Ictidomys subgenus of ground squirrels was analyzed using chromosomal and electrophoretic techniques. Chromosomal variation was not observed in S. mexicanus, and only slight karyotypic variation was found in the other two species. Chromosomal evidence indicated hybridization between S. tridecemlineatus and S. mexicanus, placing these species within the classical definition of semispecies. Analysis of electrophoretic variation at 29 genetic loci indicated close genetic relationships between these species. Evolution in Ictidomys appears to be linked with Pleistocene events, and speciation appears to have occurred within the last 155,000 years.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Cothran, E. Gus, 1951-

Habitat Evaluation Procedures at Ray Roberts Lake: an Analysis of the Relationship with Ecological Indicators and a Study of Observer and Temporal Variability

Description: Habitat Evaluation Procedure data gathered at Ray Roberts Lake in 1989 and 1990 were analysed for temporal variability, observer variability and relationships between Habitat Units (HUs) and species density/diversity. observer variability within a group was analysed by cluster analysis and bootstrapping. Five out of 36 sites showed significant differences in Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values within the group. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze temporal variability. One of 6 sites showed a significant difference in HSI values between years. Using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, a correlation was found between indicator species density and HUs. No significant correlation was indicated between species diversity and HUs.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Wattrus, Jane M. (Jane Marie)

Hooking Mortality of Largemouth Bass Caught on Controversial Artificial Lures and Live Bait : Lake Ray Roberts, Texas

Description: A total of 192 largemouth bass were caught at Lake Ray Roberts, Texas (1995) to investigate five controversial bass angling techniques relative to hooking mortality. The bait types were Texas-rigged scented and non-scented plastic worms, Carolina-rigged scented and non-scented plastic worms, and live golden shiners. Overall hooking mortality was 21.87% and mortality was dependent upon bait type. Highest mortality resulted from the Texas-rigged scented lures, while the lowest mortality was generated by live golden shiners. A creel survey indicated that few anglers were having success with the investigated baits. Factors that had a confirmed effect on hooking mortality were hooking location and water temperature. Hooking mortality was not excessive compared to other similar studies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Alumbaugh, Andrew E. (Andrew Edward)

Individual, Social, and Seasonal Behavior of the Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus)

Description: The purpose of this study is to provide a qualitative, detailed description of individual and social behavior in a free-living population of thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Behavioral differences in relation to various periods of the annual cycle are also evaluated.
Date: January 1970
Creator: Wistrand, Harry E.

The Influence of a Return of Native Grasslands upon the Ecology and Distribution of Small Rodents in Big Bend National Park

Description: In the southwestern United States there is a delicate balance between the existing grasslands and the rodent fauna. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of secondary succession of native grasslands upon the ecology and distribution of small rodents. Two methods of determining the rodent species were plot quadrates and trap lines using Sherman live traps.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Baccus, John T.

Interspecific Competition Between Hygrophila polysperma and Ludwigia repens, Two Species of Importance in the Comal River, Texas

Description: Hygrophila polysperma is a plant native to Asia that has been introduced into the Comal River, TX and is thriving while Ludwigia repens, a species native to the river appears to be declining. Both plants have similar morphologies and occupy similar habitats in the river. Two plant competition experiments were conducted to examine the competitive interactions between the two species. First, an experimental design was developed in which established Ludwigia plants were 'invaded' by sprigs of Hygrophila to determine if established Ludwigia populations would be negatively impacted by invasion. The second experiment focused on establishment and growth of sprigs of each species under three competition scenarios. Results show that the continued growth of well-established Ludwigia plants was significantly depressed by the invasion of Hygrophila in comparison with those that had not been invaded. Furthermore, the growth of Hygrophila sprigs was uninhibited by the presence of Ludwigia, but the presence of Hygrophila negatively impacted the growth of Ludwigia sprigs. There was no difference in the growth of Hygrophila sprigs whether planted alone, with Ludwigia sprigs or even if planted into stands of established Ludwigia.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Francis, Matthew D.

Life History and Case Building Behaviors of Phylloicus ornatus (Banks) (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae) In Two Spring Fed Tributaries in the Central Edwards Plateau Bioregion of Texas

Description: The life history and case-making behaviors of Phylloicus ornatus from two springfed first order streams in the Edwards Plateau Bioregion of Texas were studied from January 1998 to November 1999. Field larval, pupal and adult samples and laboratory rearings indicated a multivoltine cycle. First instars differ from late instars in number of labral setae and in having a unique spur-like claw on each lateral hump. Larval development was asynchronous with second through fifth instars and pupae present most months. First instars were present April through July, October and November. Case making of first instar and case reconstruction of later instars extracted from their cases was documented by videophotography.
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Date: August 2000
Creator: Norwood, James Christopher

Life History Energetics of The Red-Eared Turtle, Pseudemys scripta in North Central Texas

Description: A population of the red-eared slider, Pseudemys scripta, in north central Texas was studied from 1975 to 1980. A life history energy budget was developed for a typical individual in the population and the population dynamics were estimated. A growth model relating growth rate to mean plastron length (PL) was developed from recapture data and used to 1) establish age classes and 2) age individuals. Growth rate was highly variable in both sexes. Females grew more rapidly than males and attained a larger maximum size (230 mm and 195 mm PL in females and males respectively). Females reached sexual maturity in their ninth year at a PL of 185-190 mm. Males matured in their sixth year at a PL of 90-100 mm. Females produced three clutches annually; clutch size ranged from 7 to 14 (X=10.3; N=20). Ova were enlarged in the early spring and ovulation began in late April and early May. Egg laying occurred from mid- May through June. Both egg size and clutch size increased with female body size. Lipid levels were variable within and among seasons. No annual lipid cycling pattern was evident in females. The proportion of assimilated energy devoted to reproduction, a measure of reproductive effort (RE), by females, was 13 per cent the first year of maturity (9 y) and increased to 20 per cent by their twentieth year. Lifetime RE was 16 per cent. Population density was estimated as 51 males and 50 females per ha in a 8.2-ha area of the lake. Young juveniles (less than 2 y) were not present although other subadult age classes were about equally represented. Fewer adults were encountered. An annual total production of 4000 eggs was estimated for the population present in 1977. A survival rate of from 2 to 18 per cent was estimated for ...
Date: December 1984
Creator: Glidewell, Jerry Ray, 1945-

Microbiological Treatment of Wastewater from a Wood-Preserving Plant

Description: This research investigates interacting biological, chemical, and physical factors affecting the efficiency of microbiological wastewater treatment at the W. J. Smith Wood- Preserving Company in Denison, Texas. The treatment process consisted of collecting exhaust boiler water containing unidentified boiler treatment compounds, steam condensate contaminated with preservatives and wood extracts, plant process waters, and rainfall runoff from plant grounds. With a 5-minute residence time, wastewater was passed over 2 oxidation towers in series, each containing approximately 47,000 square feet of surface area. Suspended solids were removed from the wastewater before discharge. Various amino acids such as serine, aspartate, cysteine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, glycine, histidine, and tyrosine significantly stimulated phenol degradation in the laboratory. The plant wastewater contained approximately 0.1 mg/l of several of the stimulatory amino acids. It was assumed that these concentrations provided maximal stimulation in the field situation. The plant wastewater also contained sufficient nitrogen to permit the organisms to degrade up to 100 mg phenol/1 of water examined. Amino acids in the wastewater probably serve as a source of microbial nutrition. Toxicity of the wastewater to fish was not caused by the presence of phenol, phenol degradation products, or traces of pentachlorophenol. The wastewater was rendered non-toxic by diluting with between 4 to 9 volumes of stream water. Toxicity could also be removed by chemical coagulation followed by activated carbon adsorption. As a result of biological treatment, the plant now discharges the treated wastewater into the municipal sewage treatment facility.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Ralston, James R.

Monitoring Watershed Health in the Upper Trinity River Basin, North Central Texas

Description: This study conducts watershed analysis using biological and geo-spatial techniques. Incorporating landscape features with biological attributes has been shown to be an effective method of monitoring environmental quality within watersheds. In situ biomonitoring using the Asiatic Clam, Corbicula fluminea, habitat suitability, and water quality data were evaluated for their potential to describe ecological conditions in agricultural and urban areas within the Upper Trinity River watershed. These data were analyzed with GIS to identify effects of land use on ecological conditions. C. fluminea downstream of point source effluents was effective detecting in-stream toxicity. Ambient toxicity appears to have improved in the Trinity, although urban influences limit aspects of aquatic life. No association between habitat quality and land use was identified.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Csekitz, Jill Diane

Multivariate Analyses of Amphibian and Reptilian Distribution in Texas

Description: Presence-absence data for amphibians, chelonians, saurians, ophidians, and the terrestrial and aquatic ecological guilds of reptilians were analyzed using multivariate analyses. Geographically consistant distributional patterns were found for all faunal groupings. The correspondence between analyses of the different taxa and guilds was not perfect, but similarities were found. All analyses agreed on the presence of a distinctive region in east Texas. Most analyses also agreed on the presence of distinctive regions in south Texas, the Trans-Pecos, the Edwards Plateau, and north-west Texas. There is strong correspondence between interpretations of the analyses based on the amphibian, saurian, ophidian, and terrestrial reptilian distributions, and the biotic provinces produced by earlier, subjective analyses. The Edwards Plateau and a region on the western periphery of east Texas were found to be transitional between other, more faunally distinctive areas for most fauna! groups. Detailed examination of these regions suggested they are best described as clinal in nature. The environmental variables which were most effective in explaining patterns in the distribution of the various taxa and guilds were related to precipitation. However, variations in temperature and physiography were also important predictors of distribution for several of the groups. The distributions of soil and vegetation associations were also found to be related to amphibian and reptilian distribution.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Ward, Rocky

Nesting Ecology of the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) on a Tallgrass Prairie Relict in North Central Texas

Description: Eighty-three species of vascular plants were inventoried on the prairie relict during peak dickcissel nesting. Based on foliar cover and occurrence frequency, the five dominant plants were heath aster (Aster ericoides), eastern gammagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), sensitive briar (Schrankia roemeriana) and meadow dropseed (Sporobolus asper). Sixty-one percent of dickcissel nests were constructed on or immediately next to three plant species: eastern gammagrass, sensitive briar and green milkweed.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Steigman, Kenneth Lee

Pelagic Phytoplankton and Physicochemical Correlates for Lake Texoma

Description: An analysis and correlation of phytoplankton communities with physicochemical data from 3 sites in Lake Texoma was conducted to supplement time-series data. Water and phytoplankton were sampled monthly, March, 1976-February, 1977. Simple correlations were run between all physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton standing crop from the 3 sites. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop equations predictive of phytoplankton standing crop and chloride concentration. Minerals leached from marine sediments in the Red River chennel contribute to formation of a, halocline which seals the anoxic hypolimnion from the reservoir surface in midsummer. Conductivity decreased west to east, 2980-1800. pmhos/cm. Maximum mean annual phytoplankton standing crop in Red River arm was 36 percent greater than midlake. Eutrophication was evident.
Date: December 1978
Creator: McCullough, William P.

Physiological Ecology, Population Genetic Responses and Assemblage Stability of Fishes in Two Southwestern Intermittent Stream Systems

Description: Six sites within the Denton and Hickory Creek watersheds were sampled over three years to assess the impact of seasonal intermittent stream conditions on the ichthyofauna. An integrated approach using field and laboratory techniques was employed to evaluate the responses of the fishes.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Rutledge, Charles Jerry, 1941-

Plankton Community Response to Dechorination of a Municipal Effluent Discharged into the Trinity River

Description: Chorine is used by the Village Creek Waste Water Treatment Plant to kill pathogenic microorganisms prior to discharge of the effluent into the Trinity River. The residual chlorine in the river impacted aquatic life prompting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 1990 to require dechlorination using sulfur dioxide. One pre-dechlorination and four post-dechlorination assessments of phytoplankton, periphyton, and zooplankton communities were conducted by the Institute of Applied Sciences at the University of North Texas. Dechlorination had no effect on the phytoplankton community. The periphyton community exhibited a shift in species abundance with a more even distribution of organisms among taxa. No change occurred in zooplankton species abundance, however, there was a decrease in zooplankton density following dechlorination.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bryan, Brynne L. (Brynne Lee)

Population Dynamics of Macrobenthos in a Regulated Stream 1970-71 and 1978

Description: Stability of the macrobenthic community in a regulated section of the Brazos River, Texas, was evaluated. Physicochemical data and information on spatial distribution of macrobenthos were collected. Populations of two invertebrate species, Isonychia sicca and Neoperla clymene, had been greatly reduced since 1970-71 and I. sicca had been practically eliminated from this section of the Brazos. Three other insect populations, Choroterpes mexicanus, Cheumatopsche campyla and Cheumatopsyche lasia, had more than doubled their numbers since the 1970-71 study. A physicochemical gradient existed in this regulated section of the Brazos but it appeared to have changed little in comparison of earlier chemical data. A gradation of the macrobenthic community was evident as distance from the dam increased,
Date: August 1981
Creator: Coulter, James D. (James Duard)

Pre-Impoundment Estimations of Nutrient Loading to Ray Roberts Lake and Prediction of Post-Inundation Trophic Status

Description: Excessive nutrient loading of natural and artificial lakes has led, in some systems, to plethoric algal and aquatic macrophyte growth which can result in aesthetic degradation and undesirable tastes and odors. It would be advantageous to have some indication of the potential trophic status of a reservoir before it is filled. An objective of this study was to assess the water quality and nutrient loading potential of the tributaries entering Ray Roberts Lake, a large reservoir located in north central Texas. Samples from a maximum of thirteen sites were collected on the Elm Fork, Trinity River, Isle duBois Creek, and five additional tributaries. Data were also collected during six storms, from atmospheric deposition collectors, and from soil-water microcosms. The relationship between watershed landuse and mean water nutrient concentrations was evaluated. Significant differences will exist between the two major arms of Ray Roberts Lake: Elm Fork, Trinity River and Isle duBois Creek. While the majority of the annual phosphorus and nitrogen load entering both tributaries is coming from overland flow, the proportion is higher in Isle duBois Creek. Point sources in the Elm Fork contribute a larger percentage of the bioavailable phosphorus, which is significantly greater than in Isle duBois Creek. The water quality of Isle duBois Creek, especially nitrogen, is affected to a greater degree by the landuses in its watershed. Predictive regression models made accurate estimations of stream nutrient concentrations in Isle duBois Creek. The entire reservoir, upon reaching equilibrium conditions, will be classified as a eutrophic lake. The Trinity arm, with a higher phosphorus load, will display a higher trophic status. The Isle duBois arm has a lower phosphorus load which will give it a lower trophic status. The long hydraulic residence time of the two arms of the reservoir will remove nutrients upstream of the main body, ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Pillard, David Alan, 1958-

Production and Energy Metabolism in Three Benthic Insect Populations in a Small North Central Texas Pond

Description: Annual energy budgets of dominant benthic macro-invertebrates were examined during November 1973 to October 1974 from the benthos of a small pond ecosystem in north-central Texas. Estimates of annual secondary production (Hynes and Coleman 1968) were Procladius s. (Diptera, Chironimidae), 2.4 g m^-2 y^-1 (13 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Tendipes decorus (Diptera, Chironomidae), 6.0 g m^-2 y^-1 (40 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Brachycercus sp. (Ephemeroptera, Caenidae), 1.9 g m^-2 y^-1 (11 kcal m^-2 y^-1). Energy metabolism was measured in the laboratory at six seasonally encountered temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 C) on an acclimatization basis, and then extrapolated to the field. Estimates of annual energy metabolism are Procladius sp., 5.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Tendipes decorus, 17.2 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Brachycercus sp. 40.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Benson, Daniel J.

Qualitative and Microcosm Predictions of Effects of Endothal for Control of Myriophyllum spicatum in Pat Mayse Lake, Texas

Description: Qualitative and microcosm models were used to predict effects of herbicide application for control of Myriophyllum spicatum. Predictions were compared to data from Pat Mayse Lake, a Texas reservoir, where localized areas were treated with endothall. Although milf oil was temporarily eliminated, when endothall was used according to manufacturer's directions, no ecologically significant direct or indirect effects were observed on nontarget species or abiotic water quality. Comparisons of the predictions with field data confirmed the capabilities of this approach for estimating risk and emphasizing the importance of identifying regulating or driving factors that modify environmental impacts of aquatic weed control programs so they can be incorporated into future risk assessments.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Hinman, Mark L.

Recovery of the Fish Population of a Municipal Wastewater Dominated, North Texas Creek After a Major Chlorine Disturbance

Description: This study evaluated the effects of a major chlorine disturbance on fish communities in Pecan creek by the City of Denton's Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant. Fish communities in Pecan Creek were sampled using a depletion methodology during February, April, July, and November, 1999. February and April sampling events showed that the fish communities were severely impacted by the chlorine. Sampling during July and November showed fish communities recovered in Pecan Creek. The first-twenty minutes of shocking and seining data were analyzed to mirror an equal effort methodology. This methodology was compared to the depletion methodology to see if the equal effort methodology could adequately monitor the recovery of Pecan Creek after the chlorine disturbance. It was determined that the equal effort methodology was capable of monitoring the recovery of Pecan Creek, but could not accurately represent the fisheries community as well as the depletion method. These data using the twenty-minute study were compared to a previous study. Results of this study were similar to those found in a previous study, although fish communities were more severely impacted and took longer to recover.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Maschmann, Gerald F.